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Microintervention Strategies. What You Can Do to Disarm and Dismantle Individual and Systemic Racism and Bias. Edition No. 1

  • Book
  • 272 Pages
  • April 2021
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5188745

Learn how you can help combat micro and macroaggressions against socially devalued groups with this authoritative new resource 

Microintervention Strategies: What You Can Do to Disarm and Dismantle Indivdiual and Systemic Racism and Bias, delivers a cutting-edge exploration and extension of the concept of microinterventions to combat micro and macroaggressions targeted at marginalized groups in our society. While racial bias is the primary example used throughout the book, the author’s approach is applicable to virtually all forms of bias and discrimination, including that directed at those with disabilities, LGBTQ people, women, and others.  

The book calls out unfair and biased institutional policies and practices and presents strategies to help reduce the impact of sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism. It provides a new conceptual framework for distinguishing between the different categories of microinterventions, or individual anti-bias actions, and offers specific, concrete, and practical advice for taking a stand against micro and macroaggressions.  

Microintervention Strategies delivers the knowledge and skills necessary to confront individual and institutional manifestations of oppression. Readers will also enjoy:  

- A thorough introduction to the major conceptual distictions between micro and macroaggressions and an explanation of the manifestations, dynamics, and impact of bias on marginalized groups. 

- An exploration of the meaning and definition of micorinterventions, including a categorization into three types: microaffirmations, micorprotections, and microchallenges. 

- A review of literature that discusses the positive benefits that accrue to targets, allies, bystanders, and others when microinterventions take place. 

- A discussion of major barriers to acting against prejudice and discrimination. 

Perfect for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in psychology, education, social work, and political science, Microintervention Strategies will also earn a place in the libraries of psychologists, educators, parents, and teachers, who hope to do their part to combat microaggressions and other forms of bias and discrimination. 

Preface xiii

Chapter One: Taking Responsibility to Address Bias and Discrimination 1

The Failure to Act 5

The Relationship between Macroaggressions and Microaggressions 7

How Macroaggressions Differ from Microaggressions 9

Macroassaults in Institutional Policies and Practices 11

Macroaggressions as Systemic Racism 12

Macroaggressions in Standard Operating Procedures 15

The Need to Take Action: People of Color, White Allies, and Bystanders 17

Targets 17

White Allies 18

Bystanders 20

Chapter Two: What Are Microinterventions? 23

Distinguishing Microinterventions from Macrointerventions 24

Three Forms of Microinterventions: Strategies and Tactics 29

Microaffirmations 30

Microprotections 33

Microchallenges 38

Chapter Three: Psychological Benefits of Microinterventions vs. the Psychological Costs of Inaction 43

Active Anti-racist Interventions: Benefits and Costs 46

For Targets 49

For Significant Others 49

For White Allies 50

For Bystanders 50

Prosocial Norms and Contexts 52

Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites: Perpetrator Constriction vs. Liberation 54

Cognitive Costs to Perpetrators 56

Affective Costs to Perpetrators 56

Behavioral Costs to Perpetrators 57

Spiritual and Moral Cost to Perpetrators 57

Perpetrator Liberation and Benefits 58

Chapter Four: Barriers to Combatting Micro- and Macroaggressions 59

Being Oblivious, Innocent, and Naïve 63

Minimizing the Harm 65

Maintaining Harmony and Avoiding Conflict 67

Fearing Repercussions 67

Isolation 68

Loss of Position and Power 69

Attacks on Character 69

Psychological Stress and Burnout 70

Violent Threats and Physical Harm 71

Being Paralyzed and Feeling Impotent 72

Chapter Five: Overcoming Silence, Inaction and Complicity 73

Learn to Recognize and Decode Hidden Expressions of Bias 74

Become Aware of the Toxicity and Harmful Impact of Micro/Macroaggressions 76

Create Norms that Counter Conflict Avoidance and Enhance Racial Dialogues 79

Appeal to Moral Values 82

Undertake Antibias Training 82

Create Fair and Just Societal and Organizational Policies and Practices 82

Raising Race-Conscious Children 83

Seek Social Support and Allies 84

Obtain Skills and Tactics to Respond to Macroaggressions 88

Chapter Six: Microintervention Strategy and Tactics to Make the “Invisible” Visible 91

Challenging Microaggressions 92

Strategic Goal: Make Microaggressions Visible 93

Tactic # 1 - Develop Perspicacity 93

Tactic # 2 - Disempower the Innuendo by “Naming” It 96

Tactic # 3 - Undermine the Meta-communication 96

Tactic # 4 - Challenge the Stereotype 96

Tactic # 5 - Broaden the Ascribed Trait to a Universal Human Behavior 97

Tactic # 6 - Ask for Clarification of a Statement or Action 97

Tactic # 7 - Make the Meta-communication Explicit by Restating/Rephrasing the Statement or Action 98

Tactic # 8 - Reverse, Redirect or Mimic the Statements or Actions of the Offender as If It Was Meant for the Perpetrator 98

Challenging Macroaggressions 99

Strategic Goal: Make Macroaggressions Visible 100

Tactic # 1 - Monitor and Document 101

Tactic # 2 - Encourage Implementing Systems of Evaluation and Accountability 102

Tactic # 3 - Leverage Personal Power and Privileged Identities 104

Chapter Seven: Microintervention Strategy and Tactics to Educate Perpetrators and Stakeholders 107

Strategic Goal: Educate Perpetrators 108

Tactic # 1 - Help Microaggressors Differentiate between Good Intent and Harmful Impact 108

Tactic # 2 - Contradict the Group-Based Stereotype with Opposing Evidence by Personalizing It to Specific Individuals 111

Tactic # 3 - Appeal to the Offender’s Values and Principles 111

Tactic # 4 - Point Out the Commonalities 112

Tactic # 5 - Promote Empathy 113

Tactic # 6 - Point Out How They Benefit 113

Strategic Goal: Challenging Macroaggressions through Education 114

Tactic # 1 - Raise Critical Thinking 116

Tactic # 2 - Support Antibias Education and Training 117

Tactic # 3 - Highlight the Benefits of Diversity and Equity 122

Chapter Eight: Microintervention Strategy and Tactics to Disarm Microaggressions and Macroaggressions 125

Strategic Goal: Disarm Microaggressions 129

Tactic # 1 - Interrupt the Communication and Redirect It 129

Tactic # 2 - State Values and Set Limits 130

Tactic # 3 - Express Disagreement 130

Tactic # 4 - Describe What Is Happening 131

Tactic # 5 - Nonverbal Communication 131

Tactic # 6 - Use an Exclamatory Short Expression 131

Tactic # 7 - Remind Them of the Rules 132

Challenging Macroaggressions 132

Nonviolent and Violent Actions 133

Strategic Goal: Disarming Macroaggressions 134

Chapter Nine: Microintervention Strategy and Tactics for Using External Support and Alliances 151

Strategic Goal: Seeking External Support/Validation in Fighting Microaggressions 152

Tactic # 1 - Alert Leadership 155

Tactic # 2 - Report Incident 155

Tactic # 3 - Seek Therapy/Counseling 156

Tactic # 4 - Seek Spirituality/Religion/Community Support 156

Tactic # 5 - Establish a Buddy System 157

Tactic # 6 - Establish or Join a Support Group 158

Microintervention Cautions 158

Strategic Goal: Seeking External Support in Fighting Macroaggressions 159

Tactic # 1 - Call on the Support of Human Rights Organizations 160

Tactic # 2 - Initiate Governmental Action 162

Tactic # 4 - Seek Community Support 165

Chapter Ten: Microinterventions 169

Prime Time for Developing Minds 170

Talking Race to Children 171

Microintervention Implications for Caretakers and Educators 173

Make the Invisible Visible 174

Educate Stakeholders 176

Disarm the Micro/Macroaggression 178

Seek External Support 180

Implications for Future Study 181

Conclusions 184

References 191

Name Index 213

Subject Index 221 

Derald Wing Sue California State University--Hayward. Cassandra Z. Calle Narolyn Mendez Sarah Alsaidi Elizabeth Glaeser