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An Introduction to Behavior Analysis. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5205035
  • Book
  • March 2021
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Explore a fascinating introductory treatment of the principles of behavior analysis written by three leading voices in the field 

An Introduction to Behavior Analysis delivers an engaging and comprehensive introduction to the concepts and applications of behavior analysis for students of behavior analysis. Written from the ground up to capture and hold student interest, the book keeps its focus on practical issues.

This book offers readers sound analyses of Pavlovian and operant learning, reinforcement and punishment, motivation and stimulus control, language and rule-following, decision-making and clinical behvior analysis. With fully up to date empirical research references and theoretical content, An Introduction to Behavior Analysis thoroughly justifies every principle it describes with empirical support and explicitly points out where more data are required. 

The text encourages students to analyze their own experiences and some foundational findings in the field in a way that minimizes jargon and maximizes engagement. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: 

  • A clear articulation and defense of the philosophical assumptions and overarching goals of behavior analysis. 
  • A thorough description of objective data collection, experimental methods, and data analysis in the context of psychology 
  • An exploration of the core principles of behavior analysis, presented at a level comprehensible to an introductory audience 
  • A broad array of principles that cover issues as varied as language, substance-use disorders, and common psychological disorders 

Perfect for students taking their first course in behavior analysis or behavior modification, An Introduction to Behavior Analysis will also earn a place in the libraries of students pursuing certification through the Behavior Analysis Certification Board or taking courses in the applied psychological sciences. 

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AN INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Note: Each chapter includes several brief fill-in-the-blank reading quizzes with answers provided at the back of each chapter.

Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Behavior Analysis-

What Is Behavior? 1

What Is Behavior Analysis? 3

The Assumptions of Behavior Analysis- 6

Scientific Method- 12 

What are the Determinants of Behavior? - 15 

The Activities of Behavior Analysis? - 17

Summary - 20 


Chapter 2: Understanding Behavioral Research 

Variables - 24

Correlation vs. Causation - 24

Experiments - 25

Measuring Behavior - 27

Outcome Recording - 33

Event Recording - 36

Interval Recording - 39

Duration Recording - 41

Summary - 43

Chapter 3: Experimental Designs in Behavior Analysis

Group Experimental Designs - 49

Single-Subject Experimental Designs - 51

Comparison (A-B) Design- 52

Reversal (A-B-A) Design- 54

Alternating- Treatments Design- 55

Multiple- Baseline Designs- 57

Did Behavior Change- Visual Analysis of Time-Series Data - 64

Summary - 76

Chapter 4: Phylogenetic Behavior and Pavlovian Learning

Phylogenetically Select Behavior- 83

Pavlovian Learning - 86

Pavlovian Conditioning of Emotions - 89

What is Learned During Pavlovian Conditioning? - 93

Principles of Effective Pavlovian Conditioning- 95

Generalization - 101 

Pavlovian- Extinction-Based Therapy - 103

E
xtra Box 1 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans - 107 

P
avlovian Conditioning in Everyday Life - 108 

Summary - 111 

Chapter 5: Operant Learning I: Reinforcement 

Operant Behavior - 117 

Response- Consequence Contingencies - 119 

Noncontingent Consequences - 122

Changing Behavior with Contingent Consequences - 124 

Extra Box: Noncontingent Consequences in North Korea - 125 

Reinforcers, Reinforcement, and Rewards - 126 

The Discovery of Reinforcement- 127 

How to Tell if a Consequence Functions as a Reinforcer - 128 

From Puzzle Boxes to Skinner Boxes - 130 

Response Variability: Exploring and Exploiting - 131

Extra Box 2: Add Some Variability to Your Life - 132

The Generic Nature of Operant Behavior - 133

Not Every Consequence Functions as a Reinforcer -134

Reinforcement in Social Media and Video Games - 137 

Summary - 138

Chapter 6: Operant Learning II: Positive and Negative Reinforcement 

Positive and Negative Reinforcement - 143 

Positive Reinforcement - 143 

Negative Reinforcement - 146 

Extra Box: What is the Consequence in SRA-? 151 

Positive or Negative Reinforcement, Is There Really a Difference? 153

Using Reinforcement to Positively Influence Behavior - 155

Reinforcement in the Workplace - 156 

Three Objections to Reinforcement - 157 

Theories of Reinforcement - 162

Summary - 165

Chapter 7: Extinction and Differential Reinforcement

Operant Extinction Following Positive Reinforcement - 170 

Operant Extinction Following Negative Reinforcement - 171 

How Quickly Will Operant Extinction Work? - 174 

Spontaneous Recovery of Operant Behavior - 175 

Extra Box: How Extinction Informs Theories of Reinforcement - 177 

Extinction- Induced Emotional Behavior -179 

Extinction Burst - 179

Extinction-Induced Variability- 180

Extinction- Induced Resurgence- 181 

Using Extinction to Positively Influence Behavior - 184

Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behavior- 186 

Differential Reinforcement - 187 

Summary - 193

Chapter 8: Primary and Conditioned Reinforcement, and Shaping-  page 200

Primary Reinforcers - 201 

Conditioned Reinforcers - 202 

The Token Economy - 204 

Arranging Effective Conditioned Reinforcers - 207 

Extra Box 1: Conditioned Reinforcers in Zoos- 210 

Clicker Training with Humans - 211

Shaping - 213

Extra Box 2: Shaping Animal Behavior on the Farm- 214

Principles of Effective Shaping- 217 

Automating Shaping: Percentile Schedules of Reinforcement - 222

Summary - 224

Chapter 9: Motivation, Reinforcer Efficacy, and Habit Formation  

Everyday Concepts of Motivation - 230 

From Motivation to Motivating Operations- 232

Extra Box 1: The Cost of Mentalistic Reasoning - 236 

Identifying Effective Reinforcers: The “Liking” Strategy - 237 

Extra Box 2: Avoiding Circularity – The Premack Principle - 241 

Measuring Reinforcer Efficacy - 243 

Dimensions of Effective Reinforcers - 245 

Habit Formation - 248 

Summary - 252

Chapter 10: Punishment 

Punishers and Punishment - 259 

Two Kinds of Punishment – Both Decrease Behavior - 261 

When Should We Punish? - 264 

Extra Box: Punishment is the Norm – Using it Effectively is Humane - 266 

Six Characteristics of Effective Punishment Interventions - 266 

Primary and Conditioned Punishment - 272 

Some Commonly Used Punishers’ - 274 

The Watchful Eye of the Punisher - 277 

The Role of Reinforcement in the Act of Punishing - 279 

Summary - 281 

Chapter 11: Complex Contingencies of Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement - 290 

Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement - 291 

The Behavioral Economics of Ratio Schedules- 297 

Interval Schedules of Reinforcement - 302 

Why Study Schedules of Reinforcement? - 308 

Extra Box: Contingency Management - 309 

Schedule Thinning - 310 

Scheduling Reinforcers to Enhance Human Performance and Happiness - 313 

Summary - 313

Chapter 12: Antecedent Stimulus Control 

Phylogenetic and Pavlovian Stimulus Control - 322 

Discriminated Operant Behavior - 322

Discrimination Training - 330 

Extra Box 1: Direct Instruction of Reading Skills - 333

Generalization - 335 

Stimulus-Response Chains - 340 

Extra Box 2: Consciousness - 343 

Summary - 345 

Chapter 13: Choice - page 351 

What is Choice? - 352 

Four Variables Affecting Choice - 353 

Choosing Between Uncertain Outcomes - 357 

Herrnstein's Matching Equation- 358 

Extra Box 1: The Matching Law, Terrorism, and White Nationalism - 364 

Substitutes- 366

Extra Box 2: What Substitutes for Drug Reinforcers? - 367 

Using the Matching Law to Positively Influence Behavior - 368 

Impulsivity and Self-Control - 372

Inluencing Impulsive Choice- 378  

Summary - 380

Chapter 14: Verbal Behavior, Rule-Following, and Clinical Behavior Analysis

Behavioral Approaches to Language - 391 

Rules and Rule-Governed Behavior - 401 

Breaking the Rules in Clinical Psychology - 408 

Extra Box: If Thoughts are Important, Prepare to Suffer - 410 

The Acceptance in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy- 411

The Commitment in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy- 412

Summary - 414 

Appendix: Foundational Knowledge Accompanying the BACB Fifth Edition Task List - 421

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Gregory J. Madden
Derek D. Reed
Florence D. DiGennaro Reed
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