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The Molecular Science of Clathrate Hydrates. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5205181
  • Book
  • June 2021
  • 500 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Clathrate hydrates are crystalline water-based solids that look like ice and can carry other type of materials, either gas or liquid. Such molecules are trapped inside the cages of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules and keep the complexes stable. Typically, low molecular weight or natural gases can be found inside the complexes, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and short hydrocarbons, like methane.
As hydrate science has advanced, studying the molecule level details of the hydrates for a large variety of guest molecules has been enabled. This level of molecular detail can lead to a revisiting of some accepted notions on the behavior and structure of hydrate materials. Bringing these new insights to the attention of the community of hydrate researchers will be beneficial to advancing further research.
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INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
CLASSIFICATION OF CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Hydrates as Inclusion Compounds
Guest Chemistry
Phase Equilibria
STRUCTURE OF CLATHRATE HYDRATE PHASES
General and Specific Structures
Structural Transitions
Structure Relationships
SYNTHESIS OF CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Stoichiometry of Hydrates
Liquid-gas, Solid-Liquid and Solid-Gas Reactions
Kinetic Control vs. Thermodynamic Control
CHARACTERIZATION OF CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Diffraction Techniques
Spectroscopy Techniques
Molecular Simulations
THERMODYNAMICS OF CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Statistical Mechanics
Guest-Host Interactions
Free Energy Calculations
Classical Methods of Composition Analysis
Heats of Formation, Decomposition, Enclathration
KINETICS OF CLATHRATE HYDRATE FORMATION AND DECOMPOSITION
Macroscopic vs Microscopic Measurements
Nucleation: Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous
Growth and Decomposition
Kinetic Inhibitors
Anomalous Preservation
Memory Effects
DYNAMICS OF WATER AND GUEST MOLECULES IN CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Reorienational Dynamics and Diffusion of Guest Molecules
Diffusion of Guest Molecules
Quantum Effects
MECHANICAL AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES
Expansivity: Microscopic and Macroscopic Studies
Elastic Constants
Heat Capacity
Thermal Conductivity
HIGH PRESSURE CLATHRATE HYDRATE PHASES
Experimental Techniques
APPLICATIONS OF CLATHRATE HYDRATES
Natural Gas Production
Gas Separations
Gas Storage
Desalination
Energy Storage
APPENDIX
Listing of Known Guest Materials
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John A. Ripmeester
Saman Alavi
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