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Deepwater Flexible Risers and Pipelines. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5205198
  • Book
  • February 2021
  • 624 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The technology, processes, materials, and theories surrounding pipeline construction, application, and troubleshooting are constantly changing, and this new series, Advances in Pipes and Pipelines, has been created to meet the needs of engineers and scientists to keep them up to date and informed of all of these advances.  This second volume in the series focuses on flexible pipelines, risers, and umbilicals, offering the engineer the most thorough coverage of the state-of-the-art available. The authors of this work have written numerous books and papers on these subjects and are some of the most influential authors on flexible pipes in the world, contributing much of the literature on this subject to the industry.  This new volume is a presentation of some of the most cutting-edge technological advances in technical publishing.

The first volume in this series, published by Wiley-Scrivener, is Flexible Pipes, available at [external URL] Laying the foundation for the series, it is a groundbreaking work, written by some of the world's foremost authorities on pipes and pipelines.  Continuing in this series, the editors have compiled the second volume, equally as groundbreaking, expanding the scope to pipelines, risers, and umbilicals.

This is the most comprehensive and in-depth series on pipelines, covering not just the various materials and their aspects that make them different, but every process that goes into their installation, operation, and design. This is the future of pipelines, and it is an important breakthrough. A must-have for the veteran engineer and student alike, this volume is an important new advancement in the energy industry, a strong link in the chain of the world's energy production.

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Preface xix

Acknowledgment xxi

About the Author xxiii

Part 1: Local Analysis 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Flexible Pipelines Overview 3

1.2 Environmental Conditions 4

1.3 Flexible Pipeline Geometry 7

1.4 Base Case-Failure Modes and Design Criteria 9

1.5 Reinforcements 10

1.6 Project and Objectives 12

References 12

2 Structural Design of Flexible Pipes in Different Water Depth 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Theoretical Models 15

2.3 Comparison and Discussion 24

2.4 Conclusions 34

References 34

3 Structural Design of High Pressure Flexible Pipes of Different Internal Diameter 35

3.1 Introduction References 35

3.2 Analytical Models 37

3.2.1 Cylindrical Layers 37

3.2.2 Helix Layers 39

3.2.3 The Stiffness Matrix of Pipe as a Whole Helix Layers 40

3.2.4 Blasting Failure Criterion 41

3.3 FEA Modeling Description 42

3.4 Result and Discussion 46

3.5 Design 50

3.6 Conclusions 54

References 55

4 Tensile Behavior of Flexible Pipes 57

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Theoretical Models 58

4.2.1 Mechanical Model of Pressure Armor Layer 58

4.2.2 Mechanical Behavior of Tensile Armor Layer 61

4.2.3 Overall Mechanical Behavior 63

4.3 Numerical Model 64

4.3.1 Pressure Armor Stiffness 64

4.3.2 Full Pipe 69

4.4 Comparison and Discussion 71

4.5 Parametric Study 77

4.6 Conclusions 79

References 80

5 Design Case Study for Deep Water Risers 83

5.1 Abstract 83

5.2 Introduction 83

5.3 Cross-Sectional Design 85

5.4 Case Study 87

5.5 Design Result 94

5.6 Finite Elements Analysis 97

5.7 Conclusion 100

References 101

6 Unbonded Flexible Pipe Under Bending 103

6.1 Introduction 103

6.2 Helical Layer Within No-Slip Range 104

6.2.1 Geometry of Helical Layer 104

6.2.2 Bending Stiffness of Helical Layer 108

6.3 Helical Layer Within Slip Range 109

6.3.1 Critical Curvature 109

6.3.2 Axial Force in Helical Wire Within Slip Range 111

6.3.3 Axial Force in Helical Wire Within No-Slip Range 112

6.3.4 Bending Stiffness of Helical Layer 114

References 116

7 Coiling of Flexible Pipes 117

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Local Analysis 120

7.2.1 Dimensions and Material Characteristics 120

7.2.2 Tension Test 120

7.2.3 Bending Test 123

7.2.4 Summary 124

7.3 Global Analysis 126

7.3.1 Modeling 126

7.3.2 Interaction and Mesh 127

7.3.3 Load and Boundary Conditions 128

7.3.4 Discussion of the Results 128

7.4 Parametric Study 134

7.4.1 Diameter of the Coiling Drum 134

7.4.2 Sinking Distance of the Coiling Drum 135

7.4.3 Reeling Length 138

7.4.4 The Location of the Bearing Plate 139

7.5 Conclusions 142

References 143

Part 2: Riser Engineering 145

8 Flexible Risers and Flowlines 147

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 Flexible Pipe Cross-Section 147

8.2.1 Carcass 149

8.2.2 Internal Polymer Sheath 150

8.2.3 Pressure Armor 150

8.2.4 Tensile Armor 151

8.2.5 External Polymer Sheath 151

8.2.6 Other Layers and Configurations 152

8.3 End Fitting and Annulus Venting Design 152

8.3.1 End Fitting Design and Top Stiffener (or Bellmouth) 152

8.3.2 Annulus Venting System 153

8.4 Flexible Riser Design 154

8.4.1 Design Analysis 154

8.4.2 Riser System Interface Design 155

8.4.3 Current Design Limitations 156

References 158

9 Lazy-Wave Static Analysis 159

9.1 Introduction 159

9.2 Fundamental Assumptions 162

9.3 Configuration Calculation 162

9.3.1 Cable Segment 163

9.3.1.1 Hang-Off Section 163

9.3.1.2 Buoyancy Section 166

9.3.1.3 Decline Section 166

9.3.2 Boundary-Layer Segment 167

9.3.3 Touchdown Segment 168

9.3.4 Boundary Conditions 170

9.4 Numerical Solution 171

9.5 Finite Element Model 174

9.5.1 Environment 175

9.5.2 Riser 175

9.5.3 Boundary Conditions 175

9.6 Comparison and Discussion 175

9.7 Parameter Analysis 180

9.7.1 Effect of Seabed Stiffness 180

9.7.2 Effect of Hang-Off Inclination Angle 182

9.7.3 Effect of Buoyancy Section Length 185

9.8 Conclusions 187

References 188

10 Steep-Wave Static Configuration 189

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Configuration Calculation 190

10.2.1 Touch-Down Segment 191

10.2.2 Buoyancy Segment 194

10.2.3 Hang-Off Segment 195

10.2.4 Boundary Conditions 195

10.3 Numerical Solution 196

10.4 Comparison and Discussion 198

10.5 Parametric Analysis 203

10.5.1 Effect of Buoyancy Segment’s Equivalent Outer Diameter 203

10.5.2 Effect of Buoyancy Segment Length 205

10.5.3 Effect of Buoyancy Segment Location 207

10.5.4 Effect of Current Velocity 209

10.6 Conclusions 212

References 212

Contents ix

11 3D Rod Theory for Static and Dynamic Analysis 213

11.1 Introduction 213

11.2 Nomenclature 215

11.3 Mathematical Model 216

11.3.1 Governing Equations 216

11.3.2 Bending Hysteretic Behavior 220

11.3.3 Bend Stiffener Constraint 222

11.3.4 Pipe-Soil Interaction 224

11.4 Case Study 225

11.5 Results and Discussion 227

11.5.1 Static Analysis 227

11.5.2 Dynamic Analysis 231

11.5.2.1 Top-End Region 231

11.5.2.2 Touchdown Zone 233

11.5.3 Effect of Bend Stiffener Constraint 236

11.5.4 Effect of Bending Hysteretic Behavior 238

11.5.5 Effect of Top Angle Constraint 240

11.6 Conclusions 242

References 243

12 Dynamic Analysis of the Cable-Body of the Deep Underwater Towed System 247

12.1 Introduction 247

12.2 Establishment of Towed System Dynamic Model 248

12.3 Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Calculation Results 251

12.3.1 The Effect of Different Turning Radius 252

12.3.2 The Effect of Different Turning Speeds 253

12.3.3 Dynamic Analysis of the Towed System with the Change of the Parameters of the Cable 254

12.3.4 The Effect of the Diameters of the Towed Cable 257

12.3.5 The Effect of the Drag Coefficients of the Towed Cable 257

12.3.6 The Effect of the Added Mass Coefficient of the Towed Cable 261

12.4 Conclusions 263

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

13 Dynamic Analysis of Umbilical Cable Under Interference 267

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Dynamic Model of Umbilical Cable 269

13.2.1 Establishment of Mathematical Model 269

13.2.2 The Discrete Numerical Method for Solving the Lumped Mass Method 271

13.2.3 Calculation of the Clashing Force of Umbilical Cable 277

13.3 The Establishment of Dynamic Simulation Model in OrcaFlex 279

13.3.1 The Equivalent Calculation of the Stiffness of the Umbilical Cable 279

13.3.2 RAO of the Platform 281

13.3.3 The Choice of Wave Theory 281

13.3.4 Establishment of Model in OrcaFlex 282

13.4 The Calculation Results 283

13.4.1 The Clashing Force of Interference 283

13.4.2 The Variation of the Effective Tension Under Interference 285

13.4.3 The Variation of Bending Under Interference 287

13.5 Conclusion 291

References 294

14 Fatigue Analysis of Flexible Riser 295

14.1 Introduction 295

14.2 Fatigue Failure Mode of Flexible Riser 296

14.3 Global Model of Flexible Risers 297

14.3.1 Pipe Element 297

14.3.2 Bending Stiffener 298

14.3.3 Sea Condition 299

14.3.4 Platform Motion Response 300

14.3.5 Time Domain Simulation Analysis 301

14.4 Failure Mode and Design Criteria 302

14.4.1 Axisymmetric Load Model 302

14.4.2 Bending Load Model 303

14.5 Calculation Method of Fatigue Life of Flexible Riser 305

14.5.1 Rainflow Counting Method 305

14.5.2 S-N Curve 305

14.5.3 Miner’s Linear Cumulative Damage Theory 307

14.5.4 Modification of Average Stress on Fatigue Damage 308

14.6 Example of Fatigue Life Analysis of Flexible Riser 309

References 314

15 Steel Tube Umbilical and Control Systems 317

15.1 Introduction 317

15.1.1 General 317

15.1.2 Feasibility Study 318

15.1.3 Detailed Design and Installation 319

15.1.4 Qualification Tests 320

15.2 Control Systems 320

15.2.1 General 320

15.2.2 Control Systems 321

15.2.3 Elements of Control System 322

15.2.4 Umbilical Technological Challenges and Solutions 323

15.3 Cross-Sectional Design of the Umbilical 326

15.4 Steel Tube Design Capacity Verification 327

15.4.1 Pressure Containment 328

15.4.2 Allowable Bending Radius 328

15.5 Extreme Wave Analysis 329

15.6 Manufacturing Fatigue Analysis 330

15.6.1 Accumulated Plastic Strain 330

15.6.2 Low Cycle Fatigue 331

15.7 In-Place Fatigue Analysis 331

15.7.1 Selection of Sea State Data From Wave Scatter Diagram 332

15.7.2 Analysis of Finite Element Static Model 332

15.8 Installation Analysis 332

15.9 Required On-Seabed Length for Stability 333

References 334

16 Stress and Fatigue of Umbilicals 337

16.1 Introduction 337

16.2 STU Fatigue Models 338

16.2.1 Simplified Model 339

16.2.1.1 Axial and Bending Stresses 339

16.2.1.2 Friction Stress 340

16.2.1.3 Simplified Approach: Combining Stresses 342

16.2.1.4 Simplified (Combining Stresses) Fatigue Damage 342

16.2.1.5 Simplified Model Assumptions 343

16.2.2 Enhanced Non-Linear Time Domain Fatigue Model 343

16.2.2.1 Friction Stresses 344

16.2.2.2 Effect of Multiple Tube Layers 344

16.2.2.3 Combined Friction Stresses 345

16.2.2.4 Axial and Bending Stresses 345

16.2.2.5 Combining Stresses 346

16.2.2.6 Fatigue Life 346

16.2.2.7 Benefits of Enhanced Non-Linear Time Domain Fatigue Model 347

16.3 Worked Example 348

16.3.1 Time Domain vs. Simplified Approaches 350

16.3.2 Effect of Friction on STU Fatigue 351

16.3.2.1 Influence of High Tube Friction on Umbilical Fatigue 352

16.3.2.2 Influence of Low Tube Friction on Umbilical Fatigue 352

16.3.2.3 Influence of Metal-to-Metal Friction vs. Metal-to-Plastic Contact on Umbilical Fatigue 352

16.3.3 Effect of Increasing Water Depth 353

16.3.4 Effect of Increasing the Tube Layer Radius 354

16.4 Conclusions 355

16.5 Recommendations 356

References 357

17 Cross-Sectional Stiffness for Umbilicals 359

17.1 Introduction 359

17.2 Theoretical Model of Umbilicals 361

17.3 Bending Stiffness of Umbilicals 362

17.4 Tensile Stiffness of Umbilicals 366

17.5 Torsional Stiffness of Umbilicals 368

17.6 Ultimate Capacity of Umbilicals 368

17.6.1 Minimum Bending Curvature 368

17.6.2 Minimum Tensile Load 369

17.6.3 Tensile Capacity Curve 369

References 372

18 Umbilical Cross-Section Design 375

18.1 Introduction 375

18.1.1 General 375

18.1.2 Sectional Composition of the Umbilical Cable 375

18.1.3 Umbilical Cable Structure Features 376

18.2 Umbilicals Cross-Section Design Overview 377

18.2.1 Umbilical Cross-Section Design Flowchart 377

18.2.2 Load Analysis 378

18.3 Umbilical Cable Cross-Section Design 380

18.3.1 Umbilical Cable Cross-Section Layout Design 380

18.3.2 Tensile Performance Design 381

18.3.3 Bending Performance Design 382

References 384

Part 3: Fiber Glass Reinforced Deep Water Risers 385

19 Collapse Strength of Fiber Glass Reinforced Riser 387

19.1 Introduction 387

19.2 External Pressure Test 388

19.2.1 Testing Specimen 388

19.2.2 Testing System 389

19.2.3 Testing Results 389

19.3 Theoretical Analysis 390

19.3.1 Fundamental Assumptions 390

19.3.2 Constitutive Model of Materials 391

19.3.3 Establish the Equations of Motion 393

19.3.4 Establish Virtual Work Equations 394

19.4 Numerical Analysis 394

19.5 Finite Element Analysis 395

19.5.1 Establish the Finite Element Model 396

19.5.2 The Results of the Finite Element Analysis 397

19.6 Conclusion 401

References 402

20 Burst Strength of Fiber Glass Reinforced Riser 405

20.1 Introduction 405

20.2 Experiment 406

20.2.1 Dimensions and Material Properties of FGRFP 406

20.2.2 Experiment Device 407

20.2.3 Experiment Results 407

20.3 Numerical Simulations 407

20.3.1 Mesh and Interaction 407

20.3.2 Load and Boundary Conditions 408

20.3.3 Numerical Results 409

20.4 Analytical Solution 409

20.4.1 Basic Assumptions 409

20.4.2 Stress Analysis 411

20.4.3 Boundary Condition 414

20.5 Results and Discussion 416

20.6 Parametric Analysis 417

20.6.1 Winding Angle of Fiber Glass 417

20.6.2 Diameter-Thickness Ratio 418

20.7 Conclusions 419

References 419

21 Structural Analysis of Fiberglass Reinforced Bonded Flexible Pipe Subjected to Tension 421

21.1 Introduction 421

21.2 Experiment 423

21.2.1 Basic Assumptions 423

21.2.2 Material Characteristics 425

21.2.3 Experimental Results 426

21.3 Theoretical Solution 427

21.3.1 Basic Assumptions 429

21.3.2 Cross-Section Simplification 429

21.3.3 Fiber Deformation 430

21.3.4 Cross-Section Deformation 431

21.3.5 Equilibrium Equations 434

21.4 Finite Element Model 434

21.5 Comparison and Discussion 436

21.5.1 Tension-Extension Relation 436

21.5.2 Cross-Section Deformation 437

21.5.3 Fiberglass Stress 439

21.5.4 Contribution of Each Material 439

21.5.5 Summary 440

21.6 Parametric Study 442

21.6.1 Winding Angle 442

21.6.2 Fiberglass Amount 443

21.6.3 Diameter-Thickness Ratio 444

21.7 Conclusions 445

Acknowledgement 446

References 446

22 Fiberglass Reinforced Flexible Pipes Under Bending 449

22.1 Introduction 449

22.2 Experiment 451

22.2.1 Experimental Facility 451

22.2.2 Specimen 453

22.2.3 Experiment Process 453

22.2.4 Experimental Results 455

22.3 Analytical Solution 457

22.3.1 Fundamental Assumption 457

22.3.2 Kinematic Equation 457

22.3.3 Material Simplification 459

22.3.4 Constitutive Model 462

22.3.5 Principle of Virtual Work 464

22.3.6 Algorithm of Analytical Solutions 464

22.4 Finite Element Method 465

22.5 Result and Conclusion 466

22.6 Parametric Analysis 469

22.6.1 D/t Ratio 469

22.6.2 Initial Ovality 470

22.7 Conclusions 472

References 473

23 Fiberglass Reinforced Flexible Pipes Under Torsion 475

23.1 Introduction 475

23.2 Experiments 477

23.3 Experimental Results 478

23.4 Analytical Solution 481

23.4.1 Coordinate Systems 481

23.4.2 Elastic Constants of Reinforced Layers (k = 2, 3 … (n − 1)) 483

23.4.3 Reinforced Layers Stiffness Matrix k = 2, 3...(n – 1) 484

23.4.4 Inner Layer and Outer Layer Stiffness Matrix (k = 1, n) 486

23.4.5 Stress and Deformation Analysis 487

23.4.6 Boundary Conditions 491

23.4.7 Interface Conditions 492

23.4.8 Geometric Nonlinearity 493

23.5 Numerical Simulations 494

23.6 Results and Discussions 496

23.7 Parametric Analysis 498

23.7.1 Effect of Winding Angle 498

23.7.2 Effect of Thickness of Reinforced Layers 498

23.8 Conclusions 499

Acknowledgments 500

References 501

24 Cross-Section Design of Fiberglass Reinforced Riser 503

24.1 Introduction 503

24.2 Nomenclature 503

24.3 Basic Structure of Pipe 505

24.3.1 Overall Structure 505

24.3.2 Material 506

24.4 Strength Failure Design Criteria 506

24.4.1 Burst Pressure 506

24.4.2 Burst Pressure Under Internal Pressure Bending Moment 508

24.4.3 Yield Tension 508

24.5 Failure Criteria for Instability Design 510

24.5.1 Minimum Bending Radius 510

24.5.2 External Pressure Instability Pressure 510

24.6 Design Criteria for Leakage Failure 511

References 511

25 Fatigue Life Assessment of Fiberglass Reinforced Flexible Pipes 513

25.1 Introduction 513

25.2 Global Analysis 515

25.3 Rain Flow Method 517

25.4 Local Analysis 519

25.5 Modeling 519

25.6 Result Discussion 520

25.7 Sensitivity Analysis 524

25.8 Fatigue Life Assessment 527

25.9 Conclusion 528

References 529

Part 4: Ancillary Equipments for Flexibles and Umbilicals 531

26 Typical Connector Design for Risers 533

26.1 Introduction 533

26.2 Carcass 534

26.3 Typical Connector 535

26.4 Seal System 536

26.5 Termination of the Carcass 537

26.6 Smooth Bore Pipe 539

26.7 Rough Bore Pipe 540

26.8 Discussion 542

26.9 Conclusions 544

References 545

27 Bend Stiffener and Restrictor Design 547

27.1 Introduction 547

27.2 Response Model 548

27.3 Extreme Load Description 549

27.4 General Optimization Scheme 550

27.5 Application Example 552

27.6 Non-Dimensional Bend Stiffener Design 553

27.7 Alternative Non-Dimensional Parameters 556

27.8 Conclusions 558

References 558

28 End Termination Design for Umbilicals 561

28.1 Introduction 561

28.2 Umbilical Termination Assembly 561

28.2.1 General 561

28.2.2 UTA Design 562

28.2.3 UTA Structural Design Basis 565

28.3 Subsea Termination Interface 566

References 568

29 Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Pipeline During the Laying Process 569

29.1 Introduction 569

29.2 Theoretical Analysis 570

29.2.1 Wave Load 570

29.2.2 Motion Response of the Vessel 572

29.2.3 Dynamic Numerical Solution 573

29.3 Static Analysis 575

29.4 Dynamic Characteristic Analysis 579

29.4.1 Influence of the Wave Direction 579

29.4.2 Influencing of Different Lay Angle 582

29.4.3 Influencing Submerged Weight 584

29.5 Conclusions 584

References 586

Index 589

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