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Multifunctional Antennas and Arrays for Wireless Communication Systems. Edition No. 1. IEEE Press

  • ID: 5212036
  • Book
  • July 2021
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
MULTIFUNCTIONAL ANTENNAS AND ARRAYS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Offers an up-to-date discussion of multifunctional antennas and arrays for wireless communication systems

Multifunctional Antennas and Arrays for Wireless Communication Systems is a comprehensive reference on state-of-the-art reconfigurable antennas and 4G/5G communication antennas. The book gives a unique perspective while giving a comprehensive overview of the following topics:- Frequency reconfigurable antennas- Pattern reconfigurable antennas- Polarization reconfigurable antennas- Reconfigurable antennas using Liquid Metal, Piezoelectric, and RF MEMS- MIMO and 4G/5G wireless communication antennas- Metamaterials and metasurfaces in reconfigurable antennas- Multifunctional antennas for user equipments (UEs)- Defense related antennas and applications- Flat panel phased array antennas

The book is a valuable resource for the practicing engineer as well as for those within the research field. As wireless communications continuously evolves, more and more functionally will be required, and thus multifunctional antennas and RF systems will be necessary. These multifunctional antennas will require a degree of reconfigurability, and this book discusses various methods which enable this. The main topics of frequency, pattern, and polarization reconfigurability is first discussed. Methods utilizing unique materials and devices, both real and artificial are discussed. The book also delves into 4G/5G antennas as it relates to MIMO, and millimeter-wave phased arrays. Finally, there is a section on defense related multifunctional RF antenna systems.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xi

Preface xii

Acknowledgements xv

1 Introduction 1
Satish K. Sharma and Jia-Chi S. Chieh

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Antenna: an Integral Component of Wireless Communications 1

1.3 Antenna Performance Parameters 2

1.4 Antenna Types 2

1.5 Multifunctional Antennas 3

1.6 Reconfigurable Antennas 6

1.7 Frequency Agile/Tunable Antenna 13

1.8 Antenna Measurements 17

1.9 Conclusion 18

References 18

2 Frequency Reconfigurable Antennas 19
Saeed I. Latif and Satish K. Sharma

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Mechanism of Frequency Reconfigurability 20

2.3 Types of FRAs 21

2.3.1 Frequency Reconfigurability by Switches/Tunable Components 21

2.3.1.1 Electrical Switches 22

2.3.1.2 Varactor Diodes 31

2.3.1.3 Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) Switches 40

2.3.1.4 Optical Switches 40

2.3.1.5 Ground Plane Membrane Deflection 43

2.3.2 Frequency Reconfigurability Using Special Materials 43

2.3.2.1 Liquid Crystals 45

2.3.2.2 Graphene 47

2.3.3 Frequency Reconfigurability by Mechanical Changes 49

2.3.3.1 Actuators 49

2.3.3.2 Motors 50

2.3.4 Frequency Reconfigurability Using Special Shapes 53

2.3.4.1 Origami Antennas 53

2.3.4.2 Fractal Shapes 54

2.4 FRAs in the Future: Applications in Emerging Technologies 58

2.5 Conclusion 59

References 59

3 Radiation Pattern Reconfigurable Antennas 67
Sima Noghanian and Satish K. Sharma

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Pattern Reconfigurable by Electronically Changing Antenna Elements 67

3.3 Pattern Reconfigurable by Electronically Changing Feeding Network 88

3.4 Mechanically Controlled Pattern Reconfigurable Antennas 90

3.5 Arrays and Optimizations 98

3.6 Reconfigurable Wearable and Implanted Antennas 110

3.7 Conclusion 119

References 119

4 Polarization Reconfigurable Antennas 122
Behrouz Babakhani and Satish K. Sharma

4.1 Introduction 122

4.2 Polarization Reconfiguration Mechanism Using RF Switches 124

4.3 Solid-State RF Switch-Based Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna 125

4.4 Mechanical and Micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) RF Switch-Based Antennas 140

4.5 Switchable Feed Network-Based Polarization Reconfiguration 148

4.6 Polarization Reconfigurable Antennas Using Metasurface 157

4.7 Other Methods to Create Polarization Reconfigurable Antennas 162

4.8 Conclusion 169

References 169

5 Liquid Metal, Piezoelectric, and RF MEMS-Based Reconfigurable Antennas 172
Jia-Chi S. Chieh and Satish K. Sharma

5.1 Introduction 172

5.2 Liquid Metal – Frequency Reconfigurable Antennas 172

5.3 Liquid Metal – Pattern Reconfigurable Antennas 175

5.4 Liquid Metal – Directivity Reconfigurable Antennas 182

5.5 Piezoelectric – Pattern Reconfigurable Array 184

5.6 RF MEMS – Frequency Reconfigurable 189

5.7 RF MEMS – Polarization Reconfigurable 191

5.8 RF MEMS – Pattern Reconfigurable 194

5.9 Conclusion 196

References 197

6 Compact Reconfigurable Antennas 198
Sima Noghanian and Satish K. Sharma

6.1 Introduction 198

6.2 Reconfigurable Pixel Antenna 199

6.3 Compact Reconfigurable Antennas Using Fluidic 209

6.4 Compact Reconfigurable Antennas Using Ferrite and Magnetic Materials 213

6.5 Metamaterials and Metasurfaces 224

6.6 Conclusion 229

References 229

7 Reconfigurable MIMO Antennas 232
Kumud R. Jha and Satish K. Sharma

7.1 Introduction 232

7.2 Reconfigurable Antennas for MIMO Applications 234

7.3 Isolation Techniques in MIMO Antennas 237

7.3.1 Decoupling Network 237

7.3.2 Neutralization Lines 238

7.3.3 Using Artificial Material 240

7.3.4 Defected Ground Plane 241

7.4 Pattern Diversity Scheme 241

7.5 Reconfigurable Polarization MIMO Antenna 244

7.6 MIMO Antenna Performance Parameters 254

7.6.1 Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) 254

7.6.2 Total Active Reflection Coefficient (TARC) 255

7.6.3 Mean Effective Gain (MEG) 256

7.6.4 Diversity Gain 257

7.7 Some Reconfigurable MIMO Antenna Examples 258

7.8 Conclusion 274

References 274

8 Multifunctional Antennas for 4G/5G Communications and MIMO Applications 279
Kumud R. Jha and Satish K. Sharma

 

8.1 Introduction 279

8.2 MIMO Antennas in Multifunctional Systems 281

8.3 MIMO Antennas in Radar Systems 284

8.4 MIMO Antennas in Communication Systems 290

8.5 MIMO Antennas for Sensing Applications 290

8.6 MIMO Antennas for 5G Systems 292

8.7 Massive MIMO Array 293

8.8 Dielectric Lens for Millimeter Wave MIMO 298

8.9 Beamforming in Massive MIMO 301

8.10 MIMO in Imaging Systems 303

8.11 MIMO Antenna in Medical Applications 306

8.11.1 Ex-VIVO Applications 306

8.11.2 MIMO Antenna for Medical Imaging 309

8.11.3 Wearable MIMO Antenna 309

8.11.4 MIMO Indigestion Capsule 310

8.11.5 Reconfigurable Antennas in Bio-Medical Engineering 313

8.12 Conclusion 316

References 317

9 Metamaterials in Reconfigurable Antennas 321
Saeed I. Latif and Satish K. Sharma

9.1 Introduction 321

9.2 Metamaterials in Antenna Reconfigurability 321

9.3 Metamaterial-Inspired Reconfigurable Antennas 322

9.3.1 Metamaterial-Based Frequency Reconfigurability 323

9.3.2 Metamaterial-Based Pattern Reconfigurability 325

9.3.3 Metamaterial-Based Polarization Reconfigurability 328

9.4 Metasurface-Inspired Reconfigurable Antennas 333

9.5 Conclusion 336

References 337

10 Multifunctional Antennas for User Equipments (UEs) 341
Satish K. Sharma and Sonika P. Biswal

10.1 Introduction 341

10.2 Lower/ Sub-6 GHz 5G Band Antennas 342

10.3 5G mm-Wave Antenna Arrays 353

10.4 Collocated Sub-6 GHz and mm-Wave 5G Array Antennas 360

10.5 RF and EMF Exposure Limits 369

10.6 Conclusion 374

References 374

11 DoD Reconfigurable Antennas 378
Jia-Chi S. Chieh and Satish K. Sharma

11.1 Introduction 378

11.2 TACAN 378

11.2.1 TACAN Antenna 379

11.2.2 Course Bearing 382

11.2.3 Fine Bearing 382

11.3 Sea-Based X-Band Radar 1 (SBX-1) 383

11.4 The Advanced Multifunction RF Concept (AMRFC) 384

11.5 Integrated Topside (InTop) 390

11.5.1 Wavelength Scaled Arrays 390

11.5.2 Low-Cost Multichannel Microwave Frequency Phased Array Chipsets on Si and SiGe 394

11.6 DARPA Arrays of Commercial Timescales (ACT) 400

11.7 AFRL Transformational Element Level Array (TELA) 405

11.8 Conclusion 406

References 408

12 5G Silicon RFICs-Based Phased Array Antennas 409
Jia-Chi S. Chieh and Satish K. Sharma

12.1 Introduction 409

12.2 Silicon Beamformer Technology 409

12.3 LO-Based Phase Shifting 413

12.4 IF-Based Phase Shifting 414

12.5 RF-Based Phase Shifting 415

12.6 Ku-Band Phased Arrays Utilizing Silicon Beamforming Chipsets 422

12.7 Ku-Band Phased Arrays on ROHACELL Utilizing Silicon Beamforming Chipsets 425

12.8 Ku-Band Phased Arrays with Wide Axial Ratios Utilizing Silicon Beamforming Chipsets 431

12.9 28GHz Phased Arrays Utilizing Silicon Beamforming Chipsets 433

12.10 Phased Array Reflectors Utilizing Silicon Beamforming Chipsets 438

12.11 Conclusion 442

References 443

Index 445

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Satish K. Sharma San Diego State University. Jia-Chi S. Chieh University of California Davis.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown