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Soil Microenvironment for Bioremediation and Polymer Production. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5224508
  • Book
  • December 2019
  • 420 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The book consists of 21 chapters by subject matter experts and is divided into four parts: Soil Microenvironment and Biotransformation Mechanisms; Synergistic effects between substrates and Microbes; Polyhydroxyalakanoates: Resources, Demands and Sustainability; and Cellulose based biomaterials: Benefits and challenges.

Included in the chapters are classical bioremediation approaches and advances in the use of nanoparticles for removal of radioactive waste.  The book also discusses the production of applied emerging biopolymers using diverse microorganisms. All chapters are supplemented with comprehensive illustrative diagrams and comparative tables.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xvii

Part 1: Soil Microenvironment and Biotransformation Mechanisms 1

1 Applications of Microorganisms in Agriculture for Nutrients Availability 3
Fehmida Fasim and Bushra Uziar

1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.1 Land and Soil Deterioration 4

1.1.2 Micro-Nutrients Lacks 4

1.2 Biofertilizers 4

1.3 Rhizosphere 5

1.4 Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria 5

1.4.1 Nitrogen Fixation 6

1.4.2 Phosphate Solubilization 8

1.5 Microbial Mechanisms of Phosphate Solubilization 9

1.5.1 Organic Phosphate 9

1.5.2 Organic Phosphate Solubilization 10

1.6 Bacterial and Fungi Coinoculation 11

1.7 Conclusion 11

References 12

2 Native Soil Bacteria: Potential Agent for Bioremediation 17
Ranjan Kumar Mohapatra, Haragobinda Srichandan, Snehasish Mishra and Pankaj Kumar Parhi

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Current Soil Pollution Scenario 19

2.2.1 Soil Pollution by Heavy Metals and Xenobiotic Compounds 19

2.2.2 Soil Pollution by Extensive Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Practices 20

2.2.3 Pollution Due to Emerging Pollutants (Wastes from Pharmaceutical and Personal-Care Products) 21

2.2.4 Soil Pollution by Pathogenic Microorganisms 22

2.2.5 Soil Pollution Due to Oil and Petroleum Hydrocarbons 23

2.2.6 Soil Pollution by the Nuclear and Radioactive Wastes 25

2.2.7 Soil Pollution by Military Activities and Warfare 26

2.3 Effects of Soil Pollution 26

2.3.1 Effects of Soil Pollution on Plants 26

2.3.2 Effects of Soil Pollution on Human Health 26

2.4 Diversity of Soil Bacteria from Contaminated Sites 27

2.5 Bioremediation of Toxic Pollutants 27

2.6 Bioremediation Mechanisms 27

2.7 Factors Affecting Bioremediation/Biosorption Process 29

2.8 Microbial Bioremediation Approaches 30

2.8.1 In Situ Bioremediation 30

2.8.2 Ex Situ Bioremediation 30

2.9 Conclusion and Future Prospective 30

Acknowledgements 30

References 31

3 Bacterial Mediated Remediation: A Strategy to Combat Pesticide Residues In Agricultural Soil 35
Atia Iqbal

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Effects of Pesticides 36

3.3 Pesticide Degradation 37

3.4 Bacterial Mediated Biodegradation of Various Pesticides 38

3.4.1 Organophosphate Pesticides Degrading Bacteria 38

3.4.2 Methyl Parathion Mineralizing Bacteria (MP) 39

3.4.3 Mesotrione Degrading Bacteria 39

3.4.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation 39

3.4.5 Bispyribac Sodium (BS) Degrading Bacteria 40

3.4.6 Carbamates (CRBs) Degradation 40

3.4.7 Propanil Degradation 40

3.4.8 Atrazine Degradation 40

3.4.9 Phenanthrene Degradation 40

3.4.10 Imidacloprid Degradation 41

3.4.11 Endusulfan Degradation 41

3.4.12 DDT 42

3.5 Conclusion 42

References 49

4 Study of Plant Microbial Interaction in Formation of Cheese Production: A Vegan’s Delight 55
Sundaresan Bhavaniramya, Ramar Vanajothi, Selvaraju Vishnupriya and Dharmar Baskaran

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Cheese Concern – Vegan’s Delight 57

4.3 Microorganism Interaction Pattern 57

4.4 Types of Microorganism Involved in Cheese Production 57

4.5 Lactic Acid Role in Fermentation 59

4.6 Microorganism Involved in Lactic Acid Fermentation 59

4.7 Streptococcus 60

4.8 Propionibacterium 60

4.9 Leuconostoc 60

4.10 Microorganisms in Flavor Development 61

4.11 Flavor Production 63

4.12 Enzymes Interaction during Ripening of Cheese 63

4.13 Pathways Involved in Cheese Ripening 64

4.14 Microbes of Interest in Flavor Formation 66

4.15 Structure of Flavored Compound in Cheese 67

4.16 Plant-Based Cheese Analogues 67

4.17 Plant-Based Proteins 68

4.18 Aspartic Protease 69

4.19 Cysteine Protease 69

4.20 Plant-Based Milk Alternatives 69

4.21 Types of Vegan Cheese 70

4.22 Future Scope and Conclusion 71

Acknowledgment 71

References 71

5 Microbial Remediation of Pesticide Polluted Soils 75
César Quintela and Cristiano Varrone

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Types of Pesticides 77

5.3 Fate of Pesticides in the Environment 81

5.3.1 Factors Affecting Pesticide Fate 81

5.3.2 Pesticides Degradation 84

5.3.3 Pesticide Remediation 85

5.4 Screening for Pesticide Degrading Microorganisms 85

5.4.1 Case Study 86

5.5 Designing Pesticide Degrading Consortia 87

5.5.1 Case Study 88

5.6 Challenges to be Addressed and Future Perspectives 88

References 90

6 Eco-Friendly and Economical Method for Detoxification of Pesticides by Microbes 95
Anjani Kumar Upadhyay, Abhik Mojumdar, Vishakha Raina and Lopamudra Ray

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Classification of Pesticides 96

6.3 Fate of Pesticide in Soil 96

6.3.1 Transport of Pesticides in the Environment 96

6.3.2 Interaction of Pesticides with Soil 98

6.4 Microbial and Phytoremediation of Pesticides 99

6.4.1 Biodegradation and Bioremediation 99

6.4.2 Microbial Remediation of Pesticides 102

6.4.3 Phytoremediation of Pesticides 103

6.4.4 Strategies to Enhance the Efficiency of Bioremediation 103

6.4.5 Metabolic Aspects of Pesticides Bioremediation 105

6.5 Effects on Human and Environment 106

6.6 Advancement in Pesticide Bioremediation 107

6.7 Limitations of Bioremediation 107

6.8 Future Perspectives 108

Acknowledgement 108

References 108

Part 2: Synergistic Effects Between Substrates and Microbes 115

7 Bioleaching: A Bioremediation Process to Treat Hazardous Wastes 117
Haragobinda Srichandan, Ranjan K. Mohapatra, Pankaj K. Parhi and Snehasish Mishra

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Microbes in Bioleaching 118

7.2.1 Bacteria 118

7.2.2 Fungi 119

7.3 Acidophilic Bioleaching 119

7.3.1 Contact (Direct) Mechanism 119

7.3.2 Non-Contact (Indirect) Mechanism 120

7.4 Metal Removal Pathways 120

7.4.1 Thiosulphate Pathway 120

7.4.2 Polysulphide Pathway 121

7.5 Fungal Bioleaching 122

7.6 Various Hazardous Wastes 122

7.6.1 Electronic Wastes (E-Wastes) 123

7.6.2 Spent Petroleum Catalyst 123

7.6.3 Sludge 123

7.6.4 Slag 123

7.7 Applications of Bioleaching Approach to Various Hazardous Wastes 123

7.7.1 Bioleaching of Electronic Wastes 124

7.7.2 Bioleaching of Spent Catalyst 124

7.7.3 Bioleaching of Sludge (Containing Heavy or Toxic metals) 125

7.7.4 Bioleaching of Slag 125

7.8 Conclusion 126

Acknowledgements 126

References 126

8 Microbial Bioremediation of Azo Dyes in Textile Industry Effluent: A Review on Bioreactor-Based Studies 131
Shweta Agrawal, Devayani Tipre and Shailesh Dave

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 Microorganism Involved in Dye Bioremediation 132

8.2.1 Bacterial Remediation of Dyes 132

8.2.2 Mycoremediation 135

8.2.3 Phycoremediation 135

8.2.4 Consortial (Co-Culture) Dye Bioremediation 135

8.3 Mechanism of Dye Biodegradation 139

8.3.1 Anaerobic Azo Dye Reduction 139

8.3.2 Aerobic Oxidation of Aromatic Amines 140

8.3.3 Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Azo Dyes 141

8.4 Reactor Design for Dye Bioremediation 141

8.4.1 Anaerobic Reactors 142

8.4.2 Aerobic Reactors 154

8.4.3 Combined (Integrated/Sequential) Bioreactor 157

8.4.4 Combinatorial Approaches 162

8.5 Limitations and Future Prospects 163

8.6 Conclusions 163

References 164

9 Antibiofilm Property of Biosurfactant Produced by Nesterenkonia sp. MCCB 225 Against Shrimp Pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 173
Gopalakrishnan Menon, Issac Sarojini Bright Singh, Prasannan Geetha Preena and Sumitra Datta

9.1 Introduction 173

9.2 Materials and Methods 174

9.2.1 Isolation, Screening and Identification of Bacteria 174

9.2.2 Biofilm Disruption Studies 175

9.3 Results and Discussion 175

9.3.1 Bacterial Identification 175

9.3.2 Biofilm Disruption Studies 175

9.4 Conclusion 178

Acknowledgements 178

References 178

10 Role of Cr (VI) Resistant Bacillus megaterium in Phytoremediation 181
Rabia Faryad Khan and Rida Batool

10.1 Introduction 181

10.2 Materials and Methods 183

10.2.1 Isolation and Characterization of Chromate Resistant Bacteria 183

10.2.2 Determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of Chromate 183

10.2.3 Ribo-Typing of Bacterial Isolate rCrI 183

10.2.4 Estimation of Chromate Reduction Potential 183

10.2.5 Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance Profiling 183

10.2.6 Growth Curve Studies 184

10.2.7 Chromium Uptake Estimation 185

10.2.8 Statistical Analysis 185

10.3 Results 185

10.3.1 Isolation and Characterization of Cr(VI) Resistant Bacterial Isolates 185

10.3.2 Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance Profiling 186

10.3.3 Estimation of Cr(VI) Reduction Potential 186

10.3.4 Ribo-Typing of Bacterial Isolate 186

10.3.5 Growth Curve Studies 186

10.3.6 Plant Microbe Interaction Studies Under Laboratory Conditions 187

10.3.7 Biochemical Parameters 188

10.3.8 Plant Microbe Interaction Studies Under Field Conditions 190

10.3.8.4 Number of Roots 190

10.3.9 Biochemical Parameters 190

10.4 Discussion 191

10.5 Conclusion 193

Acknowledgment 193

References 193

11 Conjugate Magnetic Nanoparticles and Microbial Remediation, a Genuine Technology to Remediate Radioactive Waste 197
Bushra Uzair, Anum Shaukat, Fehmida Fasim, Sadaf Maqbool

11.1 Introduction 197

11.2 Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugates 199

11.2.1 Potential Benefits 199

11.2.2 Synthesis and Application 200

11.2.3 Factors Affecting Sorption 200

11.2.4 Limitations 203

11.3 Microbial Communities 203

11.3.1 Fungi as Radio-Nuclides Remade 203

11.3.2 Immobilization of Radionuclide Through Enzymatic Reduction 204

11.3.3 Immobilization Through Non-Enzymatic Reduction 204

11.3.4 Bio-Sorption of Radio-Nuclides 205

11.3.5 Biostimulation 206

11.3.6 Genetically Modified Microbes 206

11.3.7 Constraints 207

11.4 Conclusion 207

References 208

Part 3: Polyhydroxyalakanoates: Resources, Demands and Sustainability 213

12 Microbial Degradation of Plastics: New Plastic Degraders, Mixed Cultures and Engineering Strategies 215
Samantha Jenkins, Alba Martínez i Quer, César Fonseca and Cristiano Varrone

12.1 Introduction 215

12.2 Plastics 216

12.2.1 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 217

12.2.2 Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 217

12.3 Plastic Disposal, Reuse and Recycling 218

12.4 Plastic Biodegradation 219

12.4.1 Plastic-Degrading Microorganisms and Enzymes 221

12.4.2 Biofilms and Plastic Biodegradation 224

12.4.3 Boosting Plastic Biodegradation by Physical and Chemical Processes 225

12.4.4 Pathway and Protein Engineering for Enhanced Plastic Biodegradation 226

12.4.5 Designing Plastic Degrading Consortia 229

12.5 Analytical Techniques to Study Plastic Degradation 230

12.6 Future Perspectives 232

References 233

13 Fatty acids as Novel Building-Blocks for Biomaterial Synthesis 239
Prasun Kumar

13.1 Introduction 239

13.2 Polyurethane (PUs) 241

13.3 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) 243

13.4 Other Functional Attributes 246

13.4.1 Biosurfactants 246

13.4.2 Antibacterials and Biocontrol Agents 246

13.5 Future Perspectives 249

References 249

14 Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Resources, Demands and Sustainability 253
Binita Bhattacharyya, Himadri Tanaya Behera, Abhik Mojumdar, Vishakha Raina and Lopamudra Ray

14.1 Introduction 253

14.2 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 255

14.2.1 Properties of PHAs 258

14.2.2 Production of PHA 261

14.2.3 PHA Biosynthesis in Natural Isolates 261

14.2.4 Production of PHA by Digestion of Biological Wastes 262

14.2.5 PHA Production by Recombinant Bacteria 262

14..2.6 Production of PHA by Genetically Engineered Plants 264

14.2.7 PHA Production by Methylotrophs 264

14.2.8 PHA Production Using Waste Vegetable Oil by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DR2 264

14.2.9 Mass Production of PHA 265

14.3 Applications of PHA 266

14.4 Future Prospects 267

References 267

15 Polyhydroxyalkanoates Synthesis by Bacillus aryabhattai C48 Isolated from Cassava Dumpsites in South-Western, Nigeria 271
Fadipe Temitope O., Nazia Jamil and Lawal Adekunle K.

15.1 Introduction 271

15.2 Materials and Methods 272

15.2.1 Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterisation 272

15.2.2 Detection of PHA Production 273

15.2.3 Evaluation of PHA Production 273

15.2.4 Extraction of PHA 273

15.2.5 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Extracted PHA 274

15.2.6 Amplification of PhaC and PhaR Genes of Bacillus aryabhattai C48 274

15.3 Results and Discussion 274

15.4 Conclusion 280

Acknowledgements 280

References 280

Part 4: Cellulose-Based Biomaterials: Benefits and Challenges 283

16 Cellulose Nanocrystals-Based Composites 285
Teboho Clement Mokhena, Maya Jacob John, Mokgaotsa Jonas Mochane, Asanda Mtibe, Teboho Simon Motsoeneng, Thabang Hendrica Mokhothu and Cyrus Alushavhiwi Tshifularo

16.1 Introduction 285

16.2 Classification of Polymers 286

16.3 Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals Composites 286

16.3.1 Solution Casting 287

16.3.2 Three Dimensional Printing (3D-Printing) 292

16.3.3 Electrospinning 294

16.3.4 Other Processing Techniques 294

16.4 Cellulose Nanocrystals Reinforced Biopolymers 294

16.4.1 Starch 294

16.4.2 Alginate 295

16.4.3 Chitosan 296

16.4.4 Cellulose 297

16.4.5 Other Biopolymers 298

16.5 Hybrids 298

16.6 Conclusion and Future Trends 300

Acknowledgements 300

References 300

17 Progress on Production of Cellulose from Bacteria 307
Tladi Gideon Mofokeng, Mokgaotsa Jonas Mochane, Vincent Ojijo, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Teboho Clement Mokhena

17.1 Introduction 307

17.2 Production of Microbial Cellulose (MC) 308

17.3 Applications of Microbial Cellulose (MC) 312

17.3.1 Skin Therapy and Wound Healing System 313

17.3.2 Scaffolds for Artificial Cornea 314

17.3.3 Cardiovascular Implants 315

Future Perspective 315

References 316

18 Recent Developments of Cellulose-Based Biomaterials 319
Asanda Mtibe, Teboho Clement Mokhena, Thabang Hendrica Mokhothu and Mokgaotsa Jonas Mochane

18.1 Introduction 319

18.2 Extraction of Cellulose Fibers 320

18.3 Nanocellulose 324

18.4 Surface Modification 327

18.4.1 Alkali Treatment (Mercerization) 327

18.4.2 Silane Treatment 328

18.4.3 Acetylation 328

18.5 Cellulose-Based Biomaterials 329

18.5.1 Cellulose-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 329

18.5.2 Cellulose-Based Biomaterials for Drug Delivery 331

18.5.3 Cellulose-Based Biomaterials for Wound Dressing 332

18.6 Summary and Future Prospect of Cellulose-Based Biomaterials 333

Reference 334

19 Insights of Bacterial Cellulose: Bio and Nano-Polymer Composites Towards Industrial Application 339
Vishnupriya Selvaraju, Bhavaniramya Sundaresan, Baskaran Dharmar

19.1 Introduction 339

19.1.1 Nanocellulose 340

19.2 Bacterial Cellulose 343

19.2.1 Bacterial Strains Producing Cellulose 343

19.2.2 Different Methods of Bacterial Cellulose Production 344

19.3 Nanocomposites 346

19.3.1 Bio-Nanocomposite-Based on CNF 346

19.3.2 Bio-Nanocomposite-Based on CNC 346

19.3.3 Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites 346

19.4 Methods of Synthesis of Bacterial Cellulose Composites 347

19.5 Combination of Bacterial Cellulose with Other Materials 349

19.5.1 Polymer 349

19.5.2 Metals and Solid Materials 350

19.6 Industrial Applications of Bacterial Cellulose Composites 350

19.6.1 Biomedical Applications 350

19.6.2 Food Application 351

19.6.3 Electrical Industry 351

19.7 Future Scope and Conclusion 352

Acknowledgement 352

References 352

20 Biodegradable Polymers Reinforced with Lignin and Lignocellulosic Materials 357
M.A. Sibeko, V.C. Agbakoba, T.C. Mokhena, P.S. Hlangothi

20.1 Introduction 357

20.2 Biodegradable Polymers 358

20.2.1 Natural Polymers 359

20.2.2 Biodegradable Polyesters 360

20.2.3 Biodegradation 362

20.3 Biodegradable Fillers 362

20.3.1 Plant Fibers as Biodegradable Fillers 363

20.3.2 Cellulose as Biodegradable Fillers 364

20.3.3 Lignin as Biodegradable Fillers 364

20.4 Properties of Different Biopolymers Reinforced with Lignin 365

20.4.1 Surface Morphology 365

20.4.2 Mechanical Properties 366

20.4.3 Thermal Properties 368

20.5 Applications of Bio-Nanocomposites 369

Concluding Remarks 369

Acknowledgements 370

References 370

21 Structure and Properties of Lignin-Based Biopolymers in Polymer Production 375
Teboho Simon Motsoeneng, Mokgaotsa Jonas Mochane, Teboho Clement Mokhena and Maya Jacob John

21.1 Introduction 375

21.2 An Insight on the Biopolymers 376

21.2.1 Natural Lignin Biopolymer 377

21.2.2 Drawbacks of Lignin Biopolymer 378

21.3 Extraction and Post-Treatment of Lignin Biomaterial 378

21.3.1 Extraction Methods and their Effect on the Recovery and Functionality 379

21.3.2 Modification of Lignin Functional Groups 381

21.3.3 Preparation of Lignin-Based Biopolymers Blends (LBBs) 383

21.4 Characterization Methods and Validation of Lignin-Biopolymers 386

21.4.1 Chemical Interaction Between Lignin and Synthetic Polymers 386

21.4.2 Morphology-Property Relationship of the LBB 387

21.5 Indispensability of LBB on the Chemical Release Control in the Environment 388

21.6 Conclusion and Future Remarks 388

References 389

Index 393

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Nazia Jamil
Prasun Kumar
Rida Batool
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