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Foundations of Chemistry. An Introductory Course for Science Students. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5224700
  • Book
  • March 2021
  • 576 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A foundation-level guide to chemistry for physical, life sciences and engineering students

Foundations of Chemistry: An Introductory Course for Science Students fills a gap in the literature to provide a basic chemistry text aimed at physical, life sciences and engineering students. The authors, noted experts on the topic, offer concise explanations of chemistry theory and the principles that are typically reviewed in most one year foundation chemistry courses and first year degree-level chemistry courses for non-chemists.

The authors also include illustrative examples and information on the most recent applications in the field. Foundations of Chemistry is an important text that:
  • Covers the essential topics in a one-year chemistry course
  • Draws on recent applications and examples
  • Offers a much-needed guide to chemistry for science students.

Written for physical science, life sciences and engineering students as well as international students, Foundations of Chemistry reviews the theory and principles that are covered in many basic chemistry courses.

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Chapter 0:  Fundamentals

0.1 Measurement in chemistry and science – SI units

0.2 Expressing large and small numbers using scientific notation

0.3  Using metric prefixes

0.3.1 Units of mass and volume used in chemistry

0.4 Significant figures

0.5 Calculations using scientific notation

0.5.1 Adding and subtracting

0.5.2 Multiplying and dividing numbers

0.6 Writing chemical formulae and equations

0.6.1 Writing chemical formulae

0.6.2 Writing and balancing chemical equations

0.6.3 Indicating the physical state of reactants and products in chemical equations

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Chapter 1: Atomic Structure

1.1  Atomic Structure

1.1.1  Atomic particles

1.1.2  Mass number (A) and atomic number (Z)

1.1.3 Isotopes

1.1.4 Radioisotopes

1.2 Electronic Structure

1.2.1 The periodic table

1.2.2 Electron energy levels

1.2.3 Simple electronic configurations

1.2.4 Sub-shells and atomic orbitals

1.2.5 Describing electronic configurations

1.2.6  Electronic structures and the periodic table

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Chapter 2:  Chemical Bonding

2.1 Bonding

2.1.1 Atoms and molecules

2.1.2 Metallic bonding

2.1.3 Ionic bonding

2.1.4 Covalent bonding

2.2  Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)

2.2.1 Two electron centres around the central atom: linear molecules

2.2.2  Three electron centres around the central atom: trigonal planar molecules

2.2.3  Four electron centres around the central atom: tetrahedral, pyramidal, bent molecules

2.2.4  Five electron centres around the central atom: trigonal bipyramidal molecules

2.2.5  Six electron centres around the central atom: octahedral molecules

2.3  Polar bonds and polar molecules

2.3.1  Electronegativity

2.3.2 Polar bonds

2.3.3 Polar molecules

2.4  Intermolecular forces

2.4.1  Permanent dipole–permanent dipole interactions

2.4.2  London dispersion forces (instantaneous dipole–induced dipole)

2.4.3  Hydrogen bonding

2.4.4 Summary of strengths of intermolecular forces

2.4.5 A special case: ion-dipole intermolecular forces

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Chapter 3 Masses of atoms, molecules and reacting substances

3.1 Masses of atoms and molecules

3.1.1 Relative atomic mass, Ar

3.1.2 Relative molecular mass, Mr

3.1.3 Relative formula mass

3.2 Amount of substance

3.2.1 The mole

3.2.2 Converting between moles and masses of substances – Molar mass

3.3 Calculations with moles

3.3.1 Reacting masses

3.3.2 Percentage yield

3.3.3 Percentage composition by mass

3.3.4 Empirical Formula

3.4 Solutions; concentrations and dilutions

3.4.1 Measuring and expressing concentrations

3.4.2  Solutions and dilutions

3.4.3  Alternative units of concentration

3.5 Titration calculations

3.6 Calculations with gas volumes

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Chapter 4:  States of Matter

Introduction

4.1  Solids

4.1.1  Metallic lattices

4.1.2  Ionic lattices

4.1.3  Simple molecular solids and giant molecular structures

4.2 Liquids

4.2.1  Evaporation and condensation, vapour pressure and boiling

4.2.2 Effect of intermolecular forces on melting and boiling points

4.3  Gases

4.3.1  Ideal gases

4.3.2  The ideal gas equation

4.3.3 The molar gas volume

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Chapter 5  Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

5.1  Redox Reactions

5.1.1 Electron transfer in redox reactions

5.1.2  Oxidation numbers

5.1.3 Naming compounds based on the oxidation state of elements in the compound

5.1.4 Redox half-equations

5.1.5 Oxidising agents and reducing agents

5.2 Disproportionation Reactions

5.3 Redox titrations

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Chapter 6 Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy

6.1 Enthalpy Changes

6.1.1 Energy and enthalpy

6.1.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions

6.1.3 Reaction pathway diagrams

6.1.4 Measuring enthalpy changes

6.1.5 Measuring enthalpy changes using calorimetry

6.1.6 Hess’s Law

6.1.7 Bond energies and enthalpy changes

6.1.8 Born–Haber cycles

6.1.9 Factors affecting the size of the lattice energy

6.2 Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy

6.2.1 Entropy

6.2.2 Spontaneous processes and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

6.2.3 Gibbs free energy and spontaneous reactions

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Chapter 7 Chemical Equilibrium and Acid-Base Equilibria

Introduction

7.1 Equilibria and reversible reactions

7.1.1 The equilibrium mixture and the equilibrium constant, Kc.

7.1.2 The effects of changing the reaction conditions at equilibrium

7.1.3 Heterogeneous and homogeneous equilibria

7.1.4 The equilibrium constant, Kp

7.2 Acid – base equilibria

7.2.1 The Brønsted–Lowry theory of acids and bases

7.2.2 The pH scale

7.2.3 Strong and weak acids and bases

7.2.4  The ionisation of water

7.2.5 Acid-base reactions

7.2.6 Carrying out a titration

7.2.7 Indicators

7.2.8 Acid-base titrations

7.2.9 Buffers

7.2.10 Calculating the pH of a buffer solution

7.2.11 Lewis acids and bases

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Chapter 8            Chemical Kinetics – The Rates of Chemical Reactions

Introduction

8.1 The rate of reaction

8.1.1 Defining the rate of a chemical reaction

8.1.2 Collision theory

8.1.3 Factors that affect the rate of a reaction

8.2 Determining the rate of a chemical reaction

8.2.1 Methods of monitoring the rate

8.2.2 The rate of reaction at any instant

8.2.3 An example of measuring rate of reaction at any time

8.3 The rate expression

8.3.1 Determining the rate expression using instantaneous rates

8.3.2 Determining the rate expression using the initial rates method

8.3.3 Determining the rate expression by inspection

8.3.4 Determining the rate expression using the integrated rate expression.

8.4 The half-life of a reaction

8.4.1 Half-life of first-order reactions

8.4.2 Half-life of zero-order reactions

8.4.3 Half-life of second-order reactions

8.5 Reaction mechanisms

8.5.1 Reaction mechanisms and the rate-determining step

8.5.2 Using the rate expression to determine the mechanism of a reaction

8.6 Effect of temperature on reaction rate

8.6.1 The distribution of the energies of molecules with temperature

8.6.2 The Arrhenius Equation

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Chapter 9 Electrochemistry

Introduction

9.1 Redox reactions – a reminder

9.2 Redox reactions and electrochemical cells

9.2.1 Electrochemical cells and half-cells

9.2.2 Standard electrode potentials, Eϴ

9.2.3 The standard hydrogen electrode

9.2.4 Values of standard reduction potentials

9.2.5 Half-cells involving non-metals and non-metal ions

9.2.6 The cell diagram

9.2.7 Using Eϴ values to obtain voltages of electrochemical cells

9.2.8 Using standard reduction potentials to predict the outcome of redox reactions

9.2.9 Relation between Eϴ and Gibbs energy

9.2.10 The effect of non-standard conditions on cell potential – the Nernst equation

9.3 Using redox reactions – Galvanic cells

9.3.1 Galvanic (voltaic) cells

9.3.2 The variety of cells

9.3.3 Disposable batteries

9.3.4 Rechargeable cells

9.3.5 Fuel cells

9.4 Using redox reactions – Electrolytic cells

9.4.1 Electrolysis

9.4.2 Electrolysis of molten substances

9.4.3 Electrolysis of aqueous solutions

9.4.4 Calculating the amount of substance deposited during electrolysis

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Chapter 10: Group trends and periodicity

10.1  The Periodic Table: Periods, Groups and Periodicity

10.2  Trends in properties of elements in the same vertical group of the periodic table

10.2.1 Electron configuration

10.2.2 Effective nuclear charge, Zeff

10.2.3 Atomic radius

10.2.4 Ionisation energies

10.2.5 Electronegativity

10.3  Trends in properties of elements in the same horizontal period

10.3.1 Electron configuration

10.3.2 Atomic radius

10.3.3 Ionisation Energy

10.3.4 Electronegativity

10.3.5 Electron affinity , EAHϴ

10.3.6 Ionic radius

10.3.7 Melting Point and Boiling Point

10.3.8 Trends in chemical properties across a period

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Chapter 11:  The Periodic Table – chemistry of Groups 1, 2, 7 and transition elements

Introduction

11.1 Group 1 – The Alkali Metals

11.1.1. Physical properties of Group 1 elements

11.1.2 Chemical properties of Group 1 elements

11.2 Group 2 – The Alkaline Earth Metals

11.2.1 Physical properties of Group 2 elements

11.2.2 Chemical properties of Group 2 elements

11.2.3 Some s block compounds and their properties

11.3 Group 7 (17) The Halogens

11.3.1 Physical properties of Group 7 (17) elements

11.3.2 Reactions of Group 7 elements

11.4 The Transition Elements

11.4.1 Physical properties of transition elements

11.4.2 Complexes of transition elements

11.4.3 Redox reactions

11.4.4 Origin of colour in transition metal complexes

11.4.5 Isomerism in coordination complexes

11.4.6 Ligand substitution in transition metal complexes

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Chapter 12: Core Concepts and Ideas Within Organic Chemistry

12.1 Types of molecular formula

12.1.1 Empirical and molecular formulae

12.1.2 Skeletal formula

12.1.3 Homologous series

12.2 Nomenclature of simple alkanes

12.2.1 Nomenclature for esters

12.3 Isomers

12.3.1 Chain Isomerism

12.3.2 Positional Isomerism

12.3.3 Functional Group Isomerism

12.3.4 Z and E Isomerism (alkenes only)

12.3.5 Chirality

12.3.6 Summary of Isomerism

12.4  Drawing Reaction Mechanisms

12.4.1  Types of arrows

12.4.2  Electrophiles, nucleophiles and radicals

12.5  Types of reaction

12.5.1  Electrophilic addition (to an alkene)

12.5.2  Nucleophilic addition (to a carbonyl group)

12.5.3  Electrophilic aromatic substitution

12.5.4 Nucleophilic substitution

12.5.5  Elimination

12.5.6  Condensation

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Chapter 13: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

13.1 Alkanes: an outline

13.1.1 Alkanes and crude oil

13.1.2 Combustion of alkanes

13.1.3 Cracking alkanes

13.1.4 Reactions of alkanes: radicals

13.2 Alkenes: an outline

13.2.1. Bonding in alkenes

13.2.2 Sigma (σ) bonding

13.2.3 Pi (π) bonding

13.2.4 Testing for alkenes

13.2.5 Reaction of alkenes with electrophiles

13.2.6 General reactions of alkenes

13.3 Alkynes: an outline

13.3.1 General reactions of alkynes

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Chapter 14: Reactivity of Selected Homologous Series

14.1 Alcohols

14.1.1 Primary alcohols

14.1.2 Secondary alcohols

14.1.3 Tertiary alcohols

14.1.4 Combustion of alcohols

14.1.5 Oxidation of alcohols

14.2 Aldehydes and ketones

14.2.1  Nucleophilic addition

14.2.2  Tests for aldehydes and ketones

14.3 Carboxylic acids

14.3.1  Preparation and properties of carboxylic acids

14.3.2  Deprotonation of carboxylic acids

14.3.3  Reduction of carboxylic acids

14.4 Esters

14.4.1  Preparation and properties of esters

14.4.2  Hydrolysis of esters

14.5 Amides

14.5.1  Preparation and properties of amides

14.5.2  Hydrolysis of amides

14.6 Amines

14.6.1  Naming amines

14.6.2  Amines as bases

14.6.3  Preparation of alkyl amines

14.7  Nitriles

14.7.1  Nitrile formation

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Chapter 15: The Chemistry of Aromatic Compounds

15.1 Benzene

15.1.1 The structure of benzene

15.1.2 Nomenclature

15.1.3 The reactivity of benzene

15.1.4 Resonance in benzene

15.1.5 Substituent effects on reactivity

15.2 Reactions of benzene with electrophiles

15.2.1  Halogenation

15.2.2  Friedel–Crafts alkylation

15.2.3  Friedel–Crafts acylation

15.2.4  Nitration

15.2.5 Substituent effects on position of substitution

15.2.6 Reaction of phenol with electrophiles

15.2.7 Reaction of toluene with electrophiles

15.2.8 Reaction of nitrobenzene with electrophiles

15.3 Aniline

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Chapter 16: Substitution and elimination reactions

16.1 Substitution reactions

16.1.1 SN1 reactions

16.1.2 SN2 reactions

16.2 Elimination reactions

16.2.1 E1 reactions

16.2.2 E2 reactions

16.2.3 Zaitsev and Hoffman alkenes

16.3  Comparison of substitution and elimination reactions

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Chapter 17: Bringing it all together

17.1 Functional group interconversion

17.2 Bringing it all together

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Chapter 18: Polymerisation

18.1 Polymerisation

18.1.1 Addition Polymerisation

18.1.2 LDPE and HDPE

18.1.3 Condensation Polymerisation

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Chapter 19: Spectroscopy

19.1  Mass Spectrometry

19.1.1  How a mass spectrometer works

19.1.2  Using the data from the mass spectrum

19.1.3  Mass spectrometry in organic chemistry

19.2  Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)

19.3  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)

19.3.1  The NMR spectrum

19.3.2  Confirming the identity of O–H and N–H peaks

19.4  Bringing it all together

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Elizabeth Page
Philippa B. Cranwell
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