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Green Adhesives. Preparation, Properties, and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5224721
  • Book
  • June 2020
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Green Adhesives: Preparation, Properties and Applications deals with the fabrication methods, characterization, and applications of green adhesives. It also includes the collective properties of waterborne, bio, and wound-healing green adhesives. Exclusive attention is devoted to discussing the applications of green adhesives in biomedical coatings, food, and industrial applications.
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Preface xv

1 Anti-Adhesive Coatings: A Technique for Prevention of Bacterial Surface Fouling 1
Xiaohong Sun, Songyuan Zhang, Hui Li and Nandika Bandara

1.1 Bacterial Surface Fouling (Biofouling) 2

1.2 Negative Effects of Biofouling by Bacteria on Practical Applications 2

1.3 Anti-Adhesive Coatings for Preventing Bacterial Surface Fouling 3

1.3.1 Hydrophilic Polymers 3

1.3.2 Zwitterionic Polymers 7

1.3.3 Super-Hydrophobic Polymers 9

1.3.4 Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surfaces (SLIPS) 10

1.3.5 Protein and Glycoprotein-Based Coatings 12

1.4 Bifunctional Coatings With Anti-Adhesive and Antibacterial Properties 13

1.5 Concluding Remarks 16

Acknowledgments 16

References 17

2 Lignin-Based Adhesives 25
Xiaolin Luo and Li Shuai

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Native Lignin and Source of Technical Lignin 27

2.2.1 Native Lignin 27

2.2.2 Technical Lignins 28

2.3 Limitations of Technical Lignins 29

2.3.1 Heterogeneity of Technical Lignins 29

2.3.2 Reactivity of Technical Lignins 30

2.4 Lignin Pre-Treatment/Modification for Adhesive Application 32

2.4.1 Physical Pre-Treatment 32

2.4.2 Chemical Modification 35

2.5 Challenges and Prospects 45

2.6 Conclusions 47

References 47

3 Green Adhesive for Industrial Applications 57
Priyanka E. Bhaskaran, Thangavel Subramaniam, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan and Rajasekar Rathanasamy

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Advanced Green Adhesives Categories - Industrial Applications 59

3.2.1 Keta Spire Poly Etherether Ketone Powder Coating 59

3.2.2 Bio-Inspired Adhesive in Robotics Field Application 60

3.2.3 Bio-Inspired Synthetic Adhesive in Space Application 62

3.2.3.1 Micro Structured Dry Adhesive Fabrication for Space Application 62

3.2.4 Natural Polymer Adhesive for Wood Panel Industry 72

3.2.5 Tannin Based Bio-Adhesive for Leather Tanning Industry 74

3.2.6 Conductive Adhesives in Microelectronics Industry 76

3.2.7 Bio-Resin Adhesive in Dental Industry 78

3.2.8 Green Adhesive in Fiberboard Industry 79

3.3 Conclusions and Future Scope 81

References 81

4 Green Adhesives for Biomedical Applications 85
Julliana Ribeiro Alves dos Santos, Alessandra Teixeira de Macedo, Audirene Amorim Santana, Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza, Rodrigo Assuncao Holanda and Glauber Cruz

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Main Raw Materials of Green Adhesives: Structure, Composition, and Properties 87

4.2.1 Chitosan 88

4.2.2 Alginate 90

4.2.3 Lignin 93

4.2.4 Lactic Acid PLA 94

4.3 Properties Characterization of Green Adhesives for Biomedical Applications 96

4.3.1 Diffraction X-Rays (DRX) 98

4.3.2 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 99

4.3.3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM Images) 100

4.3.4 Wettability or Contact Angle (CA) 101

4.3.5 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 102

4.3.6 Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) 103

4.3.7 Thermal Analysis (TG/DTG/DTA and DSC Curves) 104

4.3.8 Surface Area and Porosimetry Analyzer (ASAP) 105

4.3.9 Mechanical Properties of Green Adhesives 105

4.4 Biomedical Applications of Natural Polymers 106

4.4.1 Alginate 107

4.4.1.1 Biomedical Applications of Alginate 107

4.4.2 Chitosan 108

4.4.2.1 Biomedical Applications of Chitosan 108

4.4.3 Lignin 109

4.4.3.1 Biomedical Applications of Lignin 109

4.4.4 Polylactide (PLA) 110

4.4.4.1 Biomedical Applications of PLA 110

4.5 Final Considerations 111

Acknowledgements 111

References 112

5 Waterborne Adhesives 121
Sukanya Pradhan

5.1 Introduction 121

5.1.1 Motivation for the Use of Waterborne Adhesives 122

5.1.1.1 Sustainability and Environment Regulations 122

5.1.1.2 Circular Economy 122

5.1.1.3 Avoid Harmful Emissions 122

5.1.1.4 Development of Novel and Sustainable End Products 122

5.1.2 Environmental Effects and Mankind Toxicity Analysis 123

5.2 Performance of Waterborne Adhesives: An Overview 124

5.2.1 Waterborne Polyurethane (WBPU) Adhesives 124

5.2.1.1 Chemical Structure of Waterborne PU 124

5.2.1.2 Performances of WBPU Adhesives 124

5.2.2 Waterborne Epoxy Adhesive 125

5.3 Conclusions 126

References 126

6 Using Polyfurfuryl Alcohol as Thermoset Adhesive/Sealant 129
Rakesh Kumar and Rajnish Kumar

6.1 Introduction 130

6.2 Furfuryl Alcohol as Adhesives 132

6.3 Polyfurfuryl Alcohol as Sealants 133

6.3.1 Effect of Different Parameters on the Curing of PFA-Based Sealants 134

6.4 Applications 140

6.5 Conclusions 141

Acknowledgement 142

References 142

7 Bioadhesives 145
M. Ramesh and L. Rajesh Kumar

7.1 Introduction 146

7.2 History of Bioadhesives 148

7.3 Classification of Bioadhesives 149

7.4 Mechanism of Bioadhesion 150

7.4.1 Mechanical Interlocking 151

7.4.2 Chain Entanglement 152

7.4.3 Intermolecular Bonding 152

7.4.4 Electrostatic Bonding 153

7.5 Testing of Bioadhesives 153

7.5.1 In Vitro Methods 153

7.5.1.1 Shear Stress Measurements 153

7.5.1.2 Peel Strength Evaluation 154

7.5.1.3 Flow Through Experiment and Plate Method 154

7.5.2 Ex Vitro Methods 155

7.5.2.1 Adhesion Weight Method 155

7.5.2.2 Fluorescent Probe Methods 156

7.5.2.3 Falling Liquid Film Method 156

7.6 Application of Bioadhesives 157

7.6.1 Bioadhesives as Drug Delivery Systems 157

7.6.2 Bioadhesives as Fibrin Sealants 158

7.6.3 Bioadhesives as Protein-Based Adhesives 158

7.6.4 Bioadhesives in Tissue Engineering 159

7.7 Conclusion 160

References 161

8 Polysaccharide-Based Adhesives 165
Asad Ali, Kanwal Rehman, Humaira Majeed, Muhammad Fiaz Khalid and Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash

8.1 Introduction 166

8.2 Cellulose-Derived Adhesive 167

8.2.1 Esterification 167

8.2.1.1 Cellulose Nitrate 167

8.2.1.2 Cellulose Acetate 169

8.2.1.3 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate 169

8.2.2 Etherification 169

8.2.2.1 Methyl Cellulose 169

8.2.2.2 Ethyl Cellulose 170

8.2.2.3 Carboxymethyl Cellulose 170

8.3 Starch-Derived Adhesives 170

8.3.1 Alkali Treatment 171

8.3.2 Acid Treatment 171

8.3.3 Heating 171

8.3.4 Oxidation 172

8.4 Natural Gums Derived-Adhesives 172

8.5 Fermentation-Based Adhesives 172

8.6 Enzyme Cross-Linked-Based Adhesives 173

8.7 Micro-Biopolysaccharide-Based Adhesives 173

8.8 Mechanism of Adhesion 173

8.9 Tests for Adhesion Strength 174

8.10 Applications 176

8.10.1 Biomedical Applications 176

8.10.2 Food Stuffs Applications 176

8.10.3 Pharmaceutical Applications 177

8.10.4 Agricultural Applications 177

8.10.5 Cigarette Manufacturing 177

8.10.6 Skin Cleansing Applications 177

8.11 Conclusion 178

References 178

9 Wound Healing Adhesives 181
Humaira Majeed, Kanwal Rehman, Asad Ali, Muhammad Fiaz Khalid and Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Wound 182

9.2.1 Types of Wounds 185

9.2.1.1 Acute Wounds 185

9.2.1.2 Chronic Wounds 185

9.3 Structure and Function of the Skin 185

9.4 Mechanism of Wound Healing 186

9.5 Wound Closing Techniques 187

9.6 Wound Healing Adhesives 187

9.7 Types of Wound Healing Adhesives Based Upon Site of Application 189

9.7.1 External Use Wound Adhesives 190

9.7.1.1 Steps for Applying External Wound Healing Adhesives on Skin 190

9.7.2 Internal Use Wound Adhesives 190

9.8 Types of Wound Healing Adhesives Based Upon Chemistry 191

9.8.1 Natural Wound Healing Adhesives 191

9.8.1.1 Fibrin Sealants/Fibrin-Based Tissue Adhesives 191

9.8.1.2 Albumin-Based Adhesives 194

9.8.1.3 Collagen and Gelatin-Based Wound Healing Adhesives 195

9.8.1.4 Starch 195

9.8.1.5 Chitosan 196

9.8.1.6 Dextran 196

9.8.2 Synthetic Wound Healing Adhesives 197

9.8.2.1 Cyanoacrylate 197

9.8.2.2 Poly Ethylene Glycol-Based Wound Adhesives (PEG) 198

9.8.2.3 Hydrogels 198

9.8.2.4 Polyurethane 200

9.9 Summary 200

References 200

10 Green-Wood Flooring Adhesives 205
Mustafa Kucuktuvek

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Wood Flooring 212

10.2.1 Softwood Flooring 212

10.2.2 Hardwood Flooring 213

10.2.3 Engineered Wood Flooring 213

10.2.4 Laminate Flooring 213

10.2.5 Vinyl Flooring 214

10.2.6 Agricultural Residue Wood Flooring Panels 214

10.3 Recent Advances About Green Wood-Flooring Adhesives 215

10.3.1 Xylan 216

10.3.2 Modified Cassava Starch Bioadhesives 216

10.3.3 High-Efficiency Bioadhesive 217

10.3.4 Bioadhesive Made From Soy Protein and Polysaccharide 217

10.3.5 Green Cross-Linked Soy Protein Wood Flooring Adhesive 217

10.3.6 “Green” Bio-Thermoset Resins Derived From Soy Protein Isolate and Condensed Tannins 218

10.3.7 Development of Green Adhesives Using Tannins and Lignin for Fiberboard Manufacturing 218

10.3.8 Cottonseed Protein as Wood Adhesives 219

10.3.9 Chitosan as an Adhesive 219

10.3.10 PE-cg-MAH Green Wood Flooring Adhesive 219

References 220

11 Synthetic Binders for Polymer Division 227
Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy and Samir Kumar Pal

List of Abbreviations 228

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Classification of Adhesives Based on Its Chemical Properties 230

11.2.1 Thermoset Adhesives 230

11.2.2 Thermoplastic Adhesives 231

11.2.3 Adhesive Blends 232

11.3 Adhesives Characteristics 232

11.4 Adhesives Classification Based on Its Function 233

11.4.1 Permanent Adhesives 233

11.4.2 Removable Adhesives 234

11.4.3 Repositionable Adhesives 235

11.4.4 Blended Adhesives 235

11.4.5 Anaerobic Adhesives 236

11.4.6 Aromatic Polymer Adhesives 237

11.4.7 Asphalt 237

11.4.8 Adhesives Based on Butyl Rubber 238

11.4.9 Cellulose Ester Adhesives 238

11.4.10 Adhesives Based on Cellulose Ether 238

11.4.11 Conductive Adhesives 239

11.4.12 Electrically Conductive Adhesive Materials 239

11.4.13 Thermally Conductive Adhesives 240

11.5 Resin 240

11.5.1 Unsaturated Polyester Resin 240

11.5.2 Monomers 241

11.5.2.1 Unsaturated Polyester 241

11.5.2.2 Alcohol Constituents 241

11.5.2.3 Constituents Like Anhydride and Acid 241

11.5.3 Vinyl Monomers of Unsaturated Polyester Resins 245

11.5.4 Styrenes 245

11.5.5 Acrylates and Methacrylates 245

11.5.6 Vinyl Ethers 245

11.5.7 Fillers 247

11.6 Polyurethanes 247

11.6.1 Monomers 247

11.6.1.1 Diisocyanates 248

11.6.1.2 Phosgene Route 248

11.6.1.3 Phosgene-Free Route 248

11.6.1.4 Polyols 248

11.6.1.5 Vinyl Functionalized Polyols 249

11.6.1.6 Polyols Based on Modified Polyurea 249

11.6.1.7 Polyols Based on Polyester 249

11.6.1.8 Acid and Alcohols-Based Polyesters 250

11.6.2 Rectorite Nanocomposites 250

11.6.3 Zeolite 250

11.7 Epoxy Resins 251

11.7.1 Monomers 251

11.7.1.1 Epoxides 251

11.7.1.2 Hyper Branched Polymers 251

11.7.2 Epoxide Resins Based on Liquid Crystalline Structure 252

11.7.3 Liquid Crystal 252

11.7.4 Liquid-Based Rubbers 253

11.7.5 Silicone-Based Elastomers 253

11.7.6 Rubbery Epoxy Compounds 254

11.7.7 Adhesion Improvers 254

11.7.8 Unsaturated Polyesters 254

11.7.9 Functional Peroxides 254

11.7.10 Acrylics 255

11.7.11 Bismaleimide Based on Modified Urethane 255

11.7.12 Hybrid Materials Comprising Organic and Inorganic Compounds 255

11.7.13 Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) 256

11.7.14 Epoxy Systems Comprising of Vinyl-Based Polymers 256

11.7.15 Characteristics 256

11.7.16 Hybrid- and Mixed-Bases Polymers 257

11.7.17 Copolymers-Based on Epoxy-Siloxane 257

11.8 Phenol Formaldehyde Resin 257

11.8.1 Monomers 259

11.8.2 Phenol 259

11.8.3 O-Cresol 259

11.8.4 Formaldehyde 259

11.8.5 Multihydroxymethylketone 260

11.8.6 Basic Resin Types 260

11.8.6.1 Novolak Resins 260

11.8.6.2 Resol Resins 260

11.8.7 Fillers 261

11.8.8 Reinforcement Based on Jute Fibers 261

11.8.9 Applications and Uses 261

11.8.10 Binders for Glass Fibers 261

11.8.11 Phenolic Binders 262

11.9 Melamine Resins 262

11.9.1 Monomers 263

11.9.2 Other Modifiers 263

11.9.3 Synthesis 263

11.9.4 Etherified Resins 263

11.9.5 Properties 264

11.9.6 Applications and Uses 264

11.10 Furan Resins 264

11.10.1 Monomers 265

11.10.2 Furfural 265

11.10.3 Furfuryl Alcohol 265

11.10.4 Specialties, i.e., Polyimides Based on Furan 265

11.10.5 Special Additives as Reinforcing Materials 266

11.10.6 Curing 266

11.10.7 Recycling Properties 266

11.10.8 Applications and Uses 267

11.10.8.1 Carbons 267

11.10.8.2 Composite Carbon Fiber Materials 267

11.10.8.3 Foundry Binders 268

11.10.8.4 Binders Based on Glass Fiber 268

11.10.8.5 Oil Fields 269

11.10.8.6 Substrates for Plant Growth 269

References 269

Index 273

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Rajender Boddula National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing).

Mohd Imran Ahamed Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Abdullah M. Asiri King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
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