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Viruses and the Nucleus. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5224957
  • Book
  • April 2006
  • 294 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Viruses have limited genome-coding capacities and must therefore rely on their host cells to facilitate every step of the infection cycle from the replication of their genomes, transcription and translation of mRNAs to virus assembly. Aimed at virologists and cell biologists Viruses and the Nucleus provides a comprehensive and cohesive overview of this fascinating and fast moving field. It compares and contrasts the ways in which DNA viruses, retroviruses and RNA viruses interact with the host cell nucleus to bring about replication and how they subvert the host cell function to proliferate and survive.

Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this multi-authored text begins with an introduction to the key nuclear process that effect virus biology including cell cycle, transcription, splicing and protein trafficking. It then goes on to explore the advances that have been made in understanding the ways in which specific viruses interact with nuclear sub-structures such as the nucleolus and ND10s, and the implications this interrelationship has for the cell cycle as a whole.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive cross disciplinary coverage of the interrelationship between cell biology and virology.
  • Written by leading experts, this authorative book provides an up to date overview of this highly active field.
  • Covers the latest research areas including virus interactions with sub-nuclear structures, virus protein trafficking into and out of the nucleus and subversion of host-cell function through specific nuclear interactions.

Viruses and the Nucleus is an invaluable resource for students of virology, microbiology and cell biology as well as for those who work within the industry.

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Contributors ix

1 The Nucleus – An Overview 1
Dean A. Jackson

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The gene expression pathway in mammalian cells 2

1.3 Chromosome structure and DNA loops 9

1.4 Duplicating the genetic code 9

1.5 Nuclear compartmentalization 10

1.6 Nuclear architecture – implications for viral infection 18

1.7 Conclusion 19

References 20

2 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle 25
Jane V. Harper and Gavin Brooks

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The G0/G1 transition 31

2.3 The G1–S transition 32

2.4 S phase 39

2.5 The G2–M transition 45

2.6 Mitosis (M-phase) 48

2.7 Cytokinesis 52

2.8 Endoreduplication 53

2.9 Summary and conclusions 53

References 54

3 DNA Viruses and the Nucleus 69
G. Eric Blair and Nicola James

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 The structure of the nucleus 70

3.3 DNA viruses and the nucleus 75

3.4 Concluding comments and future directions 81

References 81

4 Retroviruses and the Nucleus 89
Carlos de Noronha and Warner C. Greene

4.1 Retroviral structure 91

4.2 The retroviral life cycle 91

4.3 Entering the nucleus 93

4.4 Inside the nucleus 101

4.5 Leaving the nucleus and the cell 113

4.6 Future perspectives 114

References 114

5 Negative-sense RNA Viruses and the Nucleus 129
Debra Elton and Paul Digard

5.1 Introduction 129

5.2 The necessity of a nucleus 132

5.3 Nuclear import machinery 133

5.4 The cellular transcription machinery 135

5.5 Nuclear architecture 140

5.6 Nuclear export 143

5.7 Evasion of innate antiviral responses 147

References 148

6 Positive-strand RNA Viruses and the Nucleus 161
Kurt E. Gustin and Peter Sarnow

6.1 Introduction 161

6.2 Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in enucleated cells 162

6.3 Localization of viral proteins to the nucleus 163

6.4 Interaction of nuclear factors with viral proteins and nucleic acids 165

6.5 Cytoplasmic accumulation of nuclear proteins during infection 168

6.6 Disruption of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking by positive-strand RNA viruses 169

6.7 Advantages provided to the virus by inhibiting nuclear import 172

6.8 Conclusions 175

References 178

7 Viruses and the Nucleolus 185
David A. Matthews and Julian A. Hiscox

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 Techniques used to examine the nucleolus 191

7.3 Nucleolar localization signals (NoLS) 191

7.4 Viral interactions with the nucleolus 192

7.5 The nucleolus, viruses and autoimmunity 201

7.6 Summary 202

References 202

8 Virus Interactions with PML Nuclear Bodies 213
Keith N. Leppard and John Dimmock

8.1 Introduction 213

8.2 ND10 in uninfected cells 213

8.3 Functions of ND10 217

8.4 ND10 and virus infection 219

8.5 Why do viruses interact with and modify ND10? 232

References 235

9 Viruses and the Cell Cycle 247
Crisanto Gutierrez, Brian Dove and Julian A. Hiscox

9.1 Introduction: an overview of the eukaryotic cell cycle 247

9.2 DNA viruses and the cell cycle 249

9.3 Retroviruses and the cell cycle 254

9.4 RNA viruses and the cell cycle 255

9.5 Viruses, the nucleolus and cell cycle control 259

9.6 Viral interaction with activator protein-1 (AP-1) 259

9.7 Summary 260

References 262

Index 271

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Julian Alexander Hiscox University of Leeds, UK.
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