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Potassium-ion Batteries. Materials and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5224971
  • Book
  • June 2020
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Battery technology is constantly changing, and the concepts and applications of these changes are rapidly becoming increasingly more important as more and more industries and individuals continue to make “greener” choices in their energy sources.  As global dependence on fossil fuels slowly wanes, there is a heavier and heavier importance placed on cleaner power sources and methods for storing and transporting that power.  Battery technology is a huge part of this global energy revolution.

Potassium-ion batteries were first introduced to the world for energy storage in 2004, over two decades after the invention of lithium-ion batteries.  Potassium-ion (or “K-ion”) batteries have many advantages, including low cost, long cycle life, high energy density, safety, and reliability. Potassium-ion batteries are the potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries, fueling a new direction of energy storage research in many applications and across industries.

Potassium-ion Batteries: Materials and Applications explores the concepts, mechanisms, and applications of the next-generation energy technology of potassium-ion batteries. Also included is an in-depth overview of energy storage materials and electrolytes. This is the first book on this technology and serves as a reference guide for electrochemists, chemical engineers, students, research scholars, faculty, and R&D professionals who are working in electrochemistry, solid-state science, material science, ionics, power sources, and renewable energy storage fields.
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Preface xiii

1 Phosphorous-Based Materials for K-Ion Batteries 1
Maryam Meshksar, Fatemeh Afshariani, and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Principles of Potassium-Ion Batteries 5

1.2.1 Cathode Materials 6

1.2.2 Anode Materials 6

1.2.2.1 Carbon-Based Materials 8

1.2.2.2 Alloy-Based Anode Materials 9

1.3 Conclusions 13

List of Abbreviations 14

References 14

2 Antimony-Based Electrodes for Potassium Ion Batteries 19
S. Bharadwaj, M. Chaitanya Varma and Ramesh Singampalli

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Insight of Experimental Method 21

2.2.1 Synthesis Methods 21

2.2.2 Characterization Tools 22

2.2.3 Measurement Techniques 22

2.3 KIB as Batteries 23

2.3.1 Progress in KIB 23

2.4 Use of Antimony (Sb) Based K-Ion Batteries (KIB) 24

2.4.1 What Is Antimony? 24

2.4.2 Structure of Antimony Based KIB 25

2.4.3 Antimony Used in KIBs 25

2.4.4 Research Based on K–Sb Ion Batteries in the Last 5 Years 27

2.5 DFT Studies 32

2.6 Future Perceptive and Challenges 34

References 36

3 K-Ion Battery Practical Application Toward Grid-Energy Storage 43
Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Maryam Zarei, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Chin Wei Lai and Sonia Bahrani

3.1 Introduction 44

3.2 Intercalation Reaction 50

3.3 Cathode Materials 60

3.3.1 Layered Metal Oxides 60

3.3.2 Prussian Blue Analogs 62

3.3.3 Polyanionic-Based Compounds 65

3.3.4 Organic Materials 68

3.4 Anode Materials 70

3.4.1 Carbon-Based Materials 70

3.4.2 Non-Carbonaceous Materials 73

3.4.3 Alloy-Based Materials 76

3.4.4 Organic Anodes 78

3.5 Electrolyte and Binder 81

3.6 Conclusions 83

References 83

4 Mn-Based Materials for K-Ion Batteries 99
Pallavi Jain, Palak Pant, Sapna Raghav and Dinesh Kumar

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Anode Material 104

4.3 Cathode Materials 105

4.3.1 Manganese Layered Compounds 106

4.3.2 Manganese Based Multi-Layered Compounds 108

4.3.3 Prussian Blue Analogs 110

4.4 Electrolyte 112

4.5 Perspectives 112

4.6 Conclusion 114

Acknowledgment 115

References 115

5 Electrode Materials for K-Ion Batteries and Applications 123
M. Prakash, N. Suresh Kumar, K. Chandra Babu Naidu, M.S.S.R.K.N. Sarma, Prasun Banerjee, R. Jeevan Kumar, Ramyakrishna Pothu and Rajender Boddula

5.1 Introduction 124

5.1.1 Why Batteries? 124

5.1.2 Background of Rechargeable Batteries 125

5.1.3 Classification of Batteries 125

5.1.4 Potassium Ion Battery 127

5.2 Conclusions 133

References 134

6 Active Materials for Flexible K-Ion Batteries 137
Prasun Banerjee, Adolfo Franco Jr, K. Chandra Babu Naidu, D. Baba Basha, Ramyakrishna Pothu and Rajender Boddula

6.1 Introduction 138

6.2 Flexible Prussian Blue 138

6.3 Flexible Carbon Nanotube/Prussian Blue 139

6.4 Flexible Film From the Trace of Pencil 140

6.5 Flexible Carbon Nanofiber Mat 141

6.6 Flexible SeS2–Porous Carbon 141

6.7 Flexible ReS2–Nanofiber Carbon 142

6.8 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgments 144

References 144

7 Hollow Nanostructures for K-Ion Batteries 147
Peetam Mandal and Mitali Saha

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Current Scenario of Nanostructured Materials for K-Ion Batteries 148

7.3 Hollow Nanostructure Based K-Ion Batteries 150

7.3.1 Metallic Hollow Nanostructured Anodes for K-Ion Batteries 151

7.3.2 Carbonaceous Hollow Nanostructured Anodes for K-Ion Batteries 153

7.4 Conclusion 160

References 161

8 Polyanion Materials for K-Ion Batteries 167
Shankara S. Kalanur, Hyungtak Seo and Basanth S. Kalanoor

8.1 Introduction 168

8.2 Potassium-Ion Batteries 169

8.3 Cathode Materials for Potassium-Ion Batteries 170

8.4 Polyanionic Materials 171

8.4.1 The NASICON and Anti-NASICON Structured Polyanions 172

8.4.2 Olivine Structured Polyanion Materials 174

8.4.3 Tavorite Structured Polyanion Materials 175

8.5 Polyanions as Cathode Material for Potassium-Ion Batteries 176

8.5.1 Potassium-Based Fluorosulfates 176

8.5.2 Amorphous Potassium-Based Iron Phosphates 177

8.5.3 Potassium-Based Double Phosphates of Titanium 178

8.5.4 Potassium-Based Vanadyl Phosphates 179

8.5.5 Potassium-Based Vanadyl Flourophosphates 181

8.6 Summary and Outlook 184

References 185

9 Fundamental Mechanism and Key Performance Factor in K-Ion Batteries 191
Sapna Raghav, Pallavi Jain, Praveen Kumar Yadav and Dinesh Kumar

9.1 Introduction 192

9.1.1 Primary vs. Secondary Batteries 194

9.1.2 Classification of Secondary Potassium Batteries 195

9.2 Recognizing Potential Materials for Their Usage as a Cathode and Observing Their Storage Functionalities 195

9.3 Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries 197

9.3.1 KIB Electrolytes 198

9.3.2 Potassium Metal Batteries 199

9.3.3 K–S Battery 201

9.4 Non-Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries 202

9.4.1 Cathode 202

9.4.1.1 Hexacyanometalates (HCM) 202

9.4.1.2 Layered Oxides 202

9.4.1.3 Polyanionic Frameworks 203

9.4.1.4 Organic Crystals 203

9.4.2 Anodes 203

9.4.2.1 Graphite 204

9.4.2.2 Other Carbonaceous Materials 204

9.5 Opportunities and Challenges 205

Acknowledgments 206

References 207

10 Fabrication of the Components of K-Ion Batteries: Material Selection and the Cell Assembly Techniques Toward the Higher Battery Performance 213
Iqra Reyaz Hamdani and Ashok N. Bhaskarwar

10.1 Introduction 214

10.2 Recent Materials Studied for Cathodes 217

10.2.1 Cathodes Based on Transition-Metal Oxides 217

10.2.2 Cathodes Based on Transition-Metal Polyanions 230

10.2.3 Cathodes Based on Organic Compounds 247

10.3 Anodes 247

10.3.1 Intercalation Anodes 250

10.3.2 Conversion Anodes 265

10.3.3 Alloying Anodes 272

10.3.4 Organic Compounds 279

10.4 Electrolytes and Binders 280

10.5 Conclusion and Future Perspective 282

Acknowledgment 282

References 283

11 MXenes for K-Ion Batteries 293
Jingya Feng, Oi Lun Li, Qixun Xia and Aiguo Zhou

11.1 Introduction 293

11.2 Synthesis Method of MXene 295

11.2.1 Synthesis of Ti3C2Tx MXene 297

11.2.2 Synthesis of K2Ti4O9 (M–KTO) 298

11.2.3 Synthesis of Alkalized Ti3C2 MXene Nanosheets 299

11.3 Structure and Electrochemical Properties of MXenes 300

11.3.1 Ti3C2 MXene 300

11.3.2 K2Ti4O9 (M–KTO) 300

11.3.3 Alkalized Ti3C2 MXene Nanosheetsis as Electrode Materials 305

11.4 Summary and Outlook 307

Acknowledgments 308

References 308

12 Metal Sulfides for K-Ion Batteries 313
Xinxin Hu, Ningyuan Zhang, Nanasaheb M. Shinde, Rajaram S. Mane, Qixun Xia and Kwang Ho Kim

12.1 Introduction 314

12.2 Synthesis Approaches 315

12.2.1 SnS2-Based Composites 315

12.2.2 MoS2-Based Composites 317

12.2.3 CoS-Based Composites 319

12.2.4 Sb2S3-Based Composites 320

12.2.5 FeS2-Based Composites 321

12.2.6 Ni3S2-Based Composites 322

12.2.7 ReS2/N-CNFs 322

12.3 Structures, Properties, and K-Ion Battery Applications 324

12.3.1 SnS2-Based Composites 324

12.3.2 MoS2-Based Composites 325

12.3.3 CoS-Based Composites 326

12.3.4 Sb2S3-Based Composites 328

12.3.5 FeS2-Based Composites 329

12.3.6 Ni3S2-Based Composites 329

12.4 Summary and Outlook 331

Acknowledgments 331

References 331

13 Electrodes for Potassium Oxygen Batteries 337
Kritika S. Sharma, Rekha Sharma and Dinesh Kumar

13.1 Introduction 337

13.2 Categorization of Potassium Secondary Batteries 340

13.3 Potassium−Oxygen Battery 341

13.4 State-of-the-Art or Current Status 341

13.4.1 High Capacity Sb-Based Anode 341

13.4.2 Enhanced Cycle Life by Functionally Graded Cathode (FGC) 342

13.5 Advancement in Rechargeable Alkali Metal–O2 Cells 343

13.5.1 Metal Anodes 343

13.5.2 O2-Cathodes 346

13.5.2.1 C-Cathodes 346

13.5.2.2 Non-C-Cathodes 348

13.6 Conclusion 349

Acknowledgment 351

References 352

14 Ti-Based Materials for K-Ion Batteries 357
Rekha Sharma, Sapna Nehra and Dinesh Kumar

14.1 Introduction 357

14.2 Titanium-Based Compounds 359

14.3 Some Other Materials for KIBs Such as K2Ti8O7 and K2Ti4O9 362

14.4 Promises and Challenges of KIBs 362

14.5 Summary and Future Scenario 364

Acknowledgments 366

References 366

14.6 Summary 372

Abbreviations 372

15 Newborn Electrodes for K-Ion Batteries 373
Fatemeh Rezaei, Zeynab Rezaeian and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

15.1 Introduction 373

15.2 Negative Electrode Materials 375

15.2.1 Carbon Based Materials 381

15.2.1.1 Graphite 381

15.2.1.2 Other Carbonaceous Materials 383

15.2.2 Alloying and Conversion Electrodes 386

15.2.3 Organic Anodes 388

15.3 Positive Electrode Materials 389

15.3.1 Layered Oxide Compounds 389

15.3.2 Hexacyanometallate Groups 394

15.3.3 Polyanionic Compounds 395

15.3.4 Organic Cathode 396

15.4 Conclusions 398

List of Abbreviations 399

References 399

Index 411

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Rajender Boddula National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing).

Abdullah M. Asiri King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
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