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Zinc Batteries. Basics, Developments, and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5225118
  • Book
  • June 2020
  • 272 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Battery technology is constantly changing, and the concepts and applications of these changes are rapidly becoming increasingly more important as more and more industries and individuals continue to make “greener” choices in their energy sources.  As global dependence on fossil fuels slowly wanes, there is a heavier and heavier importance placed on cleaner power sources and methods for storing and transporting that power.  Battery technology is a huge part of this global energy revolution.

Zinc batteries are an advantageous choice over lithium-based batteries, which have dominated the market for years in multiple areas, most specifically in electric vehicles and other battery-powered devices.  Zinc is the fourth most abundant metal in the world, which is influential in its lower cost, making it a very attractive material for use in batteries.  Zinc-based batteries have been around since the 1930s, but only now are they taking center stage in the energy, automotive, and other industries.

Zinc Batteries: Basics, Developments, and Applicationsis intended as a discussion of the different zinc batteries for energy storage applications. It also provides an in-depth description of various energy storage materials for Zinc (Zn) batteries. This book is an invaluable reference guide for electro­chemists, chemical engineers, students, faculty, and R&D professionals in energy storage science, material science, and renewable energy.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xiii

1 Carbon Nanomaterials for Zn-Ion Batteries 1
Prasun Banerjee, Adolfo Franco Jr, Rajender Boddula, K. Chandra Babu Naidu and Ramyakrishna Pothu

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Co4N (CN) - Carbon Fibers Network (CFN) -Carbon Cloth (CC) 2

1.3 N-Doping of Carbon Nanofibers 2

1.4 NiCo2S4 on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes 4

1.5 3D Phosphorous and Sulfur Co-Doped C3N4 Sponge With C Nanocrystal 5

1.6 2D Carbon Nanosheets 6

1.7 N-Doped Graphene Oxide With NiCo2O4 6

1.8 Conclusions 7

Acknowledgements 8

References 8

2 Construction, Working, and Applications of Different Zn-Based Batteries 11
G. Ranjith Kumar, K. Chandra Babu Naidu, D. Baba Basha, D. Prakash Babu, M.S.S.R.K.N. Sarma, Ramyakrishna Pothu, and Rajender Boddula

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 History 13

2.3 Types of Batteries 14

2.3.1 Primary Battery 14

2.3.2 Secondary Battery 14

2.4 Zinc-Carbon Batteries 18

2.5 Zinc-Cerium Batteries 19

2.6 Zinc-Bromine Flow Batteries 20

References 21

3 Nickel and Cobalt Materials for Zn Batteries 25
Sonal Singh, Rishabh Sharma and Manika Khanuja

3.1 Introduction 26

3.2 Zinc Batteries 27

3.3 Nickel-Zinc Battery 27

3.3.1 History 27

3.3.2 Basics 28

3.3.3 Materials and Cost 30

3.3.4 Reliability 30

3.3.5 Voltage Drop 30

3.3.6 Performance 31

3.4 Advantages 31

3.5 Challenges 32

3.6 Effect of Metallic Additives, Cobalt and Zinc, on Nickel Electrode 32

3.7 Conclusion 33

References 34

4 Manganese-Based Materials for Zn Batteries 37
S. Ramesh, K. Chandrababu Naidu, K. Venkata Ratnam, H. Manjunatha, D. Baba Basha and A. Mallikarjauna

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 History of the Zinc and Zinc Batteries 38

4.3 Characteristics of Batteries 41

4.3.1 Capacity 41

4.3.2 Current 41

4.3.3 Power Density 41

4.4 MN-Based Zn Batteries 42

4.5 Conclusion 44

References 47

5 Electrolytes for Zn-Ion Batteries 51
Praveen Kumar Yadav, Sapna Raghav, Jyoti Raghav and S. S. Swarupa Tripathy

5.1 Introduction 52

5.2 Electrolytes for Rechargeable Zinc Ion Batteries (RZIBs) 53

5.2.1 Aqueous Electrolytes (AqEs) 54

5.2.1.1 Pros and Cons of AEs 55

5.2.1.2 Neutral or Mildly Acidic Electrolytes 58

5.2.2 Non-Aqueous Electrolytes 59

5.2.2.1 Solid Polymer Electrolytes 60

5.2.2.2 Hydrogel or Gel Electrolytes 61

5.2.2.3 Gel Polymer Electrolytes 63

5.2.3 Ionic Liquid Electrolytes 63

5.2.4 Bio-Electrolyte 65

5.3 Summary 65

Abbreviation Table 66

Acknowledgments 66

References 67

6 Anode Materials for Zinc-Ion Batteries 73
Muhammad Mudassir Hassan, Muhammad Inam Khan, Abdur Rahim and Nawshad Muhammad

6.1 Introduction 73

6.2 Storage Mechanism 75

6.3 Zinc-Ion Battery Anodes 77

6.4 Future Prospects 81

6.5 Conclusion 81

References 82

7 Cathode Materials for Zinc-Air Batteries 85
Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

7.1 Introduction 85

7.1.1 Cathode Definition 86

7.2 Zinc Cathode Structure 87

7.3 Non-Valuable Materials for Cathode Electrocatalytic 89

7.4 Electrochemical Specifications of Activated Carbon as a Cathode 92

7.4.1 Electrochemical Evaluation of Cathode Substances La1−XCaxCoO3 Zinc Batteries 92

7.5 Extremely Durable and Inexpensive Cathode Air Catalyst 93

7.5.1 Co3O4/Mno2 NPs Dual Oxygen Catalyst as Cathode for Zn-Air Rechargeable Battery 94

7.5.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) Employing Nitrogen as Catalyst in the Zinc/Air Battery System 94

7.5.3 Magnesium Oxide NPs Modified Catalyst for the Use of Air Electrodes in Zn/Air Batteries 94

7.5.4 Silver-Magnesium Oxide Nanocatalysts as Cathode for Zn-Air Batteries 95

7.5.5 One-Step Preparation of C-N Ni/Co-Doped Nanotube Hybrid as Outstanding Cathode Catalysts for Zinc-Air Batteries 95

7.6 Hierarchical Co3O4 Nano-Micro Array With Superior Working Characteristics Using Cathode Ray on Pliable and Rechargeable Battery 96

7.7 Dual Function Oxygen Catalyst Upon Active Iron-Based Zn-Air Rechargeable Batteries 97

7.7.1 Co4N and NC Fiber Coupling Connected to a Free-Acting Binary Cathode for Strong, Efficient, and Pliable Air Batteries 98

7.8 Conclusion 98

Nomenclature 99

References 99

8 Anode Materials for Zinc-Air Batteries 103
Abbas Ghareghashi and Ali Mohebbi

8.1 Introduction 104

8.2 Zinc Anodes 105

8.2.1 Downsizing of Zn Anodes 106

8.2.2 Design of Membrane Separators 107

8.2.3 The Use of ZnO Instead of Zn 108

8.2.4 Increase of Surface Area in Zn Anode Structure 110

8.2.5 Coating of Zn Anode 111

8.2.5.1 Bismuth Oxide-Based Glasses 112

8.2.5.2 Silica 114

8.2.5.3 Carbon Nanotubes 115

8.2.5.4 ZnO@C 116

8.2.5.5 Zn-Al LDHs 116

8.2.5.6 ZnO@C-ZnAl LDHs 118

8.2.5.7 Tapioca 119

8.2.5.8 TiO2 122

8.3 Conclusions 123

References 124

9 Safety and Environmental Impacts of Zn Batteries 131
Saurabh Sharma, Abhishek Anand, Amritanshu Shukla and Atul Sharma

9.1 Introduction 131

9.2 Working Principle of Zinc-Based Batteries 132

9.2.1 Zinc-Air Batteries Basic Principle and Advances 133

9.2.2 Zinc Organic Polymer Batteries 135

9.2.3 Zinc-Ion Batteries 137

9.2.3.1 Zinc-Silver Batteries 137

9.2.3.2 Zinc-Nickel Batteries 138

9.2.3.3 Zinc-Manganese Battery 140

9.3 Batteries: Environment Impact, Solution, and Safety 141

9.3.1 Disposal of Batteries and Environmental Impact 143

9.3.2 Recycling of Zinc-Based Batteries 143

9.4 Conclusion 146

Acknowledgement 147

References 147

10 Basics and Developments of Zinc-Air Batteries 151
Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

10.1 Introduction 151

10.1.1 Public Specifications 151

10.2 Zinc-Air Electrode Chemical Reaction 153

10.3 Zinc/Air Battery Construction 154

10.4 Primary Zn/Air Batteries 157

10.5 Principles of Configuration and Operation 159

10.6 Developments in Electrical Fuel Zn/Air Batteries 161

10.6.1 Zn/Air Versus Metal/Air Systems 161

10.7 Conclusion 162

References 164

11 History and Development of Zinc Batteries 167
Pallavi Jain, Sapna Raghav, Ankita Dhillon and Dinesh Kumar

11.1 Introduction 167

11.2 Basic Concept 169

11.2.1 Components of Batteries 169

11.2.2 Classification of Batteries 171

11.2.2.1 Primary Batteries 171

11.2.2.2 Secondary or Rechargeable Batteries (RBs) 171

11.3 Cell Operation 172

11.3.1 Process of Discharge 172

11.3.2 Process of Charge 172

11.4 History 173

11.5 Different Types of Zinc Batteries 174

11.5.1 Zinc-Carbon Batteries 174

11.5.2 Zinc/Manganese Oxide Batteries (Alkaline Batteries) 174

11.5.3 Zinc/Silver Oxide Battery 174

11.5.4 Zn-Air (Zn-O2) Batteries 176

11.5.4.1 Mechanically Rechargeable Batteries (Zn-O2 Batteries) 177

11.5.4.2 Electrically Rechargeable Batteries (Zn-O2 Batteries) 178

11.5.5 Hybrid Zn-O2 Batteries 178

11.5.5.1 Hybrid Zn-Ni/O2 Batteries 178

11.5.5.2 Hybrid Zn-Co/O2 Batteries 179

11.5.6 Aqueous Zinc-Ion Rechargeable Batteries 180

11.5.6.1 Zn2+ Insertion/Extraction Mechanism 180

11.5.6.2 Chemical Conversion Mechanism 180

11.5.6.3 H+ and Zn2+ Insertion/Extraction Mechanism 181

11.6 Future Perspectives 181

11.7 Conclusion 182

Abbreviations 182

Acknowledgement 183

References 183

12 Electrolytes for Zinc-Air Batteries 187
Zahra Farmani, Mohammad Amin Sedghamiz, and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour

12.1 Introduction 187

12.2 Aqueous Electrolytes 188

12.2.1 Alkaline Electrolytes 189

12.2.1.1 Dissolution of Zinc in Alkaline Systems 189

12.2.1.2 Insoluble Carbonates Precipitation 192

12.2.1.3 Effect of Water 193

12.2.1.4 Hydrogen Evolution 194

12.2.2 Neutral Electrolytes 195

12.2.3 Acidic Electrolytes 196

12.3 Electrolytes of Non-Aqueous 197

12.3.1 Non-Aqueous Electrolytes 199

12.3 Summary 203

References 206

13 Security, Storage, Handling, Influences and Disposal/Recycling of Zinc Batteries 215
Manju Yadav and Dinesh Kumar

13.1 Introduction 215

13.2 Security of Zinc Battery 217

13.2.1 Modifications for Improving Performance 218

13.2.1.1 High Surface Area 218

13.2.1.2 Carbon-Based Electrode Additives 221

13.2.1.3 Discharge-Capturing Electrode Additives 221

13.2.1.4 Electrode Coatings 222

13.2.1.5 Electrolyte Additives 222

13.2.1.6 Heavy-Metals Electrode Additive 222

13.2.1.7 Polymeric Binders 223

13.2.2 Storage and Handling 224

13.3 Influence of Zinc Battery 224

13.3.1 Consumption of Natural Resources 225

13.3.2 Toxicity of Batteries to Humans 226

13.3.3 Toxicity of Batteries to the Aquatic Environment 226

13.4 Disposal/Recycling Options 227

Acknowledgement 228

References 228

14 Materials for Ni-Zn Batteries 235
Vaishali Tomar and Dinesh Kumar

14.1 Introduction 235

14.1.1 Functioning Principles of Nickel-Zinc Battery 237

14.1.2 Ni-Zn Battery Design 238

14.2 Expansion of Ni-Zn Battery 239

14.2.1 Active Materials for the Battery 240

14.3 Application 241

14.4 Conclusion 242

Acknowledgement 243

References 243

Index 249

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Abdullah M. Asiri King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Rajender Boddula National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing).
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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