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Food Wastes and By-products. Nutraceutical and Health Potential. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5225870
  • Book
  • January 2020
  • 480 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A complete guide to the evolving methods by which we may recover by-products and significantly reduce food waste

Across the globe, one third of cereals and almost half of all fruits and vegetables go to waste. The cost of such waste – both to economies and to the environment – is a serious and increasing concern within the food industry. If we are to overcome this crisis and move towards a sustainable future, we must do everything possible to utilize innovative new methods of extracting and processing valuable by-products of all kinds. 

Food Wastes and By-products represents a complete primer to this important and complex process. Edited and written by leading researchers, the text provides essential information on the supply of waste and its composition, identifies foods rich in valuable bioactive compounds, and explores revolutionary methods for creating by-products from fruit, vegetable, and seed waste. Other chapters discuss the nutraceutical properties of value-added by-products and their uses in the manufacturing of dietary fibers, food flavors, supplements, pectin, and more. This book: 

  • Explains how reconstituted by-products can best be used to radically reduce food waste
  • Discusses the potential nutraceutical assets of recovered food waste
  • Covers a broad range of by-product sources, such as mangos, cacao, flaxseed, and spent coffee grounds
  • Describes novel extraction processes and the emerging use of nanotechnology

A significant contribution to the field, Food Wastes and By-products is a timely and essential resource for food industry professionals, government agencies and NGOs involved in nutrition, agriculture, and food production, and university instructors and students in related areas.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xv

1 Cereal/Grain By-products 1
Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Maribel Ovando-Martínez, and J. Abraham Domínguez-Avila

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Global Production of Cereals and Crop Residues 2

1.3 Cereal Processing and Production of By-products 5

1.3.1 Cereals Morphology and Composition 5

1.3.2 Cereal Grains Processing 6

1.3.2.1 Milling 6

1.3.2.2 Dry Milling 6

1.3.2.3 Wet Milling 6

1.3.2.4 Pearling 7

1.3.2.5 Malting 8

1.3.2.6 Fermentation 8

1.3.2.7 Others 9

1.4 Cereal Grains By-products 9

1.5 Nutraceutical from Cereal/Grain By-products 11

1.5.1 Classification of Nutraceutical Ingredients in Cereal By-products 12

1.5.1.1 Polyphenols 12

1.5.1.2 Carotenoids 16

1.5.1.3 Dietary Fiber 16

1.5.1.4 Prebiotics 17

1.5.1.5 Lipids and Fatty Acids 17

1.5.1.6 Proteins 18

1.5.1.7 Starch 18

1.6 Health Potential of Cereal/Grain By-products 18

1.6.1 Non-Communicable Diseases 18

1.6.1.1 Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Effect 18

1.6.1.2 Diabetes 22

1.6.1.3 Anticancer Effect 23

1.7 Current and Future Perspectives 25

1.8 Concluding Remarks 26

References 26

2 Enrichment and Utilization of Thin Stillage By‑products 35
Timothy J. Tse and Martin J. T. Reaney

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Endemic Bacteria in Wheat‐Based Thin Stillage 37

2.3 Protein and Organic Solute Concentration in Thin Stillage 39

2.4 Bacteriocins 43

2.5 Separation and Purification of Bacteriocins 46

2.6 Conclusion 47

References 48

3 Pulse By-products 59
Iván Luzardo-Ocampo, M. Liceth Cuellar-Nuñez, B. Dave Oomah, and Guadalupe Loarca-Piña

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Beans By-products 62

3.3 Pea (Pisum sativum) By-products 68

3.4 Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Lentil (Lens culinaris) By-products 71

3.5 Lupin (Lupinus) By-products 72

3.6 Other Pulse By-products 74

3.6.1 Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) 74

3.6.2 Broad Beans (Vicia faba) 75

3.7 Concluding Remarks 78

References 86

4 Aquafaba, from Food Waste to a Value-Added Product 93
Rana Mustafa and Martin J. T. Reaney

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Plant-based Dairy and Eggs Replacement 94

4.3 History of Use and Etymology 95

4.4 Composition of Chickpea and Aquafaba 96

4.5 Anti-nutritional Compounds 98

4.5.1 Protein Anti-nutritional Compounds 100

4.5.2 Nonprotein Anti-nutritional Compounds 100

4.6 Functional Properties 101

4.6.1 Water Holding Capacity and Oil Holding Capacity 102

4.6.2 Emulsion Stabilizer 103

4.6.3 Foaming Properties 104

4.6.4 Gelling and Thickening Properties 107

4.7 Factors Affecting Functional Properties 108

4.7.1 Effect of Cultivars and Genotypes 108

4.7.2 Effect of Processing Methods 110

4.8 Environmental Impact 112

4.9 Value-added Products for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries 113

4.10 Current and Future Perspectives 115

4.11 Conclusion 116

References 116

5 Brazilian (North and Northeast) Fruit By-Products 127
Larissa Morais Ribeiro DA Silva, Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa, Luiz Bruno de Sousa Sabino, Giovana Matias do Prado, Lucicleia Barros Vasconcelos Torres, Geraldo Arraes Maia, Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo, and Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Coproducts’ Origin 131

5.3 Types of Waste Processing 131

5.4 Bioactive Compounds 132

5.4.1 Vitamin C 133

5.4.2 Phenolic Compounds 134

5.4.3 Antioxidant Activity in Fruit Coproducts 136

5.4.4 Phytosterols in Fruit Coproducts 141

5.5 Brazilian Fruit By-products from the North and Northeast as a Source of Colorants 141

5.6 Brazilian North and Northeast Fruit By-products as Source of Polysaccharides 144

5.7 Brazilian North and Northeast Fruit By-products as Source of Fibers 145

5.8 Conclusions 149

References 149

6 Health Benefits of Mango By-products 159
Abraham Wall-Medrano, Francisco J. Olivas-Aguirre, Jesus F. Ayala-Zavala, J. Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar, Luz A. Herrera-Cazares, and Marcela Gaytan-Martinez

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Mango Agro wastes and Industrial By-products 161

6.2.1 Impacts of Generating Mango Wastes and By-products 162

6.2.1.1 Economic Impact 163

6.2.1.2 Environmental Impact 163

6.2.2 Research and Development (R&D) 164

6.3 Nutritional and Functional Value of Mango Wastes and By-products 165

6.3.1 Nutritional and Functional Value of Mango Wastes and By-products 165

6.3.1.1 Macro/Micronutrients 165

6.3.1.2 Dietary Fiber 166

6.3.1.3 Phenolic Compounds 168

6.3.2 Metabolic Fate of Phytochemicals from Mango By-products 170

6.4 Potential Health Benefits of Mango Wastes and By-products 171

6.4.1 Infectious Diseases 171

6.4.1.1 Antibiotic Effect: Planktonic Cells 172

6.4.1.2 Antibiotic Effect: Biofilms 174

6.4.1.3 Prebiotic Effects 176

6.4.2 Noncommunicable Chronic Diseases (NCCDs) 176

6.4.2.1 Obesity 177

6.4.2.2 Diabetes Mellitus 177

6.4.2.3 Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) 179

6.4.2.4 Cancer 180

6.4.2.5 Inflammatory Diseases 181

6.4.2.6 Neurological Diseases 182

Acknowledgements 182

References 183

7 Citrus Waste Recovery for Sustainable Nutrition and Health 193
Adriana Maite Fernández-Fernández, Eduardo Dellacassa, Alejandra Medrano-Fernandez, and María Dolores Del Castillo

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Citrus By-products: Natural Sources of Health-Promoting Food Ingredients 194

7.2.1 Polyphenols 196

7.2.2 Antioxidant dietary fiber 198

7.3 Health-Promoting Effects 200

7.4 Food Applications 208

7.5 Safety 210

7.6 Conclusions 210

Acknowledgments 210

References 211

8 Vegetable By-products 223
L. Gabriela Espinosa-Alonso, Maribel Valdez-Morales, Xochitl Aparicio-Fernandez, Sergio Medina-Godoy, and Fidel Guevara-Lara

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Global and/or by Region Vegetable Food Production and Postharvest Waste 226

8.2.1 Tomato 227

8.2.2 Chili 229

8.2.3 Broccoli and Cauliflower 229

8.2.4 Zucchini 230

8.2.5 Cucumber 230

8.3 Global and/or Regional Vegetable Industrialization and By-Product Generation 231

8.3.1 Tomato 231

8.3.2 Chili 232

8.3.3 Broccoli and Cauliflower 235

8.4 Nutraceutical Composition 236

8.4.1 Tomato 236

8.4.2 Chili 237

8.4.3 Broccoli and Cauliflower 238

8.4.4 Zucchini 239

8.4.5 Cucumber 241

8.5 Proven Nutraceutical In Vitro and In Vivo Bioactivity 242

8.5.1 Tomato 242

8.5.2 Chili 243

8.5.3 Broccoli and Cauliflower 245

8.5.4 Zucchini 245

8.5.4.1 Fruit 245

8.5.4.2 Peel 246

8.5.4.3 Leaves and Stems 247

8.5.5 Cucumber 247

8.5.5.1 Fruit 248

8.5.5.2 Seeds 249

8.5.5.3 Peel 250

8.5.5.4 Leaves and Stems 250

8.6 Methods and Strategies Used by the Food Sector and Other Industries 251

8.7 Commercialization or Transformation in Value-Added Products 253

8.7.1 Tomato 253

8.7.2 Seed Chili 254

8.7.3 Broccoli and Cauliflower 255

8.7.4 Zucchini 256

Acknowledgments 256

References 256

9 Flaxseed By-products 267
B. Dave Oomah

9.1 Introduction 267

9.2 Flaxseed Protein 269

9.2.1 Extraction 269

9.2.2 Composition 272

9.2.3 Amino Acid Profile 273

9.2.4 Product Application 275

9.3 Advanced Processing 276

9.4 Mucilage 277

9.5 Current Trends and Perspectives 278

Acknowledgments 283

References 283

10 Seed Hull Utilization 291
E.E. Martinez-Soberanes, R. Mustafa, Martin J.T. Reaney, and W.J. Zhang

10.1 Introduction 291

10.2 Seed Hull Production 292

10.3 Seed Hull Composition 294

10.3.1 Dietary Fiber (DF) 295

10.3.2 Phytochemicals 297

10.3.3 Protein and Other Minor Components 303

10.4 Dehulling Technology 304

10.4.1 Seed Dehulling 304

10.4.2 Dehulling Technology 305

10.5 Recovery of Compounds from Seed Hull 308

10.5.1 Traditional Solvent Extraction 309

10.5.2 Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction 310

10.5.3 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 312

10.5.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 313

10.5.5 Membrane Separation 314

10.5.6 Seed Hull in Value-Added Food Products 316

10.6 Prospects and Challenges 316

References 317

11 Health Benefits of Spent Coffee Grounds 327
Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Carlos Vladimir López-Rodríguez, Diego Antonio Hernández-Montoya, and Rocio Campos-Vega

11.1 Introduction 327

11.2 Coffea Arabica L. Generalities 328

11.3 Coffee Processing and By-products 329

11.3.1 Coffee Husks 330

11.3.2 Coffee Pulp 330

11.3.3 Coffee Silverskin 331

11.3.4 Spent Coffee Grounds 331

11.4 Physicochemical Characteristics in SCG 331

11.5 Nutritional Properties of SCG 333

11.5.1 Carbohydrates 334

11.5.2 Proteins 336

11.5.3 Lipids 336

11.5.4 Minerals 337

11.5.5 Feed Quality 337

11.6 Nutraceuticals in SCG 338

11.6.1 Dietary Fiber 339

11.6.2 Resistant Starch 339

11.6.3 Antioxidant Compounds 340

11.6.4 Antioxidant Dietary Fiber 341

11.7 Health Benefits of Spent Coffee Grounds 341

11.7.1 Weight Management and Obesity 342

11.7.2 Cardiovascular Diseases 344

11.7.3 Gastrointestinal Diseases 345

11.7.4 Cancer 346

References 348

12 Health Benefits of Silverskin 353
Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Teresa Herrera, and María Dolores Del Castillo

12.1 Introduction 353

12.2 Improvement of Gastrointestinal Health 358

12.3 Prevention of Metabolic Disorders 359

12.3.1 Obesity and Dyslipemia 360

12.3.2 Diabetes 362

12.4 Improvement of Skin Health 363

12.5 Conclusions 366

Acknowledgements 366

References 367

13 Cocoa By‐products 373
Karen Haydeé Nieto Figueroa, Nancy Viridiana Mendoza García, and Rocio Campos-Vega

13.1 Introduction 373

13.2 Cocoa Bean Shell 376

13.2.1 Chemical Composition 376

13.2.2 Nutraceutical Composition 377

13.2.2.1 Dietary Fiber 377

13.2.2.2 Phenolic Compounds 378

13.2.2.3 Methylxanthines 379

13.2.2.4 Other Compounds 380

13.2.3 Applications 381

13.2.3.1 Feedstuff 381

13.2.3.2 Agriculture 382

13.2.3.3 Biofuels 382

13.2.3.4 Adsorbent 382

13.2.3.5 Dye 383

13.2.3.6 Food Products 383

13.2.3.7 Cocoa Shell Tea 383

13.2.3.8 Cocoa Hulls Polyphenols as a Functional Ingredient for Bakery Applications 383

13.2.3.9 Bio‐Recyclable Paper Packaging 384

13.2.3.10 Cocoa Shell Extracts 384

13.3 Cocoa Pod Husk 386

13.3.1 Chemical Composition 387

13.3.2 Drying Methods 387

13.3.3 Nutraceutical Composition 388

13.3.3.1 Dietary Fiber 388

13.3.3.2 Antioxidants 390

13.3.3.3 Theobromine 391

13.3.3.4 Other Compounds 392

13.3.4 Applications 393

13.3.4.1 Animal Feed 393

13.3.4.2 Soap Making 394

13.3.4.3 Activated Carbon 394

13.3.4.4 Fertilizer and Soil Organic Matter 394

13.3.4.5 Paper Making 395

13.3.4.6 Biofuels and Chemical Industry 395

13.3.4.7 Gums 396

13.3.4.8 Source of Enzymes 396

13.4 Cocoa Mucilage/Pulp/Sweating 396

13.4.1 Chemical Composition 397

13.4.2 Nutraceutical Composition 398

13.4.2.1 Dietary Fiber 398

13.4.2.2 Phenolic Content 398

13.4.3 Applications 399

13.4.3.1 Cocoa Juice 399

13.4.3.2 Cocoa Alcoholic Products 399

13.4.3.3 Pectin 400

13.4.3.4 Marmalade 400

13.4.3.5 Cocoa Jelly 401

13.4.3.6 Other Products 401

13.5 Technological Properties of Cocoa By‐products 402

13.5.1 Water (WHC)‐ and Oil (OHC)‐Holding and Swelling Capacities (SWC) 402

13.6 Concluding Remarks 402

References 403

14 Emerging and Potential Bio-Applications of Agro-Industrial By-products Through Implementation of Nanobiotechnology 413
Hayde Azeneth Vergara-Castañeda, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas, and Héctor Pool

14.1 Introduction 413

14.2 Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles Mediated by Agro-Industrial Wastes 414

14.2.1 Gold Nanoparticles 417

14.2.2 Silver Nanoparticles 419

14.2.3 Quantum Dots 422

14.3 Agro-Industrial Wastes as Platforms for Biofunctional Nanocomposite Production 425

14.4 Nano-Drug Delivery Systems for Encapsulation, Protection, and Controlled Release of Bioactive Agents Extracted from Agro-Industrial Wastes 431

14.5 Concluding Remarks 435

References 436

Index 445

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B. Dave Oomah
Rocio Campos-Vega Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Mexico.

Hayde Azeneth Vergara-Castaneda Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Mexico.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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