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Basin Analysis. Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment. Edition No. 3

  • ID: 5225908
  • Book
  • August 2013
  • 632 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Basin Analysis is an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins as geodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge of the basic principles of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning of sediment routing systems provides a sound background for studying sedimentary basins, and is a pre-requisite for the exploitation of resources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third edition incorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basin analysis while retaining the successful structure and overall philosophy of the first two editions.

The text is divided into 4 parts that establish the geodynamical environment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of the lithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basin formation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin-fill and its burial and thermal history, and concludes with an application of basin analysis principles in petroleum play assessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. The text is richly supplemented by Appendices providing mathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting the formation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of these Appendices include practical exercises that give the reader hands-on experience of quantitative solutions to important basin analysis processes.

Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions,  and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problem solving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines.

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Preface to the third edition x

Part 1 The foundations of sedimentary basins

1 Basins in their geodynamic environment

Summary

1.1 Introduction and rationale

1.2 Compositional zonation of the Earth

1.2.1 Oceanic crust

1.2.2 Continental crust

1.2.3 Mantle

1.3 Rheological zonation of the Earth

1.3.1 Lithosphere

1.3.2 Sub-lithospheric mantle

1.4 Geodynamic background 10

1.4.1 Plate tectonics, seismicity and deformation 10

1.4.2 The geoid 12

1.4.3 Topography and isostasy 14

1.4.4 Heat flow 14

1.4.5 Cycles of plate reorganisation 15

1.5 Classification schemes of sedimentary basins 15

1.5.1 Basin-forming mechanisms 16

2 The physical state of the lithosphere 20

Summary 20

2.1 Stress and strain 21

2.1.1 Stresses in the lithosphere 21

2.1.2 Strain in the lithosphere 23

2.1.3 Linear elasticity 25

2.1.4 Flexure in two dimensions 27

2.1.5 Flexural isostasy 28

2.1.6 Effects of temperature and pressure on rock density 29

2.2 Heat flow 31

2.2.1 Fundamentals 31

2.2.2 The geotherm 31

2.2.3 Radiogenic heat production 33

2.2.4 Effect of erosion and sediment blanketing on the geotherm 36

2.2.5 Transient effects of erosion and deposition on the continental geotherm 37

2.2.6 Effect of variable thermal conductivity 38

2.2.7 Time-dependent heat conduction: the case of cooling oceanic lithosphere 39

2.2.8 Convection, the adiabat and mantle viscosity 41

2.3 Rock rheology and lithospheric strength profiles 43

2.3.1 Fundamentals on constitutive laws 43

2.3.2 Rheology of the mantle 44

2.3.3 Rheology of the continental crust 46

2.3.4 Strength profi les of the lithosphere 47

Part 2 The mechanics of sedimentary basin formation 51

3 Basins due to lithospheric stretching 53

Summary 53

3.1 Introduction 54

3.1.1 Basins of the rift–drift suite 54

3.1.2 Models of continental extension 54

3.2 Geological and geophysical observations in regions of continental extension 56

3.2.1 Cratonic basins 56

3.2.2 Rifts 60

3.2.3 Failed rifts 67

3.2.4 Continental rim basins 67

3.2.5 Proto-oceanic troughs 68

3.2.6 Passive continental margins 70

3.3 Uniform stretching of the continental lithosphere 72

3.3.1 The ‘reference’ uniform stretching model 72

3.3.2 Uniform stretching at passive continental margins 76

3.4 Modifications to the uniform stretching model 78

3.4.1 Protracted periods of rifting 78

3.4.2 Non-uniform (depth-dependent) stretching 80

3.4.3 Pure versus simple shear 83

3.4.4 Elevated asthenospheric temperatures 84

3.4.5 Magmatic activity 84

3.4.6 Induced mantle convection 85

3.4.7 Radiogenic heat production 86

3.4.8 Flexural compensation 86

3.4.9 The depth of necking 86

3.4.10 Phase changes 87

3.5 A dynamical approach to lithospheric extension 88

3.5.1 Generalities 88

3.5.2 Forces on the continental lithosphere 90

3.5.3 Rheology of the continental lithosphere 92

3.5.4 Numerical and analogue experiments on strain rate during continental extension 93

3.6 Estimation of the stretch factor and strain rate history 95

3.6.1 Estimation of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence history 95

3.6.2 Estimation of the stretch factor from crustal thickness changes 95

3.6.3 Estimation of the stretch factor from forward tectonostratigraphic modelling 96

3.6.4 Inversion of strain rate history from subsidence data 97

3.6.5 Multiple phases of rifting 97

4 Basins due to flexure 98

Summary 98

4.1 Basic observations in regions of lithospheric flexure 99

4.1.1 Ice cap growth and melting 99

4.1.2 Oceanic seamount chains 100

4.1.3 Flexure beneath sediment loads 101

4.1.4 Ocean trenches 103

4.1.5 Mountain ranges, fold-thrust belts and foreland basins 104

4.2 Flexure of the lithosphere: geometry of the deflection 104

4.2.1 Deflection of a continuous plate under a point load (2D) or line load (3D) 104

4.2.2 Deflection of a broken plate under a line load 106

4.2.3 Deflection of a continuous plate under a distributed load 107

4.2.4 Bending stresses 108

4.3 Flexural rigidity of oceanic and continental lithosphere 109

4.3.1 Controls on the flexural rigidity of oceanic lithosphere 109

4.3.2 Flexure of the continental lithosphere 111

4.4 Lithospheric buckling and in-plane stress 116

4.4.1 Theory: linear elasticity 116

4.4.2 Lithospheric buckling in nature and in numerical experiments 117

4.4.3 Origin of intraplate stresses 118

4.5 Orogenic wedges 118

4.5.1 Introduction to basins at convergent boundaries 118

4.5.2 The velocity field at sites of plate convergence 120

4.5.3 Critical taper theory 120

4.5.4 Double vergence 125

4.5.5 Analogue models 127

4.5.6 Numerical approaches to orogenic wedge development 128

4.5.7 Low Péclet number intracontinental orogens 130

4.5.8 Horizontal in-plane forces during convergent orogenesis 130

4.6 Foreland basin systems 131

4.6.1 Introduction 131

4.6.2 Depositional zones 132

4.6.3 Diffusive models of mountain belt erosion and basin deposition 135

4.6.4 Coupled tectonic-erosion dynamical models of orogenic wedges 138

4.6.5 Modelling aspects of foreland basin stratigraphy 144

5 Effects of mantle dynamics 153

Summary 153

5.1 Fundamentals and observations 154

5.1.1 Introduction: mantle dynamics and plate tectonics 154

5.1.2 Buoyancy and scaling relationships: introductory theory 155

5.1.3 Flow patterns in the mantle 156

5.1.4 Seismic tomography 159

5.1.5 Plate mode versus plume mode 159

5.1.6 The geoid 162

5.2 Surface topography and bathymetry produced by mantle fl ow 164

5.2.1 Introduction: dynamic topography and buoyancy 164

5.2.2 Dynamic topography associated with subducting slabs 167

5.2.3 Dynamic topography associated with supercontinental assembly and dispersal 170

5.2.4 Dynamic topography associated with small-scale convection 173

5.2.5 Pulsing plumes 175

5.2.6 Hotspots, coldspots and wetspots 176

5.3 Mantle dynamics and magmatic activity 178

5.3.1 Melt generation during continental extension 179

5.3.2 Large igneous provinces 180

5.3.3 The northern North Atlantic and the Iceland plume 180

5.3.4 The Afar region, Ethiopia 180

5.4 Mantle dynamics and basin development 181

5.4.1 Topography, denudation and river drainage 181

5.4.2 Cratonic basins 183

5.4.3 The history of sea-level change and the fl ooding of continental interiors 183

6 Basins associated with strike-slip deformation 188

Summary 188

6.1 Overview 189

6.1.1 Geological, geomorphological and geophysical observations 189

6.1.2 Diversity of basins in strike-slip zones 193

6.2 The structural pattern of strike-slip fault systems 194

6.2.1 Structural features of the principal displacement zone (PDZ) 194

6.2.2 Role of oversteps 200

6.3 Basins in strike-slip zones 201

6.3.1 Geometric properties of pull-apart basins 201

6.3.2 Kinematic models for pull-apart basins 203

6.3.3 Continuum development from a releasing bend: evolutionary sequence of a pull-apart basin 206

6.3.4 Strike-slip deformation and pull-apart basins in obliquely convergent orogens 207

6.4 Modelling of pull-apart basins 209

6.4.1 Numerical models 209

6.4.2 Sandbox experiments: pure strike-slip versus transtension 215

6.4.3 Application of model of uniform extension to pull-apart basins 215

6.4.4 Pull-apart basin formation and thin-skinned tectonics: the Vienna Basin 216

6.5 Characteristic depositional systems 217

Part 3 The sedimentary basin-fi ll 223

7 The sediment routing system 225

Summary 225

7.1 The sediment routing system in basin analysis 226

7.2 The erosional engine 227

7.2.1 Weathering and the regolith 227

7.2.2 Terrestrial sediment and solute yields 233

7.2.3 BQART equations 243

7.2.4 Chemical weathering and global biogeochemical cycles 246

7.3 Measurements of erosion rates 246

7.3.1 Rock uplift, exhumation and surface uplift 246

7.3.2 Point-wise erosion rates from thermochronometers 247

7.3.3 Catchment-scale erosion rates from cosmogenic radionuclides 248

7.3.4 Catchment erosion rates using low-temperature thermochronometers 251

7.3.5 Erosion rates at different temporal and spatial scales 254

7.4 Channel-hillslope processes 256

7.4.1 Modelling hillslopes 256

7.4.2 Bedrock river incision 259

7.5 Long-range sediment transport and deposition 260

7.5.1 Principles of long-range sediment transport 260

7.5.2 Sediment transport in marine segments of the sediment routing system 263

7.5.3 Depositional sinks: sediment storage 265

7.5.4 Downstream fining 271

7.6 Joined-up thinking: teleconnections in source-to-sink systems 273

7.6.1 Provenance and tracers; detrital thermochronology 273

7.6.2 Mapping of the sediment routing system fairway 275

7.6.3 Landscape evolution models and response times 275

7.6.4 Interaction of axial and longitudinal drainage 282

8 Basin stratigraphy 284

Summary 284

8.1 A primer on process stratigraphy 285

8.1.1 Introduction 285

8.1.2 Accommodation, sediment supply and sea level 285

8.1.3 Simple 1D forward models from first principles 286

8.2 Stratigraphic cycles: definition and recognition 289

8.2.1 The hierarchy from beds to megasequences 289

8.2.2 Forcing mechanisms 299

8.2.3 Unforced cyclicity 306

8.3 Dynamical approaches to stratigraphy 308

8.3.1 Carbonate stratigraphy 308

8.3.2 Siliciclastic stratigraphy 308

8.3.3 Shelf-edge and shoreline trajectories; clinoform progradation 310

8.4 Landscapes into rock 315

8.4.1 Stratigraphic completeness 315

8.4.2 Gating models 318

8.4.3 Hierarchies and upscaling 322

8.4.4 Magnitude-frequency relationships 324

9 Subsidence history 326

Summary 326

9.1 Introduction to subsidence analysis 327

9.2 Compressibility and compaction of porous sediments: fundamentals 327

9.2.1 Effective stress 328

9.2.2 Overpressure 328

9.3 Porosity and permeability of sediments and sedimentary rocks 330

9.3.1 Measurements of porosity in the subsurface 331

9.3.2 Porosity-depth relationships 333

9.3.3 Porosity and layer thicknesses during burial 334

9.4 Subsidence history and backstripping 335

9.4.1 Backstripping techniques 335

9.5 Tectonic subsidence signatures 339

10 Thermal history 343

Summary 343

10.1 Introduction 344

10.2 Theory: the Arrhenius equation and maturation indices 344

10.3 Factors influencing temperatures and paleotemperatures in sedimentary basins 345

10.3.1 Effects of thermal conductivity 345

10.3.2 Effects of internal heat generation in sediments 347

10.3.3 Effects of sedimentation rate and sediment blanketing 348

10.3.4 Effects of advective heat transport by fluids 349

10.3.5 Effects of surface temperature changes 349

10.3.6 Heat flow around salt domes 350

10.3.7 Heat flow around fractures 351

10.3.8 Heat flows around sills, dykes and underplates 351

10.3.9 Thermal effects of delamination 354

10.4 Measurements of thermal maturity in sedimentary basins 354

10.4.1 Estimation of formation temperature from borehole measurements 355

10.4.2 Organic indicators 355

10.4.3 Low-temperature thermochronometers 358

10.4.4 Mineralogical and geochemical indices 360

10.5 Application of thermal maturity measurements 361

10.5.1 Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) profiles 361

10.5.2 Fission track age-depth relationships 366

10.5.3 Quartz cementation 366

10.6 Geothermal and paleogeothermal signatures of basin types 367

Part 4 Application to petroleum play assessment 371

11 Building blocks of the petroleum play 373

Summary 373

11.1 From basin analysis to play concept 374

11.2 The petroleum system and play concept 374

11.2.1 Play definition 374

11.2.2 The petroleum system 375

11.2.3 Definition and mapping of the play fairway 376

11.3 The source rock 379

11.3.1 The biological origin of petroleum 380

11.3.2 Source rock prediction 384

11.3.3 Detection and measurement of source rocks 391

11.4 The petroleum charge 393

11.4.1 Some chemical and physical properties of petroleum 393

11.4.2 Petroleum generation 395

11.4.3 Primary migration: expulsion from the source rock 396

11.4.4 Secondary migration: through carrier bed to trap 398

11.4.5 Alteration of petroleum 401

11.4.6 Tertiary migration: leakage to surface 402

11.5 The reservoir 402

11.5.1 Introduction 403

11.5.2 Reservoir properties: porosity and permeability 404

11.5.3 Primary or depositional factors affecting reservoir quality 404

11.5.4 Diagenetic changes to reservoir rocks 406

11.5.5 Reservoir architecture and heterogeneity 408

11.5.6 Carbonate reservoir quality in relation to sea-level change 410

11.5.7 Models for clay mineral early diagenesis in sandstone reservoirs 413

11.5.8 Fractures 413

11.6 The regional topseal 415

11.6.1 The mechanics of sealing 416

11.6.2 Factors affecting caprock effectiveness 416

11.6.3 The depositional settings of caprocks 417

11.7 The trap 419

11.7.1 Introduction: trap classification 419

11.7.2 Structural traps 420

11.7.3 Stratigraphic traps 430

11.7.4 Intrusive traps: injectites 432

11.7.5 Hydrodynamic traps 433

11.7.6 Timing of trap formation 433

11.8 Global distribution of petroleum resources 434

12 Classic and unconventional plays 436

Summary 436

12.1 Classic petroleum plays 437

12.1.1 Introduction 437

12.1.2 Niger Delta 437

12.1.3 Campos Basin, Brazil 439

12.1.4 Santos Basin pre-salt play, Brazil 440

12.1.5 Northwest Shelf, Australia (Dampier sub-basin) 441

12.2 Unconventional petroleum plays 442

12.2.1 Introduction 442

12.2.2 Tight gas 443

12.2.3 Shale gas 444

12.2.4 Coal seam gas 445

12.2.5 Gas hydrates 445

12.2.6 Oil sands and heavy oil 446

12.3 Geosequestration: an emerging application 449

Appendices: derivations and practical exercises

1 Rock density as a function of depth

2 Airy isostatic balance

3 Deviatoric stress at the edge of a continental block

4 Lateral buoyancy forces in the lithosphere

5 Derivation of flexural rigidity and the general flexure equation

6 Flexural isostasy

7 The 1D heat conduction equation

8 Derivation of the continental geotherm

9 Radiogenic heat production

10 Surface heat fl ow and the radiogenic contribution

11 Radiogenic heat production of various rock types

12 Effects of erosion and deposition on the geotherm

13 Effects of variable radiogenic heating and thermal conductivity on the geotherm in the basin-fill

14 The mantle adiabat and peridotite solidus

15 Lithospheric strength envelopes

16 Rift zones: strain rate, extension velocity and bulk strain

17 The ‘reference’ uniform extension model

18 Boundary conditions for lithospheric stretching

19 Subsidence as a function of the stretch factor

20 Inversion of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence data

21 Calculation of the instantaneous syn-rift subsidence

22 The transient temperature solution

23 Heat fl ow during uniform stretching using a Fourier series

24 The stretch factor for extension along crustal faults

25 Protracted rifting times during continental extension

26 Lithospheric extension and melting

27 Igneous underplating – an isostatic balance

28 Uniform stretching at passive margins

29 Flexure of continuous and broken plates

30 The time scale of flexural isostatic rebound or subsidence

31 Flexural rigidity derived from uplifted lake paleoshorelines

32 Deflection under a distributed load – Jordan (1981) solution

33 Deflection under a distributed load – numerical solution of Wangen (2010)

34 Deflection under a periodic distributed load

35 Flexural unloading from a distributed load – the cantilever effect

36 Bending from multiple loads: the Hellenides and Apennines in central Italy–Albania

37 Flexural profiles, subsidence history and the flexural forebulge unconformity

38 Bending stresses in an elastic plate

39 In-plane forces and surface topography during orogenesis

40 The onset of convection

41 A global predictor for sediment discharge: the BQART equations

42 Modelling hillslopes

43 The sediment continuity (Exner) equation

44 Use of the stream power rule

45 Effects of tectonic uplift on stream longitudinal profiles

46 Estimation of the uplift rate from an area-slope analysis

47 Uplift history from stream profiles characterised by knickpoint migration

48 Sediment deposition using the heat equation

49 Axial versus transverse drainage

50 Downstream fining of gravel

51 Sinusoidal eustatic change superimposed on background tectonic subsidence

52 Isostatic effects of absolute sea-level change

53 Sea-level change resulting from sedimentation

54 The consolidation line

55 Relation between porosity and permeability – the Kozeny-Carman relationship

56 Decompaction

57 Backstripping

58 From decompaction to thermal history

59 Advective heat transport by fluids

60 Heat flow in fractured rock

References

Index

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Philip A. Allen Imperial College London.

John R. Allen BHP Billiton.
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