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Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5225946
  • Book
  • February 2020
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Enlightens readers on the realities of global atmospheric change, including global warming and poor air quality

Climate change and air pollution are two of the most pressing issues facing Mankind. This book gives undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and professionals working in the science and policy of pollution, climate change and air quality a broad and up-to-date account of the processes that occur in the atmosphere, how these are changing as Man’s relentless use of natural resources continues, and what effects these changes are having on the Earth’s climate and the quality of the air we breathe.

Written by an international team of experts, Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition provides an excellent overview of our current understanding of the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and how it is changing. The first half of the book covers: the climate of the Earth; chemical evolution of the atmosphere; atmospheric energy and the structure of the atmosphere; biogeochemical cycles; and tropospheric chemistry and air pollution. The second half looks at cloud formation and chemistry; particulate matter in the atmosphere; stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion; boundary layer meteorology and atmospheric dispersion; urban air pollution; and global warming and climate change science.

  • Provides succinct but detailed information on all the important aspects of atmospheric science for students
  • Offers the most up-to-date treatment of key issues such as stratospheric chemistry, urban air pollution, and climate change
  • Each chapter includes basic concepts, end-of-section questions, and more in-depth material
  • Features contributions from the best experts and educators in the field of atmospheric science

Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students, teachers, and professionals involved in environmental science. It will also appeal to those interested in learning how the atmosphere works, how humankind is changing its composition, and what effects these changes are leading to.

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List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

Abbreviations, Constants, and Nomenclature xiii

1 The Climate of the Earth 1
John Lockwood

1.1 Basic Climatology 1

1.2 General Atmospheric Circulation 3

1.3 Palaeoclimates 6

1.4 Polar Climates 12

1.5 Temperate Latitude Climates 16

1.6 Tropical Climates 20

Questions 28

References 28

Further Reading 30

2 Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere 31
Richard Wayne

2.1 Creation of the Planets and Their Earliest Atmospheres 34

2.2 Earth’s Atmosphere before Life Began 37

2.3 Comparison of Venus, Earth, and Mars 38

2.4 Life and Earth’s Atmosphere 41

2.5 Carbon Dioxide in Earth’s Atmosphere 47

2.6 The Rise of Oxygen Concentrations 50

2.7 Protection of Life from Ultraviolet Radiation 60

2.8 The Great Oxidation Event and Related Issues 64

2.9 The Future 68

Questions 68

References 69

Further Reading 74

3 Atmospheric Energy and the Structure of the Atmosphere 75
Hugh Coe

3.1 The Vertical Structure of Earth’s Atmosphere 75

3.2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation 77

3.3 Solar Radiation, Ozone, and the Stratospheric Temperature Profile 82

3.4 Trapping of Longwave Radiation 85

3.5 A Simple Model of Radiation Transfer 85

3.6 Light Scattering 90

3.7 Conduction, Convection, and Sensible and Latent Heat 96

3.8 Energy Budget for Earth’s Atmosphere 103

3.9 Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate 106

3.10 Solar Radiation and the Biosphere 109

3.11 Summary 111

Questions 112

References 112

Further Reading 114

4 Biogeochemical Cycles 115
Dudley Shallcross and Anwar Khan

4.1 Sources 119

4.2 Sinks 119

4.3 Carbon 124

4.4 Nitrogen 132

4.5 Sulphur 134

4.6 Halogens 142

4.7 Hydrogen 152

4.8 Summary 153

Questions 153

References 154

Further Reading 157

5 Tropospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution 159
Paul Monks and Joshua Vande Hey

5.1 Sources of Trace Gases in the Atmosphere 159

5.2 Key Processes in Tropospheric Chemistry 164

5.3 Initiation of Photochemistry by Light 165

5.4 Tropospheric Oxidation Chemistry 166

5.5 Night-Time Oxidation Chemistry 178

5.6 Halogen Chemistry 182

5.7 Air Pollution and Urban Chemistry 187

5.8 Summary 195

Questions 197

References 199

Further Reading 202

6 Cloud Formation and Chemistry 203
Peter Brimblecombe

6.1 Clouds 203

6.2 Cloud Formation 204

6.3 Particle Size and Water Content 207

6.4 Dissolved Solids in Cloud Water and Rainfall 209

6.5 Dissolution of Gases 211

6.6 Reactions and Photochemistry 219

6.7 Radical and Photochemical Reactions 224

6.8 Summary 227

References 228

Further Reading 231

Websites 231

7 Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere 233
Paul I. Williams

7.1 Aerosol Properties 235

7.2 Aerosol Sources 245

7.3 The Role of Atmospheric Particles 254

7.4 Aerosol Measurements 262

7.5 Summary 265

Acknowledgement 266

Questions 266

References 267

8 Stratospheric Chemistry and Ozone Depletion 271
Martyn P. Chipperfield and A. Rob MacKenzie

8.1 Ozone Column Amounts 272

8.2 Physical Structure of the Stratosphere 275

8.3 Gas-Phase Chemistry of the Stratosphere 282

8.4 Aerosols and Clouds in the Stratosphere 287

8.5 Heterogeneous Chemistry of the Stratosphere 290

8.6 Future Perturbations to the Stratosphere 291

8.7 Summary 295

Questions 295

References 296

9 Boundary Layer Meteorology and Atmospheric Dispersion 299
Janet Barlow and Natalie Theeuwes

9.1 The Atmospheric Boundary Layer 299

9.2 Flow over Vegetation 307

9.3 The Urban Boundary Layer 312

9.4 Dispersion of Pollutants 319

9.5 Summary 326

Questions 327

References 327

Further Reading 329

10 Urban Air Pollution 331
Zongbo Shi

10.1 Introduction 331

10.2 Urban Air Pollution – A Brief History 331

10.3 Scale of Urban Air Pollution 333

10.4 Air Pollutants and Their Sources in the Urban Atmosphere 334

10.5 From Emissions to Airborne Concentrations 339

10.6 Urban-Scale Impacts 343

10.7 Means of Mitigation 349

10.8 Summary 361

Acknowledgement 363

Questions 363

References 364

Further Reading 365

11 Global Warming and Climate Change Science 367
Atul Jain, Xiaoming Xu, and Nick Hewitt

11.1 Historical Evidence of the Impact of Human Activities on Climate 369

11.2 Future Outlook of Climate Change 379

11.3 The Integrated Science Assessment Modelling (ISAM) 386

11.4 Potential Impacts of Climate Change 393

11.5 Summary 395

Acknowledgement 396

Questions 396

References 396

Appendix: Suggested Web Resources 399

Index 401

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C. Nick Hewitt University of Lancaster.

Andrea V. Jackson University of Leeds.
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