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Beaches and Coasts. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5226073
  • Book
  • February 2020
  • 536 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A new edition of a unique textbook that provides an exhaustive treatment of the world's different coasts - with focus on climate change sea-level rise 

Coastlines of the world are as diverse and complex as any geological setting on Earth, and understanding them is extremely important. Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an exciting and unique textbook that covers the world’s different coasts and details the highly varied processes that have shaped them. This new edition emphasizes the future susceptibility of coast to climate driven stresses and decreasing sediment supplies, and considers various aspects of coastal management that are and/or that need to be undertaken. 

Seeking to better educate students and readers about the sustainability of coast and coastal environments, this exciting and unique book offers enlightening coverage of: the Earth’s mobile crust; sediments of coastal environments; impacts of sea level change; weather systems and the effects of storms; the influence of wave energy and different tidal regimes; river deltas; coastal bays; estuaries and lagoons; tidal flats; coastal wetlands; beach and nearshore areas; coastal barriers; tidal inlets; glaciated coasts; and rocky coasts. 

  • Takes an extensive look at the world's varied coasts and covers the many processes that have shaped them over time
  • Shows how coastal processes and landform evolution are expected to be impacted by climate change
  • Includes new coverage of Hurricane Katrina and the 2005 flooding of New Orleans, Hurricane Sandy and its affect on New York and the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Tohoku
  • Lavishly illustrated with over 400 color photographs and figures
  • Draws on a wealth of author experience that broadens the content of chapters and provides for numerous and varied examples

Beaches and Coasts, Second Edition is an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students of coastal geology, coastal processes and coastal environments. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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1 Coastline Variability and Functions in the Global Environment 1

1.1 Coastal Settings 1

1.2 Population and the Coast 3

1.2.1 History of Coastal Occupation 3

1.3 General Coastal Conditions 3

1.4 Coastal Environments 4

1.5 Historical Trends in Coastal Research 8

Suggested Reading 13

2 The Earth’s Mobile Crust 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Earth’s Interior 18

2.3 Plate Boundaries 21

2.3.1 Divergent Boundaries 21

2.3.2 Convergent Boundaries 24

2.3.3 Transform Boundaries 28

2.3.4 Plate Movement 29

2.4 Continental Margins 31

2.4.1 Tectonic Evolution of Continental Margins 34

2.5 Tectonic Coastline Classification 36

2.5.1 Collision Coasts 37

2.5.2 Trailing Edge Coasts 42

2.5.3 Marginal Sea Coasts 46

2.6 Tectonic Effects on Coastal Sediment Supply 47

2.6.1 Continental Drainage 48

2.6.2 Location of Rivers 49

2.6.3 Continental Shelf Width 51

2.7 Summary 52

Reference 53

Suggested Reading 53

3 Sediments and Rocks: Materials of Coastal Environments 55

3.1 Rock Types 55

3.2 Sediment Texture 56

3.2.1 Grain Size 56

3.2.2 Grain Shape 59

3.3 Mineralogy 60

3.4 General Origin and Distribution of Sediments 60

3.4.1 Composition 61

3.4.2 Texture 64

3.5 Summary 65

Reference 66

Suggested Reading 67

4 Sea‐Level Change and Coastal Environments 69

4.1 Changing the Size and Shape of the Container 71

4.1.1 Tectonic Causes 71

4.2 Climate and Sea‐Level Change 74

4.2.1 Seasonal Changes 74

4.2.2 Non‐seasonal Cyclic Changes 75

4.2.3 Long‐term Climatic Effects 76

4.3 Sea‐level Rise due to Sediment Compaction and Fluid Withdrawal 77

4.4 Isostasy 81

4.5 Changes in the Volume of the World Ocean 81

4.5.1 Advance and Retreat of Ice Sheets 81

4.6 Post‐Glacial Rise in Sea Level 85

4.7 Current and Future Sea‐Level Changes 86

4.7.1 Impact of Increasing Rise in Sea Level on Modern Coastal Environments 90

4.8 Summary 93

References 94

Suggested Reading 94

5 Weather Systems, Extratropical Storms, and Hurricanes 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Basic Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Patterns 97

5.2.1 Wind 97

5.2.2 Atmospheric Circulation 97

5.2.3 Prevailing Winds 101

5.2.4 Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Systems 101

5.2.5 Land‐breezes and Sea‐breezes 102

5.3 Mid‐latitude Storms 102

5.3.1 Frontal Weather 103

5.3.2 Cyclogenesis 105

5.3.3 Extratropical Storms 106

5.4 Hurricanes and Tropical Storms 109

5.4.1 Low Latitude Storms 109

5.4.2 Origin and Movement of Hurricanes 110

5.4.3 Anatomy of a Hurricane 113

5.4.4 Hurricanes at the Coast 115

5.5 Summary 125

Suggested Reading 132

6 Waves and the Coast 133

6.1 Water Motion and Wave Propagation 136

6.2 Wind Wave Types 140

6.3 Distribution and Transfer of Wave Energy 142

6.4 Other Types of Waves 146

6.5 Wave‐Generated Currents 148

6.6 Summary 150

Suggested Reading 152

7 Tides of the Ocean 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Tide‐Generating Forces 153

7.2.1 Gravitational Force 153

7.2.2 Centrifugal Force 154

7.2.3 Tide‐Producing Force 156

7.3 Equilibrium Tide 157

7.3.1 Tidal Cycle 157

7.3.2 Orbiting Moon 158

7.3.3 Inclination of Moon’s Orbit 159

7.4 Interaction of Sun and Moon 159

7.5 Effects of Orbital Geometry 161

7.6 Effects of Partitioning Oceans 162

7.7 Tidal Signatures 163

7.8 Tides in Shallow Water 167

7.9 Summary 175

References 176

Suggested Reading 176

8 River Deltas: The Source of Most of our Coastal Sediments 177

8.1 How Deltas Develop 178

8.2 Deltas and Sea Level 182

8.3 Delta Environments 184

8.4 Delta Plain 184

8.4.1 Delta Front 186

8.5 Delta Processes 189

8.6 River Processes 189

8.7 Delta Classification 190

8.7.1 River‐Dominated Deltas 192

8.7.2 Tide‐Dominated Deltas 193

8.7.3 Wave‐Dominated Deltas 193

8.8 Intermediate Deltas 195

8.9 Human Influence 195

8.10 Summary 200

References 200

Suggested Reading 201

9 Estuaries 203

9.1 Estuarine Hydrology 206

9.1.1 Classification of Estuaries 207

9.1.2 Estuarine Processes 208

9.1.3 Time–Velocity Relationships 209

9.1.4 Model Estuary 214

9.1.5 Estuary Types 219

9.2 Human Impact on Estuaries 222

9.3 Summary 227

References 227

Suggested Reading 228

10 Coastal Lagoons 229

10.1 Definition 229

10.2 Morphology and Setting 229

10.3 General Characteristics 231

10.4 Lagoonal Processes 233

10.5 Lagoonal Sediments 235

10.6 Example Lagoons 239

10.7 Summary 244

Suggested Reading 245

11 Tidal Flats 247

11.1 Morphology of Tidal Flats 247

11.2 Sediments 249

11.3 Organisms 249

11.3.1 Vagrant Organisms 250

11.3.2 Sessile Organisms 250

11.3.3 Limiting Factors 250

11.3.4 Bioturbation 254

11.4 Sedimentary Structures 254

11.5 Tidal Flat Processes 260

11.5.1 Tides 260

11.5.2 Waves 263

11.6 Tidal Channels 265

11.7 Some Examples 267

11.7.1 German Wadden Sea and Jade Bay 267

11.7.2 The Wash 272

11.7.3 Bay of St.‐Malo 273

11.7.4 Bay of Fundy 273

11.8 Human Impact on Tidal Flats 274

11.9 Summary 276

References 278

Suggested Reading 278

12 Coastal Wetlands 281

12.1 Characteristics of a Coastal Marsh 281

12.1.1 Marsh Plants 281

12.1.2 Global Distribution 284

12.2 Marsh Characteristics 285

12.2.1 Marsh Classification 287

12.3 Marsh Sedimentation 289

12.3.1 Sediments 290

12.3.2 Sea Level and Marsh Development 292

12.4 Human Impact on the Marsh Environment 293

12.5 Marsh Summary 293

12.6 Mangrove Coasts 297

12.7 Mangrove Distribution 297

12.7.1 Global Distribution 297

12.7.2 Local 297

12.7.3 Zonation 298

12.8 Mangroves and Coastal Processes 300

12.9 Human Impact on Mangroves 303

12.10 Summary 303

References 305

Suggested Reading 305

13 Beach and Nearshore Environment 307

13.1 Nearshore Environment 307

13.2 Foreshore 312

13.3 Backbeach 322

13.4 Human Impact on Beaches 328

13.5 Summary 331

Suggested Reading 337

14 Coastal Dunes 339

14.1 Types of Coastal Dunes and Their Distribution 339

14.2 Dune Formation 345

14.3 Dune Dynamics 349

14.3.1 Dune Structures 351

14.4 Human Influence on Dunes 352

14.5 Summary 353

Suggested Reading 357

15 Barrier Systems 359

15.1 Introduction 359

15.2 Physical Description 359

15.3 Distribution and Coastal Setting 362

15.4 Summary 366

15.5 Barrier Types 366

15.5.1 Barrier Spits 367

15.5.2 Welded Barriers 374

15.5.3 Barrier Islands 376

15.6 Prograding, Retrograding, and Aggrading Barriers 380

15.6.1 Prograding Barriers 381

15.6.2 Retrograding Barriers 384

15.6.3 Aggrading Barriers 388

15.7 Barrier Stratigraphy 390

15.8 Barrier Coast Morphology 393

15.8.1 Hayes Models 394

15.8.2 Georgia Bight 396

15.9 Barrier Coasts: Morphology and Evolution 399

15.9.1 Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia 399

15.9.2 Mississippi River Delta Barriers 400

15.10 Summary 403

References 403

Suggested Reading 404

16 Tidal Inlets 405

16.1 Introduction 405

16.2 What is a Tidal Inlet 405

16.3 Inlet Morphology 409

16.3.1 Tidal Deltas 409

16.3.2 Ebb‐Tidal Delta Morphology 413

16.4 Tidal Inlet Formation 415

16.4.1 Breaching of a Barrier 415

16.4.2 Spit Building across a Bay 415

16.4.3 Drowned River Valleys 417

16.4.4 Ephemeral Inlets 419

16.5 Tidal Inlet Migration 419

16.6 Tidal Inlet Relationships 423

16.6.1 Inlet Throat Area–Tidal Prism Relationship 423

16.6.2 Ebb‐Tidal Delta Volume–Tidal Prism Relationship 425

16.7 Sand Transport Patterns 426

16.7.1 General Sand‐Dispersal Trends 427

16.7.2 Inlet Sediment Bypassing 427

16.8 Tidal Inlet Effects on Adjacent Shorelines 438

16.8.1 Number and Size of Tidal Inlets 439

16.8.2 Tidal Inlets as Sediment Traps 440

16.8.3 Changes in Ebb‐Tidal Delta Volume 441

16.8.4 Wave Sheltering 442

16.8.5 Effects of Inlet Sediment Bypassing 445

16.8.6 Human Influences 446

16.9 Summary 448

References 451

Suggested Reading 452

17 Glaciated Coasts 453

17.1 Introduction 453

17.2 The World’s Glaciers 454

17.2.1 Glacier Formation 456

17.2.2 Glacier Movement 457

17.2.3 Distribution and Types of Glaciers 458

17.3 Pleistocene Glaciation 462

17.3.1 Introduction 462

17.3.2 Defining the Pleistocene 463

17.3.3 Causes of the Ice Ages 464

17.3.4 The Late Pleistocene 466

17.4 Glacial Effects on Coastlines 467

17.4.1 General Erosional Processes 467

17.4.2 Fjords 468

17.4.3 Rocky Coasts 469

17.4.4 General Depositional Processes 471

17.4.5 Depositional Landforms 473

17.5 Examples of Glaciated Coastlines 477

17.5.1 Cape Cod 477

17.5.2 Drumlin Coasts 480

17.5.3 Sand and Gravel Beaches 482

17.5.4 Uplifted Coasts 482

17.5.5 Drowned River Valleys 485

17.6 Summary 485

References 487

Suggested Readings 488

18 Rocky Coasts 489

18.1 Introduction 489

18.2 Types and Distribution 490

18.2.1 Tectonic Settings 490

18.2.2 Glaciated Regions 490

18.2.3 Other Bedrock Coasts 491

18.3 Erosional Processes 493

18.3.1 Physical Processes 493

18.3.2 Biological Processes 497

18.3.3 Chemical Processes 498

18.4 Factors Affecting Rates of Erosion 498

18.5 Morphology 500

18.5.1 Sea Cliffs 501

18.5.2 Horizontal Erosional Landforms 504

18.5.3 Sea Stacks, Arches, and Erosional Features 506

18.6 Summary 511

Suggested Reading 512

Index 513

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Duncan M. Fitzgerald Boston University.

Richard A. Davis, Jr. University of South Florida, Tampa.
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