+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

PRINTER FRIENDLY

Water Science, Policy and Management. A Global Challenge. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5226232
  • Book
  • January 2020
  • Region: Global
  • 408 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Provides an in-depth look at science, policy and management in the water sector across the globe

Sustainable water management is an increasingly complex challenge and policy priority facing global society. This book examines how governments, municipalities, corporations, and individuals find sustainable water management pathways across competing priorities of water for ecosystems, food, energy, economic growth and human consumption. It looks at the current politics and economics behind the management of our freshwater ecosystems and infrastructure and offers insightful essays that help stimulate more intense and informed debate about the subject and its need for local and international cooperation.

This book celebrates the 15-year anniversary of Oxford University’s MSc course in Water Science, Policy and Management. Edited and written by some of the leading minds in the field, writing alongside alumni from the course, Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge offers in-depth chapters in three parts: Science; Policy; and Management. Topics cover: hydroclimatic extremes and climate change; the past, present, and future of groundwater resources; water quality modelling, monitoring, and management; and challenges for freshwater ecosystems. The book presents critical views on the monitoring and modelling of hydrological processes; the rural water policy in Africa and Asia; the political economy of wastewater in Europe; drought policy management and water allocation. It also examines the financing of water infrastructure; the value of wastewater; water resource planning; sustainable urban water supply and the human right to water.

  • Features perspectives from some of the world’s leading experts on water policy and management
  • Identifies and addresses current and future water sector challenges
  • Charts water policy trends across a rapidly evolving set of challenges in a variety of global areas
  • Covers the reallocation of water; policy process of risk management; the future of the world’s water under global environmental change; and more

Water Science, Policy and Management: A Global Challenge is an essential book for policy makers and government agencies involved in water management, and for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying water science, governance, and policy.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xvii

Foreword xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

1 Water Science, Policy, and Management: Introduction 1
Simon J. Dadson, Edmund C. Penning‐Rowsell, Dustin E. Garrick, Rob Hope, Jim W. Hall, and Jocelyne Hughes

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Drivers of Change: Environment, Politics, Economics 2

1.3 Responses to Change: Technology, Information, Equity 4

1.4 Science, Policy and Management 6

Part I Water Science 9

2 Hydroclimatic Extremes and Climate Change 11
Simon J. Dadson, Homero Paltan Lopez, Jian Peng, and Shuchi Vora

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Key Concepts in Climate Science 12

2.2.1 The Water Cycle in the Earth System 12

2.2.2 Radiative Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 12

2.2.3 Convection and Atmospheric Stability 13

2.2.4 The General Circulation 14

2.3 Hydroclimatic Variability and Extremes 14

2.3.1 Modes of Hydroclimatic Variability 14

2.3.2 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 14

2.3.3 South Asian Monsoon 16

2.3.4 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) 16

2.3.5 Other Modes of Variability 17

2.4 Climate Change and Hydrology 18

2.4.1 Understanding the Link Between Climate Change and Hydroclimatic Extremes 18

2.4.2 Climate Models and Climate Projections 18

2.4.3 Downscaling and Uncertainty 19

2.5 Managing Hydroclimatic Extremes 20

2.5.1 Quantifying Risk and Uncertainty 20

2.5.2 Planning for Extremes in Flood Risk and Water Resources Management 22

2.5.3 Comparing Top‐down with Bottom‐up Approaches 22

2.6 Conclusion 25

References 25

3 Groundwater Resources: Past, Present, and Future 29
Abi Stone, Michelle Lanzoni, and Pauline Smedley

3.1 Introduction to Groundwater Science 29

3.2 Quantities of Groundwater: Storage, Recharge, and Abstraction 31

3.2.1 What Do We Know? 31

3.2.2 Future Outlook on Measuring Groundwater Quantity 34

3.2.3 Improving Scientific Knowledge of Groundwater Volumes and Fluxes 39

3.3 Groundwater Quality 39

3.3.1 The Composition of Groundwater: Natural Baselines and Pollution 39

3.3.2 Future Outlook on Groundwater Water Quality: Key Constraints and Approaches to Addressing Them 45

3.4 Groundwater and Climate Change 48

3.4.1 Long‐term Climatic Influences on Groundwater 48

3.4.2 Current and Future Influences of Climate Change on Groundwater 48

3.5 Continuing Challenges for Groundwater Science 49

3.6 Concluding Points 50

References 51

4 Water Quality Modelling, Monitoring, and Management 55
Paul Whitehead, Michaela Dolk, Rebecca Peters, and Hannah Leckie

4.1 Water Quality Modelling Background 55

4.1.1 Water Quality: The Problem 55

4.1.2 Management Model Approaches and History 56

4.1.3 Generic Types of Water Quality Models 57

4.1.4 Lumped Modelling Approaches 58

4.1.5 Case Study 1: Modelling of Metals Downstream of Mines in Transylvania 59

4.2 Water Quality Modelling at the Catchment Scale 59

4.2.1 Integrated Catchment Approach – A Brief Review 59

4.2.2 The Integrated Catchments (INCA) Model System 61

4.2.3 Case Study 2: Modelling Contaminants Using INCA – Metaldehyde in the Thames 62

4.2.4 Case Study 3: Water Quality in the Turag‐Balu River System, Dhaka, Bangladesh 62

4.2.5 Model Uncertainty 63

4.3 Monitoring Strategies Past and Present 65

4.3.1 Global Monitoring 66

4.3.2 National‐scale Monitoring 66

4.3.3 Long‐term Monitoring of Key Scientific Sites 66

4.3.4 Citizen Science Monitoring 68

4.3.5 Case Study 4: Monitoring and Modelling the Murray‐Darling System in Australia 68

4.4 Conclusions 70

References 70

5 Challenges for Freshwater Ecosystems 75
Jocelyne Hughes, Heather Bond, Clarke Knight, and Kieran Stanley

5.1 How do Freshwater Ecosystems Work? 75

5.1.1 Structure and Function of Freshwater Ecosystems 75

5.1.2 Key Challenges in Freshwater Ecology 76

5.2 The Challenge of Water Quality Management: Linking Freshwater Ecosystems to Water Quality 78

5.2.1 ‘The Kidneys of the Landscape’ 78

5.2.2 Constructed Wetlands 78

5.2.3 Managing Freshwater Ecosystems for Water Quality Enhancement 81

5.3 The Challenge of Invasive Non‐native Species: Impacts on Diversity and Ecosystem Function 82

5.3.1 The Spread of Non‐native Freshwater Species 82

5.3.2 Impacts of INNS 82

5.3.3 What Can be Done About the Problem? 84

5.4 The Challenge of Environmental Change : Managing Biogeochemical Cycles and Water Security in Freshwaters 85

5.4.1 Impacts of Warming and Changing Atmospheric GHGs on Freshwaters 85

5.4.2 Environmental Flows 87

5.5 Approaches to Tackling the Challenges of Freshwater Ecosystem Conservation and Management 89

5.5.1 Technical Innovations 89

5.5.1.1 Environmental DNA 89

5.5.1.2 Remote Sensing Methods and Databases 89

5.5.2 Social Science Innovations 91

References 92

6 Water and Health: A Dynamic, Enduring Challenge 97
Katrina J. Charles, Saskia Nowicki, Patrick Thomson, and David Bradley

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Classifying and Measuring Health Outcomes 97

6.3 Politics and Innovation in Water and Health 99

6.3.1 Measurement: Understanding the Role of Malnutrition and Infection in Diarrhoea 100

6.3.2 Treatment: Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) 100

6.3.3 Knowledge: Emerging Health Issues 101

6.3.4 Politics and the Pace of Disruption 101

6.4 Beyond Outbreaks: The Underreported Health Burden of Inadequate Water Supplies 102

6.5 Enteric Environmental Dysfunction 103

6.5.1 Visible Disease from Chemical Exposure 103

6.5.2 Hypertension and Cancer 105

6.5.3 Cognitive Impairment 106

6.5.4 Psychosocial Distress 107

6.5.5 Revisiting the Water‐Related Burden of Disease 107

6.6 Water and Health Challenges in the SDG Period 108

6.6.1 Improving Service Levels 109

6.6.2 Improving Water Quality Testing Methods 110

6.6.3 Leaving No One Behind 111

6.7 Conclusions 112

References 113

7 Monitoring and Modelling Hydrological Processes 117
Simon J. Dadson, Feyera Hirpa, Patrick Thomson, and Megan Konar

7.1 Modelling Hydrological Systems: Current Approaches 117

7.1.1 From Local Catchment Models to Global Hydrological Studies 119

7.1.2 Validation, Verification, and Confirmation in Hydrological Modelling 121

7.1.3 Representing Human‐managed Water Systems 122

7.2 Monitoring Hydrological Systems 124

7.2.1 Monitoring the Global Water Cycle Across Scales 124

7.2.2 Decline of In Situ Monitoring 125

7.2.3 The Role of EO 126

7.2.4 Land‐based and Airborne Techniques 127

7.2.5 Non‐traditional Hydrological Monitoring Systems 128

7.3 Future Challenges 128

7.4 Conclusion 129

References 130

Part II Policy 139

8 Reallocating Water 141
Dustin E. Garrick, Alice Chautard, and Jonathan Rawlins

8.1 Water Crises as Allocation Challenges 141

8.2 Navigating Reallocation 142

8.3 Socio‐cultural Dimensions 144

8.3.1 Navigating the Changing Culture of Water in Spain 146

8.4 Natural and Technological Dimensions 147

8.5 Political Economy Dimensions 149

8.5.1 Barriers to Reallocation from Agriculture to the City of Cape Town 151

8.6 A Ladder of Interventions? 152

8.7 Frontiers of Water Allocation 153

References 154

9 Rural Water Policy in Africa and Asia 159
Rob Hope, Tim Foster, Johanna Koehler, and Patrick Thomson

9.1 Fifty Years of Rural Water Policy in Africa and Asia 159

9.2 Pillars of Rural Water Policy 160

9.3 Community Access, 1980–2000 163

9.4 Rights and Results, 2000–2020 166

9.5 Regulated Services, 2020–2030 169

9.6 Limits to Progress 173

References 174

10 The Human Right to Water 181
Rhett Larson, Kelsey Leonard, and Richard Rushforth

10.1 The Legal and Historical Background of the Human Right to Water 181

10.2 Defining the Human Right to Water 185

10.2.1 Difference Between Human Right to Water and Water Rights 187

10.3 Implementing the Human Right to Water 188

10.4 Gap Between Policy Articulation and Implementation of the Human Right to Water 190

10.5 Key Policy Challenges Facing the Human Right to Water 192

10.6 Conclusion 193

References 193

11 Policy Processes in Flood Risk Management 197
Edmund C. Penning‐Rowsell, Joanna Pardoe, Jim W. Hall, and Julie Self

11.1 Introduction 197

11.2 Flood Risk: Global and Local Scales 198

11.3 Three Theories of the Policy Process 199

11.3.1 Punctuated Equilibrium 199

11.3.2 Multiple Streams 200

11.3.3 Advocacy Coalitions 201

11.4 Four Contrasting Case Studies of the Policy Process 201

11.4.1 South Africa: 1994–2002 and Beyond 201

11.4.2 Advocacy Coalitions in Bangladesh and the Role of Donor Agencies 204

11.4.3 Flood Risk Management in Tanzania: The President as Policy Entrepreneur 205

11.4.4 Flood Insurance in the UK: Six Decades of Relative Policy Stability 207

11.5 Conclusions 210

References 211

12 The Political Economy of Wastewater in Europe 215
Heather M. Smith and Gareth Walker

12.1 Introduction 215

12.2 Models of Service Delivery 216

12.3 Wastewater as a Driver of Investment and Cost Recovery 219

12.4 Case Studies – Paris and Ireland 221

12.4.1 Paris 221

12.4.2 Ireland 224

12.5 Discussion and Conclusion 226

12.5.1 The Hidden Role of Wastewater 226

12.5.2 Emerging Needs and Opportunities in Wastewater 227

References 229

13 Drought Policy and Management 233
Rachael McDonnell, Stephen Fragaszy, Troy Sternberg, and Swathi Veeravalli

13.1 Introduction 233

13.2 Drought, Aridity, Water Scarcity, and Desertification 234

13.3 Climate Change and Drought 237

13.4 Drought Policy and Management Development 238

13.4.1 Drought Legislation 238

13.4.2 Drought Policies 239

13.4.3 Drought Governance 240

13.5 The ‘Three Pillars’ of Drought Management 240

13.5.1 Pillar 1: Drought Monitoring and Early Warning Systems 241

13.5.2 Pillar 2: Drought Impact and Vulnerability Assessments 241

13.5.3 Pillar 3: Drought Preparedness Planning 242

13.5.4 A Range of Policy Instruments Including Insurance and Water Allocation Regimes 243

13.6 Drought in Mongolia 243

13.6.1 Pillars 1 and 2: Drought Monitoring, Impacts, and Vulnerability 244

13.6.2 Pillar 3: Drought Preparedness, Mitigation, and Response Strategies 245

13.7 The Example of the Middle East and North Africa Region 245

13.7.1 Pillar 1: Technical and Institutional Drought Monitoring Challenges 246

13.7.2 Pillars 2 and 3: Drought Management Institutional Coordination Challenges 247

13.7.3 Building Resilience – The Moroccan Drought Insurance Example 248

13.8 Discussion 248

13.8.1 Case Studies Synthesis 248

13.8.2 Future Directions for Research 249

13.9 Conclusions 249

References 250

Part III Water Management 255

14 Water Resource System Modelling and Decision Analysis 257
Jim W. Hall, Edoardo Borgomeo, Mohammad Mortazavi‐Naeini, and Kevin Wheeler

14.1 The Challenge of Sustainable Water Supply 257

14.2 The Water Resource System Problem 259

14.3 Dealing with Multiple Objectives 261

14.4 Variability and Risk 263

14.5 Uncertainty and Decisions 264

14.6 Embedding Simulation Modelling in Practical Decision‐making 266

14.7 The Expanding Boundaries of Water Resource Systems 268

14.7.1 New Data Sources 268

14.7.2 Economics 268

14.7.3 Finance 269

14.7.4 Society 269

14.7.5 The Environment 269

14.8 Conclusions 270

References 271

15 Financing Water Infrastructure 275
Alex Money

15.1 Introduction 275

15.2 The Infrastructure Financing Challenge 276

15.3 Bridging the Gap 278

15.4 Stakeholder Collaboration and the Constructive Corporation 279

15.5 Hybridity and Blended Finance 280

15.6 Blended Returns on Investments in Infrastructure 282

15.7 Water Infrastructure Portfolio Management 283

15.8 Hybrid Income 284

15.9 Synthesis 285

15.10 Scaling the Model 286

15.11 Conclusion 286

References 287

16 Wastewater: From a Toxin to a Valuable Resource 291
David W.M. Johnstone, Saskia Nowicki, Abishek S. Narayan, and Ranu Sinha

16.1 Introduction 291

16.2 The Early Formative Years 291

16.3 Early Full‐Scale Application and Process Development 294

16.4 The Age of Understanding 294

16.5 Some Important Legislative and Institutional Changes 295

16.6 More Understanding and a Plethora of Processes 296

16.7 The Question of Sludge 298

16.7.1 Heavy Metals 298

16.7.2 Toxic Organic Chemicals 299

16.7.3 Pathogens 299

16.8 A New Philosophy; A New Paradigm? 299

16.8.1 Water 300

16.8.2 Energy 300

16.8.3 Fertilisers 301

16.8.4 Phosphate 301

16.8.5 Other Recoverable Materials 301

16.9 The Uncollected and Untreated 301

16.9.1 Sewers 303

16.9.2 Innovative Institutional Arrangements 303

16.10 Concluding

Remarks 303

References 305

17 A Road Map to Sustainable Urban Water Supply 309
Michael Rouse and Nassim El Achi

17.1 Introduction 309

17.2 International Stimuli – What Has Been Achieved? 309

17.2.1 A Brief History Before the Water Decade of 1981–1990 309

17.2.2 The Water Decade 1981–1990 310

17.2.3 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 312

17.3 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 312

17.3.1 Formation and Definitions 312

17.3.2 Water and Sanitation as a Human Right 313

17.4 Challenges to be Faced 314

17.4.1 Sustained Political Commitment to Goal 314

17.4.2 Reliable Data 315

17.4.3 Effective Planning 315

17.4.4 Water Resources 317

17.4.5 Water Distribution 318

17.4.6 City Planning 320

17.4.7 Finance 321

17.5 Reform Requirements 321

17.5.1 Phnom Penh 321

17.5.2 National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC), Uganda 322

17.5.3 Chile 323

17.5.4 Singapore 324

17.5.5 Conclusions 324

17.6 Achieving Awareness of What Needs to Be Done 325

17.7 An Outline Road Map to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on Water 325

References 326

18 Equity and Urban Water Security 329
Katrina J. Charles, Thanti Octavianti, Erin Hylton, and Grace Remmington

18.1 Introduction 329

18.2 Urban Water Security: Framing the Global Challenge 330

18.2.1 Urban Water Security 330

18.2.2 The Importance of the Urban Space 331

18.2.3 The Challenge of Water Security for Urban Spaces 332

18.3 Trade‐offs in Urban Water Security 334

18.3.1 The Water Security Challenge 335

18.3.2 One Solution for a Complex Issue 335

18.3.3 Universal and Equitable Development 337

18.4 Inclusive Water Security: A Case Study of São Paulo’s Water 339

18.5 Conclusions 340

References 341

19 Reflections on Water Security and Humanity 345
David Grey

19.1 Introduction 345

19.2 Human Origins and Water: Then and Now 346

19.2.1 African Beginnings 346

19.2.2 The Nile 346

19.2.3 The Tigris and Euphrates 347

19.2.4 The Indus 347

19.2.5 What Might We Learn from These Reflections? 348

19.3 Water Security and Risk 349

19.4 Eight Major Global Water Security Challenges 351

19.4.1 The Dynamic Challenge of Water Security Risks in Changing Climates 351

19.4.2 The Challenge of Water Supply and Sanitation 352

19.4.3 The Challenge of Hunger 352

19.4.4 The Challenge of Floods 353

19.4.5 The Challenge of Drought 353

19.4.6 The Challenge of International and Transboundary Waters 354

19.4.7 The Challenge of ‘Spillovers’: From Local to Global 355

19.4.8 The Challenge for the World’s ‘Low Latitude’ Regions 355

19.5 Conclusions: Priorities and Pathways for Policy‐makers 356

19.5.1 Three Priorities for Investment 356

19.5.2 Pathways to Water Security 357

References 358

20 Charting the World’s Water Future? 363
Simon J. Dadson, Edmund C. Penning‐Rowsell, Dustin E. Garrick, Rob Hope, Jim W. Hall , and Jocelyne Hughes

20.1 Linking Water Science, Policy, and Management 363

20.2 Charting the World’s Water Future: Five Key Challenges 363

20.3 A Vision for Interdisciplinary Water Education 365

Index 367

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Simon James Dadson University of Oxford.

Dustin E. Garrick
Edmund C. Penning-Rowsell
Jim W. Hall
Rob Hope
Jocelyne Hughes University of Reading, UK.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Adroll
adroll