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Wireless Power Transmission for Sustainable Electronics. COST WiPE - IC1301. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5226369
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Provides a collection of works produced by COST Action IC1301 with the goal of achieving significant advances in the field of wireless power transmission 

This book constitutes together information from COST Action IC1301, a group of academic and industry experts seeking to align research efforts in the field of wireless power transmission (WPT). It begins with a discussion of backscatter as a solution for Internet of Things (IoT) devices and goes on to describe ambient backscattering sensors that use FM broadcasting for low cost and low power wireless applications. The book also explores localization of passive RFID tags and augmented tags using nonlinearities of RFID chips. It concludes with a review of methods of electromagnetic characterization of textile materials for the development of wearable antennas. 

Wireless Power Transmission for Sustainable Electronics: COST WiPE - IC1301 covers textile-supported wireless energy transfer, and reviews methods for the electromagnetic characterization of textile materials for the development of wearable antennas. It also looks at: backscatter RFID sensor systems for remote health monitoring; simultaneous localization (of robots and objects) and mapping (SLAM); autonomous system of wireless power distribution for static and moving nodes of wireless sensor networks; and more. 

  • Presents techniques for smart beam-forming for "on demand" wireless power transmission (WPT)
  • Discusses RF and microwave energy harvesting for space applications
  • Describes miniaturized RFID transponders for object identification and sensing 

Wireless Power Transmission for Sustainable Electronics: COST WiPE - IC1301 is an excellent book for both graduate students and industry engineers involved in wireless communications and power transfer, and sustainable materials for those fields.

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List of Figures xiii

List of Contributors xxxiii

Preface xxxvii

Acknowledgments xxxix

1 Textile-Supported Wireless Energy Transfer 1
Miroslav Cupal, Jaroslav Láčík, Zbynĕk Raida, Jan Špůrek, and Jan Vélim

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Textile-Coated Single-Wire Transmission Line 3

1.3 Textile-Integrated Components 6

1.3.1 Fabrication of the Top Conductive Layer and the Bottom One 8

1.3.2 Fabrication of Conductive Vias of Side Walls 8

1.4 In-Vehicle Wireless Energy Transfer 15

1.5 Summary 24

References 25

2 A Review of Methods for the Electromagnetic Characterization of Textile Materials for the Development of Wearable Antennas 27
Caroline Loss, Ricardo Gonçalves, Pedro Pinho, and Rita Salvado

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Electromagnetic Properties of Materials 29

2.2.1 Conductive Fabrics 29

2.2.2 Dielectric Fabrics 31

2.3 Dielectric Characterization Methods Applied to Textile Materials and Leather: A Survey 32

2.3.1 Resonant Methods 33

2.3.1.1 Cavity Perturbation Methods 33

2.3.1.2 Microstrip Resonator Patch Method 35

2.3.1.3 Microstrip Resonator Ring Method 35

2.3.1.4 Microstrip Patch Sensor 35

2.3.1.5 Agilent 85070E Dielectric Measurement Probe Kit 39

2.3.1.6 Summary of the Characterization of Textile Materials by Resonant Methods 40

2.3.2 Nonresonant Methods 40

2.3.2.1 Parallel Plate Method 40

2.3.2.2 Free Space Methods 41

2.3.2.3 Planar Transmission Lines Methods 44

2.3.2.4 Summary of the Characterization of Textile Materials by Nonresonant Methods 46

2.4 Some Factors that Affect the Measurement of Dielectric Properties of Textiles 46

2.4.1 Influence of the Moisture Content 46

2.4.2 Influence of the Material Anisotropy 47

2.4.3 Influence of the Bulk Porosity 47

2.4.4 Influence of the Surface Features 48

2.5 Conclusions 48

Acknowledgments 50

References 50

3 Smart Beamforming Techniques for “On Demand” WPT 57
Diego Masotti, Mazen Shanawani, and Alessandra Costanzo

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Basics of Time-modulated Arrays 61

3.3 Nonlinear/Full-Wave Co-simulation of TMAS 63

3.4 Two-Step Agile WPT Strategy 64

3.4.1 Localization Step 65

3.4.2 Power Transfer Step 66

3.5 Simulation Results 68

3.5.1 Localization Step 68

3.5.2 Power Transfer Step 69

3.6 Measured Results 73

3.7 TMA Architecture for Fundamental Pattern Steering 76

3.8 Conclusion 81

References 82

4 Backscatter a Solution for IoT Devices 85
Daniel Belo, Ricardo Correia, Marina Jordao, Pedro Pinho, and Nuno B. Carvalho

4.1 Backscatter Basics 85

4.1.1 Different Backscatter Sensors Development 87

4.1.2 Backscatter with WPT Capabilities 87

4.1.3 High-Order Backscatter Modulation 88

4.1.4 Modulated High-Bandwidth Backscatter with WPT Capabilities 89

4.2 An IoT-Complete Sensor with Backscatter Capabilities 90

4.2.1 System Description 91

4.2.2 Digital Component 92

4.2.3 Measurements 94

4.3 The Power Availability for These Sensors 97

4.3.1 Electronically Steerable Phased Array for Wireless Power Transfer Applications 98

4.3.2 Wireless Energy Receiving Device 101

4.3.3 Experimental Results 104

4.4 Characterization of High-Order Modulation Backscatter Systems 107

4.4.1 Characterization System 107

4.4.2 Measurements 110

References 114

5 Ambient FM Backscattering Low-Cost and Low-Power Wireless RFID Applications 117
Spyridon N. Daskalakis, Ricardo Correia, John Kimionis, George Goussetis, Manos M. Tentzeris, Nuno B. Carvalho, and Apostolos Georgiadis

5.1 Introduction 117

5.2 Ambient Backscattering 120

5.2.1 Ambient FM Backscattering 122

5.2.2 Binary Modulation Tag 124

5.2.3 4-PAM Tag 125

5.2.4 Binary Telecommunication Protocol 127

5.2.5 4-PAM Telecommunication Protocol 129

5.2.6 Receiver 129

5.2.7 Software Binary Receiver 130

5.2.8 Software 4-PAM Receiver 132

5.2.9 Experimental and Measurement Results 132

5.3 Conclusions 138

Acknowledgments 139

References 139

6 Backscatter RFID Sensor System for Remote Health Monitoring 145
Jasmin Grosinger

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 On-Body System 146

6.2.1 Body Model 146

6.2.2 Antennas 149

6.2.2.1 Monopole Antennas 149

6.2.2.2 Patch Antennas 151

6.3 Radio Channel 152

6.3.1 Measurement Setup 153

6.3.2 Comparison of Simulations and Measurements 154

6.3.3 Measurement Results 156

6.3.3.1 Antenna Matching 156

6.3.3.2 Channel Gain 157

6.4 System Performance 159

6.4.1 Forward Link 162

6.4.1.1 System Example 165

6.4.2 Backward Link 166

6.4.2.1 System Example 166

6.5 Conclusions 168

Acknowledgments 169

References 170

7 Robotics Meets RFID for Simultaneous Localization (of Robots and Objects) and Mapping (SLAM) – A Joined Problem 175
Antonis G. Dimitriou, Stavroula Siachalou, Emmanouil Tsardoulias, and Loukas Petrou

7.1 Scope 175

7.2 Introduction 176

7.3 Localization of RFID Tags – Prior Art 182

7.3.1 Multipath in Passive RFID Systems 184

7.3.2 Representative Localization Techniques 185

7.3.2.1 Angle of Arrival 185

7.3.2.2 Received Signal Strength – Bayes’ Theorem and Conditional Probability 187

7.3.2.3 Fingerprinting – “Landmarc” 189

7.3.2.4 Holographic Localization 190

7.3.2.5 Other Methods 192

7.3.3 Analysis of Prior Art 194

7.4 A Brief Introduction in SLAM/Localization Techniques 195

7.4.1 Introduction to Localization, Mapping, and SLAM 196

7.4.2 Mathematical Formulation of SLAM 197

7.4.3 Probabilistically Solving SLAM 198

7.4.4 Space Representation in SLAM 201

7.4.5 SLAM Algorithm Selection 202

7.4.5.1 What are the Robot’s Sensors? 202

7.4.5.2 Which is the Environmental Morphology? 203

7.4.5.3 How Will the Generated Map Be Utilized? 203

7.4.6 SLAM/Localization and RFID Localization Issues 204

7.5 Prototype – Experimental Results 206

7.5.1 Equipment 206

7.5.2 Methodology 208

7.5.2.1 Phase 1 208

7.5.2.2 Phase 2 209

7.5.3 Results 212

7.6 Discussion 216

Acknowledgments 218

References 218

8 From Identification to Sensing: Augmented RFID Tags 223
Konstantinos Zannas, Hatem El Matbouly, Yvan Duroc, and Smail Tedjini

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Generic RFID Communication Chain 226

8.2.1 RFID Sensor Tag 226

8.2.2 RFID Data Capture Level 228

8.2.3 RFID Tag Process Level 229

8.2.4 RFID Communication Channel 231

8.2.5 RFID Reader Process Level and RFID Reader 232

8.3 RFID Sensor Tags: Examples from Literature or Commercially Available 233

8.3.1 Examples from Literature 234

8.3.2 Examples Commercially Available 239

8.4 Comparison of Different Types of RFID Temperature Sensors 240

8.5 Conclusion 242

References 243

9 Autonomous System of Wireless Power Distribution for Static and Moving Nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks 247
Przemyslaw Kant, Karol Dobrzyniewicz, and Jerzy Julian Michalski

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Data Routing in WSN Based on Multiple Spanning Trees Concept 248

9.2.1 Multiple Spanning Trees Routing Protocol 249

9.2.2 Software WSN Simulator 252

9.2.3 Experimental Verification 253

9.3 WPT System for 2D Distributed WSN 256

9.3.1 System Concept 257

9.3.2 Physical Realization of 2D WPT System 260

9.3.3 Experimental Verification of the 2DWPT System 264

9.3.4 Tests of 2D WPT System with Implemented Switching Algorithm 266

9.4 WPT System for 3D Distributed WSN 269

9.4.1 Design of Components of the 3D WPT System 272

9.5 Locating System and Electromagnetic Power Supply for WSN in 3D Space 275

9.5.1 Tracking Subsystem 276

9.5.2 Data Exchange System 278

9.5.3 Angular Position Estimation of Moving WSN Node 279

9.5.4 Experimental Verification 281

9.5.5 Adaptation of the System to WPT for WSN 282

9.5.5.1 Tracking System 282

9.5.5.2 WSN Node 282

9.6 Summary 283

References 284

10 Smartphone Reception of Microwatt, Meter to Kilometer Range Backscatter Resistive/Capacitive Sensors with Ambient FM Remodulation and Selection Diversity 287
Georgios Vougioukas and Aggelos Bletsas

10.1 Introduction 287

10.2 Operating Principle 291

10.2.1 Backscatter Communication 291

10.2.2 FM Remodulation 292

10.3 Impact of Noise 293

10.3.1 High SNR Case 294

10.3.2 Low SNR Case 301

10.4 Occupied Bandwidth 302

10.5 Ambient Selection Diversity 303

10.6 Analog Tag Implementation 304

10.6.1 Sensing Capacitor and Control Circuit 305

10.6.1.1 Generating 𝜇(t) – First Modulation Level 305

10.6.1.2 Generating xFM(t) – Second Modulation Level 306

10.6.2 RF-Switch 306

10.6.3 Power Consumption and Supply 306

10.6.3.1 Batteryless Tag with Photodiode 307

10.6.3.2 Batteryless Tag with Solar Panel 307

10.6.3.3 Batteryless Tag with Lemons 307

10.6.4 Receiver 308

10.6.4.1 Smartphone 308

10.6.4.2 Computer 309

10.7 Performance Characterization 309

10.7.1 Simulation Results 309

10.7.2 Tag Indoor and Outdoor Performance 312

10.8 Conclusions 313

10.9 Bandwidth of J0 (2𝜌 sin (𝜔sens/2 t)) 314

10.10 Expectation of the Absolute Value of a Gaussian R.V 316

10.11 Probability of Outage Under Ambient Selection Diversity 316

Acknowledgment 318

References 318

11 Design of an ULP-ULV RF-Powered CMOS Front-End for Low-Rate Autonomous Sensors 323
Hugo García-Vázquez, Alexandre Quenon, Grigory Popov, and Fortunato Carlos Dualibe

11.1 Introduction 323

11.2 Characterization of the Technology 326

11.2.1 gm/ID Curves 326

11.2.2 COX and μCOX 329

11.2.3 Early Voltage (VA) 331

11.3 Ultra-Low Power and Ultra-Low Voltage RF-Powered Transceiver for Autonomous Sensors 332

11.3.1 Power Management (PM) and Receiver (RX) 332

11.3.1.1 Rectifier 333

11.3.1.2 Voltage Reference (VREF) Circuit 335

11.3.1.3 Comparator for Power Management (COMP1) 335

11.3.1.4 Current Reference Circuit (IREF) 336

11.3.1.5 Comparator for the Demodulation (COMP2) 336

11.3.2 Control Unit (CU) 336

11.3.3 Transmitter (TX) 337

11.3.3.1 Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) 337

11.3.3.2 Power amplifier (PA) with built-in driver 340

11.4 Experimental Results 341

11.5 Conclusion 343

Acknowledgments 343

References 344

12 Rectenna Optimization Guidelines for Ambient Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting 347
Erika Vandelle, Simon Hemour, Tan-Phu Vuong, Gustavo Ardila, and Ke Wu

12.1 Introduction 347

12.2 Rectennas Under Low Input Powers 348

12.2.1 Rectifier Optimization 350

12.2.2 Low Power Matching Network Optimization 353

12.2.2.1 The Bode-Fano Criterion 353

12.2.2.2 Matching Network Efficiency 354

12.2.3 Low-Power Antenna Optimization 356

12.2.3.1 Enhancement of the Output DC Power 357

12.2.3.2 Rectenna Array 358

12.2.3.3 Antenna Array with BFN 358

12.2.3.4 Optimization of the Antenna Efficiency 361

12.3 The Chance of Collecting Ambient Electromagnetic Energy with a Specific Antenna 361

12.3.1 Frequency Spectrum 362

12.3.2 Polarization 362

12.3.3 Spatial Coverage 365

12.3.4 Harvesting Capability 366

12.4 Conclusion 367

References 368

Index 375

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Nuno Borges Carvalho
Apostolos Georgiadis Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.
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