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Cognition. Edition No. 10

  • ID: 5226669
  • Book
  • November 2019
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The study of human cognitive processes provides insight into why we act or react and can help us predict future behaviors. In Cognition, authors Thomas Farmer and Margaret Matlin present an engaging and highly relatable examination of how these processes work, and how they are responsible for the way we perceive and interpret the world around us. Broad in scope without sacrificing depth of detail, this text emphasizes the link between conceptual cognitive psychology and real-world experience; case studies, current trends, and historical perspectives merge to provide a comprehensive understanding of core principles and theories.

This new Tenth Edition has been updated to reflect the latest research, technology, and thinking, with more in-depth coverage of topics rising to prominence in the field’s current knowledge base. Expanded explanations balance classical and contemporary approaches to specific topics, while additional experiments and an emphasis on methodology and experimental design are included to facilitate a greater appreciation of the field’s rigorous research.

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Preface xv

1 An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 1

Chapter Introduction 1

What is Cognitive Psychology? 2

Historical Perspective on the Field 4

Origins of Cognitive Psychology 4

Cognitive Revolution 7

Cognitive Psychology in Present Times 8

Mind, Brain, and Behavior 9

Cognitive Science 9

Computer Metaphor of the Mind 10

Cognitive Neuroscience 12

Textbook Overview 15

Chapter Preview 16

Themes in the Book 17

How to Use Your Book Effectively 18

Section Summary Points 21

Chapter Review Questions 21

Keywords 22

Recommended Readings 22

Answer to Demonstration 1.4 22

2 Visual and Auditory Recognition 23

Chapter Introduction 23

Overview of Visual Object Recognition 24

The Visual System 24

Organization in Visual Perception 26

Theories of Visual Object Recognition 27

Top-Down Processing and Visual Object Recognition 30

Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Processing 31

Top-Down Processing and Reading 32

“Smart Mistakes” in Object Recognition 33

Specialized Visual Recognition Processes 36

Neuroscience Research on Face Recognition 36

Applied Research on Face Recognition 37

Speech Perception 39

Characteristics of Speech Perception 40

Theories of Speech Perception 42

Section Summary Points 43

Chapter Review Questions 44

Keywords 45

Recommended Readings 45

3 Attention and Consciousness 46

Chapter Introduction 46

Overview of Attention 47

Divided Attention 47

Selective Attention 48

Eye Movements in Reading 53

Overview of Eye Movements in Reading 53

Selective Attention in Reading 54

Neuroscience of Attention 55

The Orienting Attention Network 56

The Executive Attention Network 56

Theories of Attention 57

Early Theories of Attention 57

Feature-Integration Theory 57

Consciousness 59

Thought Suppression 61

Blindsight 61

Section Summary Points 62

Chapter Review Questions 63

Keywords 64

Recommended Readings 64

4 Working Memory 65

Chapter Introduction 65

Classical Research on Short-Term Memory 66

Short-Term Memory Capacity Limits 67

Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Information Processing 70

The Turn to Working Memory 71

Evidence for Components with Independent Capacities 73

Phonological Loop 74

Visuospatial Sketchpad 76

Central Executive 77

Episodic Buffer 79

Applications of Working Memory 80

Working Memory and Academic Performance 80

Working Memory Abilities in Clinical Populations 80

Section Summary Points 82

Chapter Review Questions 83

Keywords 84

Recommended Readings 84

5 Long-Term Memory 85

Chapter Introduction 85

Overview of Long-Term Memory 86

Encoding in Long-Term Memory 87

Levels of Processing 87

Encoding-Specificity Principle 90

Retrieval in Long-Term Memory 92

Explicit Versus Implicit Memory Tasks 92

Individuals with Amnesia 94

Autobiographical Memory 95

Schemas and Autobiographical Memory 96

Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring 96

Flashbulb Memories 97

Eyewitness Testimony 99

Special Topics in Long-Term Memory 102

Expertise 102

Emotions and Memory 104

The Recovered-Memory/False-Memory Controversy 107

Section Summary Points 109

Chapter Review Questions 110

Keywords 111

Recommended Readings 111

6 Memory Strategies and Metacognition 112

Chapter Introduction 112

Memory Strategies I: Memory Strategies Informed by Memory Concepts 113

Divided Attention 113

Working Memory 113

Levels of Processing 114

Encoding Specificity 115

Memory Strategies II: Practice and Mnemonics 116

Memory Strategies Emphasizing Practice 116

Mnemonics Using Imagery and Organization 118

Prospective Memory 121

Metamemory 123

Accuracy of Metamemory 124

Metamemory About Factors Affecting Memory Accuracy 126

Metamemory and the Regulation of Study Strategies 126

Tip-of-the-Tongue and Feeling-of-Knowing Effects 127

Metacomprehension 129

Section Summary Points 131

Chapter Review Questions 132

Keywords 132

Recommended Readings 133

Answer to Demonstration 6.4 133

7 Mental Imagery and Cognitive Maps 134

Chapter Introduction 134

Classical Research on Visual Imagery 135

Overview of Mental Imagery 135

Mental Rotation 136

The Imagery Debate 139

Visual Imagery and Ambiguous Figures 140

Factors That Influence Visual Imagery 143

Distance and Shape Effects on Visual Imagery 143

Visual Imagery and Interference 144

Visual Imagery and Other Vision-Like Processes 145

Gender Comparisons in Spatial Ability 145

Auditory Imagery 146

Auditory Imagery and Pitch 147

Auditory Imagery and Timbre 147

Cognitive Maps 148

Distance and Shape Effects on Cognitive Maps 150

Relative Position Effects on Cognitive Maps 152

Creating a Cognitive Map 154

Section Summary Points 155

Chapter Review Questions 156

Keywords 157

Recommended Readings 157

8 General Knowledge 158

Chapter Introduction 158

Background and Approaches to Semantic Memory 159

Background Information 159

The Prototype Approach 161

The Exemplar Approach and Semantic Memory 164

Comparing the Prototsype and Exemplar Approaches 166

Network Models of Semantic Memory 167

Anderson’s ACT-R Approach 167

The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach 169

Schemas and Scripts 172

Background on Schemas and Scripts 173

Schemas and Memory Selection 174

Schemas and Boundary Extension 176

Schemas and Memory Abstraction 178

Schemas and Memory Integration 179

Section Summary Points 184

Chapter Review Questions 184

Keywords 185

Recommended Readings 185

Answer to Demonstration 8.1 186

9 Language I: Introduction to Language and Language Comprehension 187

Chapter Introduction 187

Overview of Psycholinguistics 188

Relevant Terminology and Background on Language 188

A Brief History of Psycholinguistics 190

Chomsky’s Approach 190

Reactions to Chomsky’s Theory 191

On-line Sentence Comprehension 192

Negation and the Passive Voice 192

Lexical and Syntactic Ambiguity 195

Brain and Language 198

General Considerations 198

Aphasia 199

Revisiting Broca’s Area 200

Hemispheric Specialization 201

The Mirror System 203

Reading 203

Comparing Written and Spoken Language 204

Reading Words: Theoretical Approaches 205

Implications for Teaching Reading to Children 206

Discourse Comprehension 207

Forming an Integrated Representation of the Text 208

Drawing Inferences During Reading 209

Teaching Metacomprehension Skills 211

Section Summary Points 212

Chapter Review Questions 213

Keywords 213

Recommended Readings 213

Answer to Demonstration 9.1 214

10 Language II: Language Production and Bilingualism 215

Chapter Introduction 215

Speaking I: Overview of Production Processes 216

Producing a Word 216

Speech Errors 217

Producing a Sentence 218

Producing Discourse 219

Speaking II: Language Production and Naturalistic Communication 219

Using Gestures: Embodied Cognition 219

The Social Context of Language Production 222

Language Production and Writing 225

The Role of Working Memory in Writing 225

Planning a Formal Writing Assignment 226

Sentence Generation during Writing 226

The Revision Phase of Writing 227

Bilingualism 227

Background on Bilingualism 228

The Social Context of Bilingualism 229

Advantages (and Minor Disadvantages) of Bilingualism 230

Proficiency and Second Language Acquisition 231

Second Language Proficiency 232

Vocabulary 232

Phonology 232

Grammar 232

Simultaneous Interpreters 234

Section Summary Points 235

Chapter Review Questions 236

Keywords 236

Recommended Readings 237

11 Problem Solving and Creativity 238

Chapter Introduction 238

Understanding the Problem 239

Methods of Representing the Problem 240

Situated and Embodied Cognition Perspectives on Problem Solving 243

Problem-Solving Strategies 244

The Analogy Approach 245

The Means-Ends Heuristic 246

The Hill-Climbing Heuristic 247

Factors That Influence Problem Solving 248

Expertise 248

Mental Set 249

Functional Fixedness 250

Gender Stereotypes and Math Problem Solving 251

Insight versus Noninsight Problems 253

Creativity 255

The Nature of Creativity 255

Motivation and Creativity 256

Section Summary Points 257

Chapter Review Questions 258

Keywords 259

Recommended Readings 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.3 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.5 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.6B 259

Answer to Demonstration 11.7A 260

Answer to Demonstration 11.7B 260

12 Deductive Reasoning and Decision Making 261

Chapter Introduction 261

Deductive Reasoning 262

Overview of Conditional Reasoning 263

Factors That Cause Difficulty in Reasoning 264

Belief-Bias Effect 265

Confirmation Bias 266

Decision Making I: Overview of Heuristics 268

Representativeness Heuristic 268

Availability Heuristic 272

Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 275

Current Status of Heuristics and Decision Making 277

Decision Making II: Applications of Decision Making Research 278

Framing Effect 278

Overconfidence about Decisions 280

Hindsight Bias 282

Decision-Making Style and Psychological Well-Being 283

Section Summary Points 284

Chapter Review Questions 285

Keywords 286

Recommended Readings 286

Answer to Demonstration 12.1 286

Answer to Demonstration 12.6 286

13 Cognitive Development throughout the Lifespan 287

Chapter Introduction 287

The Lifespan Development of Memory 288

Memory in Infants 288

Memory in Children 291

Memory in Elderly People 297

The Lifespan Development of Metamemory 301

Metamemory in Children 301

Metamemory in Elderly People 304

The Development of Language 305

Language in Infants 305

Language in Children 308

Section Summary Points 312

Chapter Review Questions 313

Keywords 313

Recommended Readings 314

Glossary 315

References 333

Index 404

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Margaret W. Matlin SUNY Geneseo.

Thomas A. Farmer
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