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Social Development. Edition No. 3

  • ID: 5226685
  • Book
  • October 2019
  • 672 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Social Development provides a comprehensive introduction to the multiple factors that shape a child’s behavior, interaction with others, feelings about themselves, and how and why behaviors change over time. Delving into the biological, cognitive, and perceptual aspects of development and their influence on behavior, socialization, and self-image, this text also recognizes the significance of cultural and societal distinctions by emphasizing the value of context and identifying cultural variation’s role in social development.

Special pedagogical features in each chapter enhance the learning experience and promote student understanding: counter-intuitive examples cases challenge reader assumptions, coverage of extreme cases tell the story behind historical advancements, and profiles of current leaders in the field highlight the many paths to a career in social development. With a focus on real-world application, coupled with coverage of cutting-edge methodologies and the latest research findings, this book gives students a strong, highly relevant foundation in core concepts and practices central to the study of social development.

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Preface xix

1 Introduction: Theories of Social Development 1

Bet You Didn’t Know That . . . Newborns Can Recognize Their Mothers by Smell 2

Social Development: A Brief History 2

Critical Questions about Social Development 3

How Do Biological and Environmental Influences Affect Social Development? 3

What Role Do Children Play In Their Own Development? 4

What Is The Appropriate Unit for Studying Social Development? 4

Insights from Extremes: Genie, a “Wild Child” 5

Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? 5

Is Social Behavior the Result of the Situation or the Child? 7

Is Social Development Universal Across Cultures? 7

Cultural Context: Parenting Advice Around the Globe 8

How Does Social Development Vary Across Historical Eras? 9

Is Social Development Related to Other Developmental Domains? 10

How Important Are Mothers for Children’s Social Development? 10

Research Up Close: Children of the Great Depression 11

Is There a Single Pathway of Social Development? 12

What Influences How We Judge Children’s Social Behavior? 13

Do Developmental Psychologists “Own” Social Development? 13

Is Social Development Focused on Only Basic Research or on Applied and Policy Relevant Concerns as Well? 14

Theoretical Perspectives on Social Development 14

Psychodynamic Perspective 15

Into Adulthood: Fatherhood and Generativity 19

Traditional Learning Theory Perspective 20

Cognitive Learning Perspective 21

Information-Processing Perspective 24

Cognitive Developmental Perspective 26

Systems-Theory Perspective 29

Biological Perspective 31

Life Span Perspective 35

A Variety of Theoretical Perspectives 36

Learning from Living Leaders 36

Chapter Summary 38

Key Terms 41

At the Movies 41

2 Research Methods: Tools for Discovery 43

Getting Started: Formulating Hypotheses, Asking Questions 44

Research Methods: Establishing Patterns and Causes 44

The Correlational Method 45

Laboratory Experiments 46

Field Experiments, Interventions, and Natural Experiments 48

Insights from Extremes: Lost and Found Children 49

Combining Different Methods 50

Real-World Application: Treating an Aggressive Child 51

The Case Study Approach 52

Studying Change Over Time 52

Cross-Sectional Design 52

The Longitudinal Design 52

Into Adulthood: Behavior in Childhood Predicts Adult Outcomes 55

The Cross-Sequential Design 55

Selecting a Sample 57

Representativeness of the Sample 57

The National Survey Approach 58

Meta-Analysis: Combining Results Across Studies 59

Studying Development Cross-Culturally 59

Cultural Context: Challenges for Researchers 60

Gathering Data 61

Children’s Self-Reports 61

Research Up Close: The Puppet Interview Method 62

Reports by Family Members, Teachers, and Peers 64

Focus Groups 65

Direct Observation 66

Bet You Thought That . . .: Parents Can Accurately Report Retrospectively About Their Children’s Early Years 67

Ways of Recording and Coding Observations 70

Analyzing Data 74

Ethics of Research with Children 76

Learning from Living Leaders 78

Chapter Summary 81

Key Terms 83

At the Movies 83

3 Biological Foundations: Roots in Neurons and Genes 85

Biological Preparedness for Social Interaction 86

How Are Babies Prepared? 86

Why Are Babies Prepared? 90

The Neurological Basis of Social Development 90

The Brain 91

Brain Growth and Development 91

Hemispheric Specialization 93

Neurons and Synapses 94

Brain Development and Experience 95

Mirror Neurons and the Social Brain 95

Genetics and Social Development 99

Bet You Thought That . . .: Genes Determine Your Potential 99

Methods of Studying Genetic Contributions to Development 100

Models of Genetic Influence 103

Genetic Anomalies 108

Research Up Close: A Genetic Risk for Drug Use 109

Insights from Extremes: Autism 110

Real-World Application: Genetic Counseling, Genetic Selection 112

Temperament: Causes and Consequences 113

Defining and Measuring Temperament 113

Cultural Context: Are Temperaments the Same Around the World? 115

The Biological Basis of Temperament 115

Early Evidence of Temperament 117

Consequences and Correlates of Temperament 117

Into Adulthood: Shy Children Thirty Years Later 120

Learning from Living Leaders 121

Chapter Summary 123

Key Terms 125

At the Movies 126

4 Attachment: Forming Close Relationships 127

Theories of Attachment 128

Psychoanalytic Theory 128

Learning Theories 129

Cognitive Developmental Theory 129

Ethological Theory 130

Insights from Extremes: Maternal Bonding 131

How Attachment Develops 132

Formation and Early Development of Attachment 133

What It Means to Be Attached 133

Attachment to Whom? 134

The Nature and Quality of Attachment 135

Bet You Thought That . . .: Babies Become Attached to Their Teddy Bears and Blankets 135

Different Types of Attachment Relationships 136

Cultural Context: Assessing Attachment in Different Cultures 140

Parents’ Role in Infants’ Attachment Development 141

Research Up Close: Early Experience, Hormones, and Attachment 145

Real-World Application: Attachment When Mother (or Father) Goes to Prison 149

Effects of Infant Characteristics on Attachment 150

Stability and Consequences of Attachment 151

Stability and Change in Attachment Over Time 151

Attachments in Older Children 153

Consequences of Attachment 153

Into Adulthood: From Early Attachment to Later Romantic Relationships 158

Learning from Living Leaders 159

Chapter Summary 161

Key Terms 163

At the Movies 163

5 Emotions: Thoughts about Feelings 165

What Are Emotions? 166

Why Are Emotions Important? 166

Perspectives on Emotional Development 166

Biological Perspective 167

Learning Perspective 167

Functional Perspective 168

Development of Emotions 168

Primary Emotions 169

Bet You Thought That. . .: A Smile Is a Smile Is a Smile 172

Secondary Emotions 178

Individual Differences in Emotional Expressiveness 181

Development of Emotional Understanding 182

Recognizing Emotions in Others 182

Cultural Context: Expressing and Understanding Emotions in Different Cultures 184

Beyond Recognition: Knowledge of and Understanding About Emotions 185

Emotion Regulation 188

Socialization of Emotion 189

Into Adulthood: Controlling Negative Emotions in Adulthood 190

Socialization by Parents 191

Socialization by Other Children 194

Research Up Close: Emotional Development in a High School Theater Program 194

Socialization by Teachers 195

Real-World Application: Teachers as Promoters of Emotional Competence 196

When Emotional Development Goes Wrong 197

Insights from Extremes: When Children Commit Suicide 199

Causes of Childhood Depression 200

Treating Childhood Depression 201

Learning from Living Leaders 202

Chapter Summary 203

Key Terms 204

At the Movies 204

6 Self and Other: Getting to Know Me, Getting to Know You 206

The Sense of Self 207

Developmental Origins of Self-Concept 208

Cultural Context: How Culture Shapes Self-Representations 210

Difficulty Developing a Sense of Self: Autistic Children 211

Self-Perceptions 212

Global Self-Esteem 212

Domain-Specific Perceptions 212

Learning Self-Appraisal 213

Gender Variations in Global Self-Esteem 214

Social Determinants of Self-Esteem 215

Identity Formation 216

Into Adulthood: Identity Formation Continues 219

Ethnic Identity 220

Religious Identity 225

Real-World Application: Sexual Orientation and Identity 226

Development of Knowledge about Others 228

Early Understanding of Intentions and Norms 228

Later Understanding of Mental States: Theory of Mind 228

Research Up Close: The Brain Beneath Theory of Mind 229

Bet You Thought That . . .: Babies Are Not Mind Readers 230

Understanding Psychological Trait Labels 231

Perspective Taking 232

Advancing Social Understanding 233

Stereotyping and Prejudice 235

Insights from Extremes: The Most Extreme Prejudice: Genocide 238

Communication Between Me and You: The Role of Language 239

Steps Toward Language Fluency 239

Semantic Development: The Power of Words 241

The Acquisition of Grammar: From Words to Sentences 241

Learning the Social Uses of Language 242

Learning from Living Leaders 244

Chapter Summary 245

Key Terms 247

At the Movies 247

7 Family: Early and Enduring Influences 248

The Family System 249

The Couple System 249

Into Adulthood: Transition to Parenthood 253

The Parent–Child System 254

Research Up Close: Transmission of Hostile Parenting across Generations 259

Bet You Thought That . . .: Parenting Is a Brain Drain, Not a Brain Booster 262

The Coparenting System 264

Insights from Extremes: When Is a Family Too Large? 265

The Sibling System 265

The Family Unit: Stories, Rituals, and Routines 270

Real-World Application: “Let’s Have Dinner” 271

Family Variation: Social Class and Culture 272

Differences in Family Values and Practices Related to Socioeconomic Status 272

Cultural Patterns in Child Rearing 273

Cultural Context: How Effects of Parenting Vary Across Cultures 274

The Changing American Family 276

Parents’ Employment and Child Development 277

Parenting after Thirty 280

New Reproductive Technologies 281

Adoption: Another Route to Parenthood 281

Gay and Lesbian Parents 282

Parenting Alone 283

Divorce and Remarriage 284

Learning from Living Leaders 291

Chapter Summary 293

Key Terms 295

At the Movies 295

8 Peers: A World of Their Own 297

Definitions and Distinctions 298

Developmental Patterns of Peer Interaction 298

First Encounters in Infancy 298

Social Exchanges between Toddlers 300

Peer Play in Early Childhood 301

Peer Society in the School Years 302

Peer Interactions in Adolescence 304

Peers as Socializers 304

Modeling Behavior 305

Reinforcing and Punishing Behavior 305

Contagion 305

Social Comparison 306

Cultural Context: Peer Roles and Relationships in Different Cultures 306

Peer Status 308

Studying Peer Status: Acceptance and Rejection 308

Factors that Affect Peer Acceptance 309

Consequences of Peer Rejection 315

Bet You Thought That . . .: Names Would Never Hurt You 316

Research Up Close: When “Love Thine Enemy” Fails 317

Insights from Extremes: From Rejection to Revenge? 318

Promoters of Peer Acceptance 320

Parents as Promoters of Peer Acceptance 320

Researchers as Promoters of Peer Acceptance 324

Peers Can Help Too 326

When Peers Become Friends 326

Age Changes in Friendship 326

Interactions with Friends 329

Insights from Extremes: When Children Love and Protect Each Other 330

Friendship Patterns 331

The Pros and Cons of Friendship 332

Romantic Relationships 332

Interaction in Groups 334

Dominance Hierarchies 335

Cliques, Crowds, and Gangs 336

Into Adulthood: What Happens When Jocks, Brains, and Princesses Grow Up 337

Real-World Application: Youth Gangs 339

Learning from Living Leaders 339

Chapter Summary 341

Key Terms 343

At the Movies 344

9 Schools, Mentors, and Media: Connections with Society 345

The Role of the School in Social Development 346

Schools as Social Communities 346

School Size and Organization 347

Class Size and Organization 350

Bet You Thought That . . .: Homeschooled Children Were Socially Disadvantaged 352

The Teachers’ Impact 353

School–Family Links 355

Cultural Context: Matching Classroom Organization to Cultural Values and Practices 356

School Integration 359

After-School Programs 360

Mentors Supporting Social Development 361

Natural Mentors 362

Mentor Programs 363

Electronic Media and Children’s Social Lives 364

Screen Media: Television and Digital Media 364

Positive Effects of Screen Media 364

Potential Negative Effects of Screen Media 365

Do Children Understand What They See? 369

Real-World Application: Advertising Influences Children’s

Choices 371

How Can Parents and Siblings Modify TV’s Negative Effects? 372

Into Adulthood: Still Playing Games? 373

Playing Video Games 374

Smartphones and Social Media 375

Potential Positive Effects of Smartphones and Social Media 375

Concerns Regarding Smartphones and Social Media 377

Research Up Close: Role-Playing Games and Social Life 380

Insights from Extremes: The Risks of Sexting 381

Learning from Living Leaders 381

Chapter Summary 384

Key Terms 386

At the Movies 386

10 Sex and Gender: Vive La Différence? 388

Getting Started: Defining Sex and Gender 388

Gender Differences in Growth, Abilities, Activities, and Interests 389

Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 392

Stability of Gender Typing 393

Into Adulthood: Occupations for Men and Women 393

Sex Differences in Gender Typing 395

Gender Stereotypes 395

Cultural Context: Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotypes 397

Biological Factors in Gender Differences 398

Bet You Thought That . . .: Gender Identity was Determined by Biological Sex 398

Evolutionary Theory and Gender Development 400

Insights from Extremes: The First American Transgendered Person 400

Hormones and Social Behavior 401

Gender and the Brain 402

Genetics of Gender 404

Biology and Cultural Expectations 404

Cognitive Factors in Gender Typing 405

Cognitive Developmental Theory 406

Gender-Schema Theory: An Information-Processing Approach 407

Comparison of Cognitive Developmental and Gender-Schema Theories 408

Social Influences on Gender Typing 408

Theories of Social Influence 408

Parents’ Influence on Children’s Gender-Typed Choices 409

Parents’ Behavior toward Girls and Boys 410

Modeling Parents’ Characteristics 413

When Father Is Absent 413

Research Up Close: Gender Roles in Counterculture Families 414

Siblings as Agents of Gender Socialization 416

Role Models in Books, Games, and Television 417

Peers, Gender Roles, and Gender Segregation 418

Real-World Application: Do Computers Widen the Gender Gap? 419

Schools and Teachers 422

Nature and Nurture 425

Androgyny 425

Learning from Living Leaders 427

Chapter Summary 428

Key Terms 430

At the Movies 431

11 Morality: Knowing Right, Doing Good 432

Moral Judgment 433

Piaget’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment 433

Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment 435

Insights from Extremes: Moral Heroes 437

Cultural Context: Justice versus Interpersonal Obligations in India and the United States 441

Turiel’s Social Domain Theory 443

How Children Learn the Rules and Distinguish between Social Domains 446

Moral Behavior 449

Bet You Thought That . . .: Moral Judgment Leads to Moral Action 450

Self-Regulation of Behavior 451

Individual Differences in Moral Behavior 451

Consistency of Moral Behavior across Situations and Time 452

Into Adulthood: The Love of Money Is the Root of All Evil 453

Research Up Close: Children Telling Lies 454

Moral Emotions 456

Development of Moral Emotions 456

Do Moral Emotions Affect Moral Behavior? 458

Real-World Application: Adolescents’ Competence to Stand Trial as Adults 459

The Whole Moral Child 460

Prosocial and Altruistic Behavior 461

How Prosocial Behavior and Reasoning Develop 461

Determinants of Prosocial Development 464

Learning from Living Leaders 470

Chapter Summary 473

Key Terms 474

At the Movies 474

12 Aggression: Insult and Injury 476

Types of Aggression 477

Patterns of Aggression 479

Developmental Changes in Aggression 479

Gender Differences in Aggression 481

Stability of Individual Differences in Aggression 483

Into Adulthood: From Childhood Aggression to Road Rage 485

Causes of Aggression 486

Biological Origins of Aggressive Behavior 486

Social Influences on the Development of Aggression 489

Insights from Extremes: Child Soldiers 493

Combined Biological and Social Influences on Aggression 497

Research Up Close: Genes, Environmental Triggers, and Aggressive Behavior 499

Sociocognitive Factors in the Development of Aggression 500

Bullies and Victims 502

Behavior of Bullies and Victims 503

Consequences of Bullying 505

Real-World Application: Cyberfighting and Cyberbullying 505

Conditions Leading to Bullying 507

Control of Aggression 508

Bet You Thought That . . .: You Could Reduce Aggressive Feelings by “Letting off Steam” 508

Cognitive Modification Strategies 509

Parents as Agents for Reducing Aggression 509

Schools as Venues for Intervention 510

Aggression Prevention: A Multipronged Effort 510

Cultural Context: Preventing Youth Violence 513

Learning from Living Leaders 514

Chapter Summary 516

Key Terms 517

At the Movies 518

13 Policy: Improving Children’s Lives 519

What Determines Public Policy for Children? 520

Types of Public Policy 521

Children in Poverty: A Social Policy Challenge 523

Economic Hardship and Social Disadvantage 523

Effects of Poverty on Children 523

Programs to Reverse Effects of Poverty 524

Real-World Application: Early Intervention with Children in Poverty 527

Child Care: A Problem Lacking a Unified Policy 528

Choosing Child Care: What’s a Parent to Do? 528

Effects of Child Care on Children 529

How Can Policy Help? 531

Research Up Close: The Florida Child Care Quality Improvement Study 534

Teenage Pregnancy: Children Having Children 534

Factors Leading to Teen Pregnancy 535

Bet You Thought That . . .: More Teens Are Having Sex Than Ever Before 536

Outcomes of Teen Pregnancies 536

Into Adulthood: When Teen Mothers Grow Up 538

Reducing Teen Pregnancy 539

Support for Teenage Mothers 542

Child Abuse within the Family 543

Child Abuse: A Family Affair 543

The Ecology of Child Abuse 545

Consequences of Abuse 546

Policies to Prevent Abuse 547

Cultural Context: Child Abuse and Children’s Rights 547

Insights from Extremes: Suggestive Interrogations and Legal Policy 551

Learning from Living Leaders 553

Chapter Summary 556

Key Terms 558

At the Movies 559

14 Overarching Themes: Integrating Social Development 560

What We Know: Some Take-Home Principles 561

Views of the Social Child 561

Organization and Explanation of Children’s Social Behavior 562

Social Agents and Contexts for Social Development 563

Progress and Pathways of Social Development 564

Glimpsing the Future: Methodological, Theoretical, and Policy Imperatives 566

Methodological Imperatives 566

Theoretical Imperatives 567

Policy Imperatives 568

Emerging Leaders in Social Development 569

At the Wedding 574

Glossary 575

Author Index 587

Subject Index 609

References (Available from your Instructor)

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Ross D. Parke University of California, Riverside.

Glenn I. Roisman University of Illinois.

Amanda J. Rose
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