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Introduction to Community and Public Health. Edition No. 2

  • ID: 5226832
  • Book
  • July 2020
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Learn the basics of the five core areas of community and public health Introduction to Community and Public Health, 2nd Edition covers the basics in each area of community and public health as identified by the Association of Schools of Public Health. With a student-friendly approach, the authors discuss epidemiology, biostatistics, social and behavioral sciences, environmental health, and healthy policy and management. The book is written to serve both graduate and undergraduate public health students, as well as to help prepare for the Certified in Public Health (CPH) exam, Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) exam and Master certified in Health Education Specialist (MCHES) exam, the book covers each of these five core disciplines, plus other important topics.
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Figures and Tables xi

Preface xvii

About the Companion Website xxi

The Authors xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction to Community and Public Health 1

Defining Community and Public Health 1

Basic Terms in Community and Public Health 4

Issues in Community and Public Health 7

Factors Affecting Community and Public Health 9

Community and Public Health Organizations 13

Historical Timeline for Community and Public Health 16

Current Challenges in Community and Public Health 25

Summary 29

Key Terms 30

Review Questions 30

Skill-Building Activity # 1 31

Skill-Building Activity # 2 31

Websites to Explore 31

References 33

Chapter 2 Descriptive Epidemiology in Community and Public Health 37

Definition, Scope, and Evolution of Epidemiology 37

Descriptive Epidemiology and Analytical Epidemiology 39

Contributions of Epidemiology 39

Uses and Functions of Epidemiology 41

Agent, Host, and Environment 42

Rates, Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages 44

Summary 60

Key Terms 60

Review Questions 61

Skill‐Building Activity #1 61

Skill‐Building Activity #2 61

Websites to Explore 62

References 63

Chapter 3 Analytical Epidemiology in Community Public Health 67

Types of Analytical Epidemiological Studies 67

Association and Causation 76

Infectious Disease Epidemiology 79

Chronic Disease Epidemiology 82

Selected Lifestyle Risk Factors 84

Summary 88

Key Terms 89

Review Questions 90

Skill‐Building Activity #1 90

Skill‐Building Activity #2 90

Websites to Explore 90

References 91

Chapter 4 Descriptive Biostatistics in Community and Public Health 97

Basic Terms in Biostatistics 97

Frequency Distribution 100

Measures of Central Tendency 101

Measures of Dispersion 103

Graphing Methods in Biostatistics 103

Positively Skewed and Negatively Skewed Distributions 104

Summary 108

Key Terms 108

Review Questions 109

Skill‐Building Activity #1 109

Skill‐Building Activity #2 109

Websites to Explore 109

References 111

Chapter 5 Inferential Biostatistics in Community and Public Health 113

Estimation 113

Hypothesis Testing 114

Testing Differences between Two Group Means 117

Nonparametric Tests for Testing Differences between Two Groups 119

Testing Differences between Three or More Groups 120

Nonparametric Counterparts of ANOVA 124

Testing Differences in Proportions 124

Testing Associations between Two or More Variables 126

Summary 129

Key Terms 130

Review Questions 130

Skill‐Building Activity #1 131

Skill‐Building Activity #2 131

Websites to Explore 131

References 132

Chapter 6 Social and Behavioral Sciences in Community and Public Health 135

Reasons for Studying Social and Behavioral Sciences 135

Examples from Cardiovascular Disease, Obesity, and HIV/AIDS 141

Community Organization and Community Building 145

School Health Programs 150

Community Mental Health 151

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs 153

Summary 155

Key Terms 156

Review Questions 156

Skill‐Building Activity #1 157

Skill‐Building Activity #2 157

Websites to Explore 157

References 158

Chapter 7 Models in Health Education and Health Promotion 163

Planning Health Education and Health Promotion Interventions 163

PRECEDE‐PROCEED 164

PATCH 171

MATCH 173

Intervention Mapping 177

APEXPH 179

PEN‐3 180

Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) 183

Summary 187

Key Terms 188

Review Questions 188

Skill‐Building Activity #1 189

Skill‐Building Activity #2 189

Websites to Explore 189

References 190

Chapter 8 Theories in Health Education and Health Promotion 193

Using Theories and Models 193

Health Belief Model 194

Transtheoretical Model 197

Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Integrative Model, and Reasoned Action Approach 201

Social Cognitive Theory 206

Multi‐Theory Model (MTM) for Health Behavior Change 208

COM‐B Model 210

Social Marketing 210

Diffusion of Innovations Theory 212

Summary 216

Key Terms 217

Review Questions 218

Skill‐Building Activity #1 218

Skill‐Building Activity #2 218

Websites to Explore 218

References 219

Chapter 9 Methods in Health Education and Health Promotion 225

Methods of Teaching and Learning 225

Cognitive Methods in Health Education 228

Affective Methods in Health Education 230

Environmental Methods in Health Promotion 236

Summary 240

Key Terms 240

Review Questions 241

Skill‐Building Activity #1 241

Skill‐Building Activity #2 241

Websites to Explore 242

References 242

Chapter 10 Population Dynamics and Control 245

Demographic Cycle 245

World Population Trends 246

World Population Stabilization or Decline Post Peak 250

Designing Population‐Based Public Health Programs for Different Subsections in the Community 258

Summary 261

Key Terms 262

Review Questions 263

Skill‐Building Activity #1 263

Skill‐Building Activity #2 263

Websites to Explore 264

References 265

Chapter 11 Air, Water, and Noise Pollution 269

Air Pollution 269

Water Pollution 275

Noise Pollution279

Solid Waste Management 282

Climate Change and Global Warming 284

Summary 288

Key Terms 289

Review Questions 289

Skill‐Building Activity #1 290

Skill‐Building Activity #2 290

Websites to Explore 290

References 291

Chapter 12 Injury Control and Other Environmental Issues 293

Unintentional Injuries 293

Intentional Injuries 297

Pests and Pesticides 300

Radiation 304

Disaster Management 306

Occupational Safety and Health 308

Summary 314

Key Terms 315

Review Questions 315

Skill‐Building Activity #1 316

Skill‐Building Activity #2 316

Websites to Explore 316

References 317

Chapter 13 Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Services and Public Health Systems in the United States 321

Understanding the Structure and Functioning of the US Health Care System 321

Organization of US Health Care 322

The Uninsured Population 325

Lack of Insurance and Access to Health Care Services 327

Financing Health Systems 328

US Health Care in the International Context 329

Utilization Trends 331

Private Health Insurance and Managed Care 332

Cost Containment Initiatives 333

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 335

Organization of Public Health in the United States 338

Summary 342

Key Terms 343

Review Questions 344

Skill‐Building Activity #1 344

Skill‐Building Activity #2 345

Websites to Explore 345

References 346

Chapter 14 Program Planning, Budgeting, Management, and Evaluation in Community Initiatives 349

Planning Public Health Programs 349

Preparing Budgets for Public Health Programs 354

Administration and Management of Public Health Programs 359

Evaluation of Public Health Programs 363

Summary 368

Key Terms 369

Review Questions 369

Skill‐Building Activity #1 370

Skill‐Building Activity #2 370

Websites to Explore 370

References 371

Chapter 15 Systems Thinking and Leadership in Community and Public Health 375

Systems Thinking: The Approach 375

Basics of Leadership 379

Leadership Styles 381

Leadership in Health Care 382

NCHL Health Leadership Competency Model 383

Cultural Competence 385

Summary 391

Key Terms 393

Review Questions 393

Skill‐Building Activity #1 393

Skill‐Building Activity #2 394

Websites to Explore 394

References 395

Glossary 399

Index 429

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Manoj Sharma MBBS, Ph.D., MCHES, Professor, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Paul W. Branscum
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