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Sustainability. Fundamentals and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5226880
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • 696 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

A comprehensive resource to sustainability and its application to the environmental, industrial, agricultural and food security sectors

Sustainability fills a gap in the literature in order to provide an important guide to the fundamental knowledge and practical applications of sustainability in a wide variety of areas. The authors – noted experts who represent a number of sustainability fields – bring together in one comprehensive volume the broad range of topics including basic concepts, impact assessment, environmental and the socio-economic aspects of sustainability. In addition, the book covers applications of sustainability in environmental, industrial, agricultural and food security, as well as carbon cycle and infrastructural aspects.

Sustainability addresses the challenges the global community is facing due to population growth, depletion of non-renewable resources of energy, environmental degradation, poverty, excessive generation of wastes and more. Throughout the book the authors discuss the economics, ecological, social, technological and systems perspectives of sustainability. This important resource:

-     Explores the fundamentals as well as the key concepts of sustainability;

-     Covers basic concepts, impact assessment, environmental and socio-economic aspects, applications of sustainability in environmental, industrial, agricultural and food security, carbon cycle and infrastructural aspects;

-     Argues the essentiality of sustainability in ensuring the propitious future of earth systems; and  

-     Authored by experts from a range of various fields related to sustainability.

Written for researchers and scientists, students and academics, Sustainability: Fundamentals and Applications is a comprehensive book that covers the basic knowledge of the topic combined with practical applications.

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Editor Biographies xxiii

List of Contributors xxvii

Preface xxxiii

Part I Fundamentals and Framework 1

1 Introduction to Sustainability and Sustainable Development 3
Prangya R. Rout, Akshaya K. Verma, Puspendu Bhunia, Rao Y. Surampalli, Tian C. Zhang, R.D. Tyagi, S.K. Brar, and M.K. Goyal

1.1 Background and Definition 3

1.2 Basic Concepts and Issues 4

1.3 Evolution of Sustainability and Sustainable Development 7

1.4 Challenges and Solutions 8

1.5 Adaptation and Resilience 8

1.6 Economic, Ecological, Social, Technological and Systems Perspectives 13

1.7 Conclusions 16

References 17

2 The Need, Role and Significance of Sustainability 21
Anita Talan, A.N. Pathak, and R.D. Tyagi

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Three Pillars of Sustainability 21

2.3 Primary Goals of Sustainability 27

2.4 Significance of Sustainability 34

2.5 Challenges Toward Sustainability 35

2.6 Sustainable Future 39

2.7 Conclusions 39

References 40

3 Sustainable Development: Dimensions, Intersections and Knowledge Platform 43
Pritee Sharma and Kanak Singh

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Understanding Complex Systems 44

3.3 Dimensions of Sustainable Development: Economic Dimension 47

3.4 Dimensions of Sustainable Development: Environmental Dimension 53

3.5 Dimensions of Sustainable Development: Social Dimension 56

3.6 Mapping Social Development Through Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 58

3.7 Sustainable Development Indicators 60

3.8 Exploring Knowledge Systems for Sustainability 61

3.9 Conclusion 65

References 65

4 Measurement of Sustainability 69
Rajneesh Singh, Akash Kumar Gupta, Puspendu Bhunia, Rao Y. Surampalli, Tian C. Zhang, Pengzhi Lin, and Yu Chen

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Types and Choice of Indicators 70

4.3 Framework of Lifecycle-Based Sustainability Metrics 72

4.4 Technological Aspects of Supply Chain and Process Sustainability 73

4.5 Sustainable Economy Indices 74

4.6 Environmental Indicator for Manufacturing Competitiveness 75

4.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Processes 77

4.8 Conclusion 79

References 79

5 Sustainable Impact Assessment 83
L.R. Kumar, Anita Talan and R.D. Tyagi

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Types of Impact Assessment (IA) 83

5.3 Sustainable Impact Assessment (SIA) 86

5.4 Advantages of Conducting Sustainable Impact Assessment 89

5.5 Recent Evolution of Impact Assessment 90

5.6 Different Approaches of SIA 91

5.7 Determining Criteria for Sustainability 93

5.8 Procedure to Follow Impact Assessment 94

5.9 ToSIA – Software Tool for Sustainable Impact Assessment 99

5.10 Case Studies for Use of Sustainable Impact Assessment 103

5.10.1 Sustainable Impact Assessment in International Trade Negotiations 103

5.10.2 Watershed Program Case Study 104

5.11 Conclusions 106

References 107

6 Analytical Tools and Methodologies to Evaluate Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations with Special Reference to Asia 111
Gamini Herath

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations 112

6.3 Planning and Decision Making Methodologies for the Sustainable Development Goals 112

6.4 Tools to Tackle Interlinked Goals and Policy Incoherence 113

6.5 Carrying Capacity (CC) 116

6.6 Evalution Models Under Uncertainty 117

6.7 Adaptive Management 119

6.8 Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) 119

6.9 Multiattribute Utility Theory 121

6.10 Conclusions 124

References 124

7 Resilience Engineering and Quantification for Sustainable Systems 129
Anita Talan, Bhoomika Yadav, L.R. Kumar, and R.D. Tyagi 129

7.1 Introduction 129

7.2 Resilience and Sustainability: Definitions, Differences and Similarities 130

7.3 Technical Purposes of Resilience Engineering 132

7.4 Resilience Assessment Approaches 133

7.5 Indicators for Quantifying Successful Resilience and Sustainability 138

7.6 Some Resilient Systems and Associated Codes/Standards 140

7.7 Communal Resilience and Built Environment Sustainability 144

7.8 Risk Analysis and Resilience 149

7.9 Integration of Sustainability and Resilience 151

7.10 Conclusions 152

References 154

Part II Dimensions and Different Aspects 157

8 Economic Development and Sustainability 159
L.R. Kumar, Anita Talan, and R.D. Tyagi

8.1 Introduction 159

8.3 Indicators for Economic Development 160

8.4 Economic Development for Sustainability 162

8.5 Economic Policies for Sustainable Development 167

8.6 Economic Development and Environment 170

8.7 Economic Analysis of Sustainable Development 174

8.8 Future Directions for Achieving Economic Sustainable Development 177

8.9 Conclusions 178

References 179

9 Social Dimensions of Sustainability 183
Anita Talan, R.D. Tyagi, and Rao Y. Surampalli

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Concepts and Definitions of Social Sustainability 184

9.3 Social Sustainability 185

9.4 Dimensions of Social Sustainability 188

9.5 Gaps in Dimensions of Social Sustainability 193

9.6 Research-based Policies and Federal Perspective Toward Social Sustainability 195

9.7 Social Sustainability – an Integrated Approach 200

9.8 Safety and Security 202

9.9 Future Perspective and Conclusions 203

References 204

10 Social Engineering and Sustainability: Revisiting Popper’s “Piecemeal Approach” 207
Neeraj Mishra

10.1 Introduction 207

10.2 Emergence of Sustainability on the Global Agenda 208

10.3 Concept of Social Engineering 209

10.4 Karl Popper’s Description of Social Engineering 211

10.5 Social Engineering as a Tool for Sustainable Development 214

10.6 Promoting Sustainable Consumption and Bio‐Politics of Sustainability 217

10.7 Social Engineering, Sustainability and Industrial Production 221

10.8 Conclusions 224

References 225

11 Environment Modeling for Sustainable Development 229
Lalit Borana, Bhaskar Jyoti Deka, Jiaxin Guo, and Alicia Kyoungjin An

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Environmental Indicators in the Context of Sustainable Development 231

11.3 Overview of Sustainable Development 235

11.4 Role of Sustainability in Environmental Development 237

11.5 Case Studies: Sustainability Management 241

11.6 Modeling of Sustainability 246

11.7 Modeling Tools for Sustainable Development Policies: Vision 2030 – United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 249

11.8 Summary 251

References 251

12 Biodiversity and Sustainability 255
Akshaya K. Verma, Prangya R. Rout, Eunseok Lee, Puspendu Bhunia, Jaeho Bae, Rao Y. Surampalli, Tian C. Zhang, Rajeshwar D. Tyagi, Pengzhi Lin, and Yu Chen

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Threats to Biodiversity 257

12.3 Role of Biodiversity in Sustainable Development 268

12.4 Trends of Biodiversity 269

12.5 Conclusions 270

References 271

13 Sustainability of Ecosystem Services (ESs) 277
Carlos S. Osorio‐González, Niranjan Suralikerimath, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, and Satinder K. Brar

13.1 Introduction 277

13.2 Historical Evolution of Ecosystem Services Definition 278

13.3 Framework for Assessing Ecosystem Services 280

13.4 Utilization of Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Development 281

13.5 Recent Advances in Mapping and Measuring Multiple Services 283

13.6 Possible Approaches for Sustainable Use of Ecosystem Services 284

13.7 Challenge and Interlinkage Themes for Researchers 287

13.8 Future Directions and Conclusions 288

References 289

14 Sustainable Infrastructure 295
Gilbert Hinge, Rao Y. Surampalli, and Manish Kumar Goyal

14.1 Infrastructure − An Introduction 295

14.2 Mitigation Policies 299

14.3 Strategic Environmental Assessment 301

14.4 Recycling Reuse and Reclamation 304

14.5 Reverse Logistics 305

14.6 Deconstruction 307

14.7 Summary 308

References 309

15 Industrial Practices in Sustainability 313
K.K. Brar, Dalila Larios Martinez, Mitra Naghdi, Satinder K. Brar, Bhupinder Singh Chadha, Preetinder Singh, and Rao Y. Surampalli

15.1 Introduction 313

15.2 Causes of Environmental Deterioration 314

15.3 Effects of Environmental Degradation 315

15.4 Human-Induced Eye-Opening Environmental Incidents 318

15.5 Sustainable Development 319

15.6 Benefits of Being a Sustainable Business 320

15.7 How to Achieve Sustainable Development 321

15.8 Commitment Toward the Environment 322

15.9 Future Action Needed 335

References 336

16 Challenges of Sustainability in Agricultural Management 339
Jew Das, Srinidhi Jha, Manish Kumar Goyal, and Rao Y. Surampalli

16.1 Introduction 339

16.2 An Overview of Indian Agriculture 341

16.3 Agricultural Sustainability: Environmental, Economic and Social Perspectives 347

16.4 Challenges to Agricultural Sustainability 348

16.5 Road to Sustainable Agriculture: Possible Solutions 352

16.6 Conclusions 354

References 355

17 Food Security and Sustainability 357
Preetika Kuknur Pachapur, Vinayak Laxman Pachapur, Satinder K. Brar, Rosa Galvez, Yann Le Bihan, and Rao Y. Surampalli

17.1 Introduction 357

17.2 Food Needs 358

17.3 Population Growth 359

17.4 Impact of Climate Change on Food Security 360

17.5 International Case Studies 361

17.6 Biofuels and Food Security 364

17.7 Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus 367

17.8 Genetically Modified Foods for Food Security 368

17.9 Horizontal Gene Transfer for Food Security 369

17.10 Future Plans for Food Security 369

References 371

18 Sustainable Healthcare Systems 375
Carlos S. Osorio‐González, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Satinder K. Brar, Antonio Avalos‐Ramírez, and Rao Y. Surampalli

18.1 Introduction 375

18.2 Classification of Healthcare Systems 376

18.3 Sustainability and Healthcare Systems 377

18.4 Sustainability Challenges in Healthcare Systems 379

18.5 Categories of Sustainability in Healthcare Systems 381

18.6 Overview of Sustainable Healthcare Systems 384

18.7 Conclusion 390

References 391

19 Ethical Aspects of Sustainability 397
Anita Talan, Rajwinder Kaur, R.D. Tyagi, and Tian C. Zhang

19.1 Introduction 397

19.2 Juxtaposing Ethics, Morality and Sustainable Development 398

19.3 Approaches to Ethics 400

19.4 The Neoliberal Era and Adaptation into the Sustainability Framework 402

19.5 Global Flora and Sustainability 405

19.6 Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Ethical Perspective 405

19.7 Conclusions 409

References 410

20 Education and Human Resource Development for Sustainability 413
Anita Talan, and R. D Tyagi

20.1 Introduction 413

20.2 Education for Sustainability 413

20.3 Objectives of Education for Sustainable Development 416

20.4 Potential Improvements via Education for Sustainable Development 421

20.5 Global Education and Global Actions of ESD 424

20.6 Sustainability as Human Resource Development 429

20.7 HRD Indicators 432

20.8 Change in HRD for Sustainability 433

20.9 HRD Resources for Sustainable Development 434

20.10 Conclusion 435

References 436

Part III Applications 439

21 Climate Change Adaptation for Sustainable Management of Water in India: Issues and Challenges 441
Adani Azhoni

21.1 Introduction 441

21.2 Climate Change Challenges to India’s Water Management 443

21.3 Adaptation Approaches 444

21.4 Water Management Institutions and Their Role in Adaptation 449

21.5 Indian Water Institutions 450

21.6 Recent Initiatives to Address Climate Change in India 452

21.7 Adaptation for Sustainability: Two Examples 452

21.8 Discussion and Conclusion 454

References 455

22 Sustainability of Carbon Storage and Sequestration 465
Gilbert Hinge, Rao Y. Surampalli, and Manish Kumar Goyal

22.1 Introduction 465

22.2 Carbon Sources and Sinks 466

22.3 Types of Carbon Sequestration 466

22.4 Methods for Quantification of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks 468

22.5 Adaptation and Mitigation Policy for Carbon Management 475

22.6 Conclusions 479

References 479

23 Environmental Degradation and Sustainability 483
Yong Qi, Puspendu Bhunia, Tian C. Zhang, F. Luo, Pengzhi Lin, and Yu Chen

23.1 Introduction 483

23.2 Desertification and Associated Sustainable Strategies 484

23.3 Environmental Pollution and Associated Impacts 486

23.4 Snow Ablation and Glacier Retreat 491

23.5 Dams and Resettlement 492

23.6 Strategies for Sustainable Development While Addressing Environmental Pollution and Degradation 494

23.7 Future Trends 501

23.8 Conclusions 502

References 502

24 Sustainability of River Water Resources Under the Influence of Climate Change 507
Shivam Gupta and Manish Kumar Goyal

24.1 Introduction 507

24.2 Effects of Global Warming on Observed Changes 508

24.3 Water Stress – the Supply Demand Balance 510

24.4 Impacts of Climate Change on Glaciers and Mountainous Water Resources 511

24.5 Sustainable Management of River Water Resources 512

24.6 Case Studies 513

24.7 Conclusions 523

References 523

25 Sustainable Systems for Groundwater Resource Management 527
Manish Kumar Goyal, Srinidhi Jha, and Rao Y. Surampalli

25.1 Introduction 527

25.2 Occurrence and Distribution 530

25.3 Groundwater Usage in the World 533

25.4 Two Main Challenges 536

25.5 Toward Groundwater Sustainability 539

25.6 Looking for Possible Solutions: Primary Solutions 542

25.7 Intuitional and Organizational Reforms: Secondary Solutions 546

25.8 Conclusions 548

References 549

26 Sustainability and Energy Management in Facilities for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 553
Joseph Sebastian, Pratik Kumar, Krishnamoorthy Hegde, Satinder K. Brar, Mausam Verma, and Rao Y. Surampalli

26.1 Introduction 553

26.2 Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 554

26.3 Approaches for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 557

26.4 Sustainable Energy Derived from Wastewater 564

26.5 Conclusions 575

References 576

27 Energy Needs for Sustainable Buildings and Transportation 583
Rehan Khan, Suchit Deshmukh, and Ritunesh Kumar

27.1 Introduction 583

27.2 Building and Energy 584

27.3 Energy for Transportation 594

27.4 Conclusions 602

References 602

28 Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Sustainability 605
Manish Kumar Goyal, Ashutosh Sharma, and Rao Y. Surampalli

28.1 Introduction 605

28.2 Remote Sensing for Earth Observation (EO) and Data Acquisition 609

28.3 Sustainable Resource Management Using Remote Sensing and GIS 612

28.4 Case Study 613

28.5 Future Perspectives 619

28.6 Conclusions 620

References 620

29 Artificial Intelligence and Computational Sustainability 627
S.K. Ram and R.D. Tyagi

29.1 Introduction 627

29.2 Basic Elements of AI Implementation 628

29.3 Concept of Computational Sustainability 629

29.4 Computational Sustainability and Ecological Preservation 631

29.5 Potential Applications of AI in Various Sectors 632

29.6 AI for UN Sustainable Development Goals 638

29.7 Challenges Associated with AI 638

29.8 AI and Its Socio‐Economic Impact 641

29.9 AI for Developing Countries: A Case Study of Zimbabwe 643

29.10 Conclusions and Future Prospects 645

References 645

Index 651

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Tian C. Zhang
Rao Y. Surampalli
Manish Kumar Goyal
Satinder K. Brar
R. D. Tyagi
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