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Progress in Solar Energy Technology and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5227147
  • Book
  • October 2019
  • 378 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Energy is one of the most important topics of our time, and renewable energy has been a long and still-unfolding story that has taken decades to bring us to where we are today.  Even after so much progress, engineers and scientists are always still developing new and innovative techniques, processes, equipment, and materials to further the science and fulfill the mission of generating cleaner, renewable energy for the world’s consumption.  This new groundbreaking series, Advances in Renewable Energy, covers these topics across the spectrum, including solar, wind, and other renewable energy sources.

This first volume in the series focuses on solar energy, probably the fastest-growing and developing area of renewable energy.  With new materials and processes constantly coming online, it is important for engineers and scientists to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art in the field, and this volume does just that.  Covering not just the basics of the technology and technological advances, the contributors delve into the financial aspects of solar energy systems as well. They look at total costs, not just initial costs, but the costs of maintenance, as well,

Covering nearly every aspect of solar energy systems and the latest advances in the field, this is a must-have volume for any engineer, scientist, student, or educator working in or studying solar energy.

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About the Editor xi

Contributors xii

1 Reliability Testing of PV Module in the Outdoor Condition 1
Birinchi Bora, O.S. Sastry, Som Mondal and B. Prasad

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Indoor Testing of Reliability of PV Module 4

1.3 Basics of Measurement Methods used to Identify Failures in the PV Module in the Field after Installation 7

1.3.1 Visual Inspection 8

1.3.2 I-V Tracer 11

1.3.3 Temperature Coefficient 13

1.3.4 Series Resistance 15

1.3.5 Curve Correction Factor 16

1.3.6 Dark I-V 17

1.3.7 Degradation Analysis 18

1.3.8 IR Thermography 19

1.3.9 Insulation Resistance Tester 22

1.3.10 EL Camera 23

1.3.11 Interconnect Breakage Tester 25

1.3.12 Current, Voltage and Continuity Checking 25

1.3.13 Environmental Parameter Checking 25

1.4 Quantification of Reliability 26

1.5 Procedure for Performance and Reliability Testing of PV Module in Outdoor Conditions 33

1.5.1 Selection Procedure of PV Modules for Testing in the Field 33

1.5.2 Testing Report Format of Performance Guarantee Test 33

1.6 Conclusion 35

Abbreviation 35

References 36

2 Solar Energy Technologies and Water Potential for Distillation: A Pre-Feasibility Investigation for Rajasthan, India 39
Nikhil Gakkhar, Manoj Kumar Soni and Sanjeev Jakhar

2.1 Introduction 40

2.2 Solar Assisted Technologies for Water Purification 41

2.3 Resource Availability in Rajasthan, India, for Solar Distillation 45

2.3.1 Availability of Solar Irradiance 47

2.3.2 Land Availability in Rajasthan 47

2.3.3 Water Availability from Various Sources 51

2.3.3.1 Surface Water Resources of Rajasthan 51

2.3.3.2 Rainfall 54

2.3.3.3 Domestic Wastewater 54

2.3.3.4 Groundwater 58

2.4 Estimation of Solar Potential and Water Availability 58

2.4.1 Solar PV Potential 59

2.4.2 Solar CSP Potential 60

2.4.3 Water Potential Estimation for Distillation 61

2.5 Choice of Distillation Technology 65

2.5.1 PV-Assisted RO Plants 65

2.5.2 CSP-Assisted MSF Plants 71

2.6 Conclusion 75

Nomenclature 77

References 77

3 Design Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants for Northern and Southern Regions of India 83
Sanjay Kumar

3.1 Introduction 83

3.1.1 Solar Power in India 88

3.2 Site Selection 90

3.2.1 Geography 90

3.2.2 Specification of Locations 100

3.2.3 Location Dedicated for Power Plant Setup 100

3.2.4 Load Profile of INA 116

3.3 Technology 124

3.3.1 Solar PV Systems 124

3.3.2 Major Components 125

3.3.2.1 Module 126

3.3.2.2 Inverters 127

3.3.2.3 Auxiliary Components 128

3.4 BOM for 3MW Power Plant 134

3.5 Quality, Testing and Standard Certification 140

3.6.1 Modules selection 146

3.6.1.1 Installation of Module 147

3.6.2 Inverter Selection 148

3.7 Financial Analysis 150

3.8 Plant Layout with Electrical and Civil Engineering Aspects 151

3.8.1 Land Requirement 151

3.8.2 Plant Layout 151

3.8.3 Civil Works 152

3.8.4 Module Mounting Structures 152

3.8.5 Operation and Maintenance 152

3.9 Monitoring System 153

3.9.1 SCADA 153

3.9.2 Control and Instrumentation System 154

3.10 Environmental Aspects 155

3.10.1 State Pollution Control Board Clearances 156

3.11 Project Management 156

3.11.1 Project Contracting 156

3.11.2 Quality Management 157

3.11.3 Construction Management 157

3.11.4 Health, Safety and Environment 158

3.11.5 Commissioning and Testing 159

3.11.6 Operation and Maintenance (O & M) 160

3.11.7 Training 161

3.12 Solar Business Models for Megawatt-Scale Projects in India 161

3.12.1 Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Model 161

3.12.2 Captive Model 161

3.12.3 REC Model 162

3.12.4 REC Formalities and Procedures 163

3.12.5 Business Models under the REC Mechanism 165

3.12.6 Risk Factors of REC 166

3.13 Concepts toward Net Zero Energy Solar Building 167

3.14 Strategy Implementation 168

3.15 Conclusion 176

Abbreviations 177

References 179

4 Cold Storage with Backup Thermal Energy Storage System 181
K. Sahoo, B. Bandhyopadhyay, S. Mukhopadhyay, U. Sahoo, T. S. Kumar, V. Yadav and Y. Singh

4.1 Introduction 181

4.1.1 Recommended Condition for Fruits and Vegetables 183

4.1.2 Incompatibility 183

4.2 Solar Energy Scenario 184

4.2.1 Overview of Solar Radiation 187

4.2.1.1 Basic Principles 187

4.2.1.2 Diffuse and Direct Solar Radiation 188

4.2.1.3 Global Solar Radiation 188

4.3 Refrigeration Technology Overview 190

4.3.1 Brier Introduction of Refrigeration 190

4.3.2 Carnot Cycle 191

4.3.3 Reverse Carnot Cycle 192

4.3.4 Air Refrigeration Cycle 193

4.3.5 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System 194

4.3.6 Actual Vapour Compression Refrigeration System 195

4.4 Literature Review 195

4.5 Designing of Solar PV Cold Storage 196

4.5.1 Determining the Size of Cold Room 197

4.5.2 Cooling Load Calculation 197

4.5.2.1 Transmission Load 197

4.5.2.2 Heat Transmission through Door 198

4.5.2.3 Equipment Load 199

4.5.2.4 Product Heat Load 199

4.5.2.5 Heat of Respiration 199

4.5.2.6 Human Occupancy Load 200

4.5.2.7 Cooling Load Due to Thermal Energy Storage 200

4.5.3 Cooling Load Summary for 10 MT Storage Capacities 200

4.5.4 Solar Photovoltaic Plant Design 202

4.5.4.1 Photovoltaic Module Design 202

4.5.4.2 Inverter Sizing 202

4.5.4.3 Battery Sizing 203

4.5.4.4 Solar Charge Controller Sizing 203

4.6 Design of Cold Room Mechanical System 203

4.7 Designing of Thermal Energy Storage System (TES) 206

4.8 Battery Storage 208

4.9 Refrigerant 208

4.10 Specification of Cold Storage and Thermal Energy Storage System 209

4.11 Design of Solar Thermal Based Cold Storage 210

4.11.1 Technology Selection 211

4.11.2 Energy and Collector Area Required from Solar Thermal Technology 212

4.12 Economic Analysis 213

4.12.1 Net Present Value (NPV) 213

4.12.2 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 214

4.12.3 Payback Period 214

4.13 Economic Analysis of Solar PV Cold Storage 215

4.13.1 NPV and IRR Calculation of Solar PV Cold Storage 215

4.13.2 Payback Period of Solar PV Cold Storage 221

4.14 Economic Analysis of Solar Thermal System Based Cold Storage 223

4.14.1 NPV and IRR Calculation 223

4.14.2 Payback Period of Solar Thermal Cold Storage 229

4.15 Conclusion 231

References 231

5 Development of Parabolic Trough Collector Based Power and Ejector Refrigeration System Using Eco-Friendly Refrigerants 233
D.K. Gupta, R. Kumar and N. Kumar

5.1 Introduction 234

5.2 Literature Review 236

5.3 Solar Operated Ejector Cooling and Power Cycle 244

5.3.1 Working of Proposed Cycle 245

5.3.2 First and Second Law Analysis of Proposed Cycle 247

5.4 Ejector Cooling and Power Cycle with Various Ecofriendly Refrigerants 250

5.4.1 System Description 250

5.4.2 Properties of Refrigerants 251

5.4.3 Thermodynamic Analysis 251

5.4.4 Parameters considered for Operation of Proposed System 253

5.5 Ejector Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated with a Triple Pressure Level Vapour Absorption System 253

5.5.1 Working of Proposed System 253

5.5.2 Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Proposed System 258

5.6 Combined Organic Rankine Cycle with Double Ejector 261

5.6.1 Working of Proposed Cycle 262

5.6.2 First and Second Law Analysis of Proposed Cycle 264

5.7 Result and Discussions 267

5.8 Conclusion 297

Nomenclatures 298

Greek symbols 299

Subscript 300

References 300

6 Unlocking the Design of Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV Systems 309
Tanmay Bishnoi

6.1 Introduction 310

6.2 Stand-Alone Solar PV System 312

6.2.1 Types of Stand-Alone PV System Configurations 312

6.2.2 Design Methodology 313

6.2.3 Detailed Steps for Designing a Solar PV System 314

6.2.4 Stand-Alone Solar PV System Design and Safety Standards 330

6.3 Grid-Connected Solar PV System 330

6.3.1 Step by Step Procedure for Designing a Rooftop Grid-Connected Solar PV System 331

6.3.2 Grid-Tied Solar PV System Standards 333

6.3.3 Performance Analysis of a Solar PV System 334

6.4 Costing Analysis for a Solar PV System 337

6.5 Conclusion 359

References 360

Index 363

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Umakanta Sahoo
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