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Natural Oral Care in Dental Therapy. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5227219
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • 448 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, stronger antibiotics are reserved for serious active infection, paving the way for a greater use of herbal antibiotics.  This book helps dentists in implementing safe and effective natural medicine therapies to complement the current practice guidelines.

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases.

The dentist needs to be more informed regarding the use, safety and effectiveness of the various traditional medicines and over-the-counter products.

Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis and thereby improving immunity.

The 26 chapters in this unique book explore all the measures to utilize the natural oral care obtained from plants, animals and mineral drugs for dental care.
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Preface xix

Foreword xxiii

Part I: Natural Oral Care 1

1 Natural Oral Care in Dental Therapy: Current and Future Prospects 3
Durgesh Nandini Chauhan, Prabhu Raj Singh, Kamal Shah and Nagendra Singh Chauhan

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Safety of Natural Oral Care 15

1.3 Advantage of Natural Oral Care 15

1.4 Limitations of Natural Oral Care 16

1.5 Future Prospects of Natural Oral Care 16

References 17

2 Herbal Products for Oral Hygiene: An Overview of Their Biological Activities 31
Ummuhan Sebnem Harput

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Oral Hygiene and Current Treatments 33

2.3 Plants Traditionally Used in Oral Hygiene 33

2.4 Clinically Studied Plant Product for Oral Hygiene 35

2.5 In Vitro Studied Herbal Product for Oral Hygiene 37

2.6 Discussion 40

2.7 Conclusion 41

References 41

3 Go Green - Periodontal Care in the Natural Way 45
Siddhartha Varma and Sameer Anil Zope

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Plaque Control 46

3.3 Dant Dhavani (Brushing) 46

3.4 Jivha Lekhana (Tongue Scrapping) 47

3.5 Gandusha (Gargling) or Oil Pulling 48

3.6 Oxidative Stress in Periodontitis 48

3.7 Green Tea 48

3.7.1 Components 48

3.7.2 Beneficial Effects of Various Tea Components 49

3.7.2.1 Antioxidative Effect 49

3.7.3 Role in Managing Periodontitis 49

3.8 Turmeric (Curcumin longa, Haldi) 49

3.8.1 Applications of Turmeric in Dentistry 49

3.9 Amala (Emblica officinalis, Amalaki, Phyllanthus emblica, Indian Gooseberry, Dhatriphala) 50

3.10 Anar/Dalima (Punica granatum) 50

3.11 Launga/Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) 50

3.12 Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) 51

3.13 Amra/Mango (Magnifera indica) 51

3.14 Neem (Azadirachta indica) 51

3.15 Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 51

3.16 Nilgiri (Eucalyptus globulus) 52

3.17 Tila/Sesame (Sesamum indicum) 52

3.18 Triphala 52

3.19 Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) 52

3.20 Rumi Mastagi/Mastic Gum (Pistacia lentiscus) 53

3.21 Wheat Grass 53

3.22 Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) 53

3.23 Licorice Root 53

3.24 Myrrh (Commiphora glileadenis) 54

3.25 Psidium guajava 54

3.26 Ginkbo Biloba 54

3.27 Honey 54

3.28 Other Herbs Which Can Be Potentially Used for Treating Periodontitis 55

3.29 Conclusion 55

References 56

4 Role of Herbal and Natural Products in the Management of Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders 61
P. Kalyana Chakravarthy, Komal Smriti and Sravan Kumar Yeturu

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) 62

4.2.1 Background 62

4.2.2 Beta-Carotene 63

4.2.3 Lycopene 64

4.2.4 Aloe Vera 65

4.2.5 Colchicine 66

4.2.6 Tea Pigments 66

4.2.7 Spirulina 66

4.2.8 Chinese Herbal Medicines 67

4.2.9 Turmeric and Derivatives, Nigella sativa, Ocimum 68

4.2.10 Polyherbal Formulations 68

4.2.11 Ayurvedic Formulations 69

4.2.12 Conclusion 69

4.3 Oral Leukoplakia (OL) 70

4.3.1 Background 70

4.3.2 Green Tea and Extracts 70

4.3.3 Beta-Carotene (βC) 71

4.3.4 Lycopene 72

4.3.5 Curcumin 72

4.3.6 Miscellaneous 73

4.3.6.1 Alpha-Tocopherol 73

4.3.6.2 Chinese Herbs 73

4.3.6.3 Bowman–Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC) 73

4.3.7 Conclusion 73

4.4 Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) 74

4.4.1 Conclusion 75

References 75

Part II: Studies of Plants Used in Dental Disease 81

5 Studies on the Anticariogenic Potential of Medicinal Plant Seed and Fruit Extracts 83
Disha M. Patel, Jenabhai B. Chauhan and Kalpesh B. Ishnava

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Materials and Methods 85

5.2.1 Plant Materials 85

5.2.2 Preparation of Plant Seed and Fruit Extracts 85

5.2.3 Cariogenic Bacterial Strains 85

5.2.4 Preparation of Inoculums 86

5.2.5 Anticariogenic Activity Screening of Plant Extracts 87

5.2.5.1 Agar Well Diffusion Assay 87

5.2.5.2 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 87

5.2.6 Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis 87

5.2.7 Analytical Thin Layer Chromatography 87

5.2.8 TLC - Bioautography 88

5.3 Result and Discussion 88

5.3.1 MIC Value of Effective Plant Extracts 91

5.3.2 Phytochemical Screening and Bioautography 92

5.4 Conclusion 94

Acknowledgments 95

References 95

6 Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Turmeric and Aloe Vera in a Gingivitis Model 97
Karen Esperanza Almanza-Aranda, Miguel Aranda-Fonseca, Gabriela Velazquez-Plascencia and Rene Garcia-Contreras

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Gingivitis and Periodontitis 98

6.3 Aloe Vera 99

6.3.1 Aloe Vera for Gingivitis and Periodontitis 100

6.3.2 Aloe Vera: Other Oral Applications 100

6.4 Turmeric 100

6.4.1 Turmeric for Gingivitis and Periodontitis 101

6.4.2 Turmeric: Other Oral Applications 101

6.5 Methodology 102

6.5.1 Materials and Methods 102

6.5.1.1 Authorization 102

6.5.1.2 Cell Culture 102

6.5.1.3 Cell Subculture 102

6.5.1.4 Cytotoxicity Test 103

6.5.1.5 Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Gingivitis Model 103

6.5.1.6 Statistical Analysis 104

6.5.2 Results 104

6.5.2.1 Cytotoxicity 104

6.5.2.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Gingivitis Model 105

6.5.3 Discussion 105

6.5.3.1 Cytotoxicity 105

6.5.3.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity 106

6.6 Perspectives for the Future 107

6.7 Conclusions 107

References 107

7 Effects of Bauhinia forficata Link in Reducing Streptococcus mutans Biofilm on Teeth 111
Julio Cesar C. Ferreira-Filho, Mariana Leonel Martins, Andressa Temperini de Oliveira Marre, Juliana Soares de Sá Almeida, Leandro de Araújo Lobo, Adriano Gomes Cruz, Marlon Máximo de Andrade, Thiago Isidro Vieira, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, Lucianne Cople Maia, Ana Maria Gondim Valença and Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves

7.1 Introduction 112

7.2 Materials and Methods 112

7.2.1 Recognition, Production, and Chemical Characterization of Ethanolic Tincture From B. forficata L. Leaves 112

7.2.2 Microbial Strains and Preparation of Inoculum 113

7.2.3 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) 113

7.2.4 Kill-Kinetic Assay 113

7.2.5 Cytotoxic Potential 114

7.2.6 Tooth Selection and Preparation for Microbiologic Assay Using an S. mutans Biofilm 114

7.2.7 Statistical Analysis 115

7.3 Results and Discussion 115

7.4 Final Considerations 118

Acknowledgments 118

References 119

8 Antimicrobial Effect of a Cardamom Ethanolic Extract on Oral Biofilm: An Ex Vivo Study 121
Marina Fernandes Binimeliz, Mariana Leonel Martins, Julio Cesar Campos Ferreira Filho, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Adriano Gomes da Cruz, Lucianne Cople Maia and Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves

8.1 Introduction 121

8.2 Materials and Methods 122

8.2.1 Cardamom Extract Production 122

8.2.2 Physical Analyses 123

8.2.3 Bacterial Strains and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration 123

8.2.4 Salivary Collection for Biofilm Formation (Ex Vivo Experiment) 124

8.2.5 Biofilm Formation and Treatment 124

8.2.6 Statistical Analyses 127

8.3 Results and Discussion 127

8.4 Final Considerations 129

Acknowledgment 129

References 129

9 Effect of Punica granatum Peel Extract on Growth of Candida albicans in Oral Mucosa of Diabetic Male Rats 133
Maryam Eidi and Fatemeh Noorbakhsh

9.1 Introduction 133

9.2 Materials and Methods 134

9.2.1 Hydro-Methanolic Extract 134

9.2.2 Candida albicans Inoculation 134

9.2.3 Animal 134

9.2.4 Statistical Analysis 135

9.3 Results and Discussion 135

9.4 Conclusion 136

Acknowledgment 136

References 137

Part III: Applications of Natural Products in Oral Care 139

10 Effect of Oil Pulling on Oral Health 141
Sameer Anil Zope and Siddhartha Varma

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 What is Oil Pulling (Snaihik Gandoosh)? 142

10.3 How Does Oil Pulling Work? 143

10.4 Composition and Various Activities of Most Commonly Used Oils for Oil Pulling 143

10.4.1 Sesame Oil 143

10.4.1.1 Antioxidant Activity 143

10.4.1.2 Antimicrobial Activity 144

10.4.2 Coconut Oil 145

10.4.2.1 Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antiviral Activity 145

10.4.2.2 Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-Ulcer Activity 145

10.5 Procedure of Oil Pulling 146

10.6 Effects of Oil Pulling on Oral Health 146

10.6.1 Dental Caries 146

10.6.2 Plaque-Induced Gingivitis 147

10.6.3 Halitosis 148

10.6.4 Oral Thrush 149

10.6.5 Xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome 149

10.7 Drawbacks of Oil Pulling 150

References 150

11 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Dental Care 153
P. Kalyana Chakravarthy and Sravan Kumar Yeturu

11.1 Introduction 153

11.2 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Oral Surgery 154

11.2.1 Post-Extraction Management 154

11.2.2 Post-Surgical Facial Ecchymosis and or Edema 155

11.2.3 Enhanced the Action of Antibiotics 156

11.2.4 Effect of Bromelain on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 156

11.3 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Cancer and Oral Mucositis 156

11.3.1 Cancer 156

11.3.2 Management in Oral Mucositis 157

11.4 Osteoarthritis 157

11.5 Anti-Microbial Action 158

11.6 Treatment of Dental Carious Lesions 159

11.6.1 Laboratory Studies 159

11.6.2 Clinical Studies 160

11.7 Improvement in Bonding of Orthodontics Brackets 161

11.8 Role on Biofilm Control (Plaque, Gingivitis, and Oral Malodor) 163

11.9 Extrinsic Stain Removal on the Teeth 164

11.10 Role in Replantation of the Avulsed Tooth 165

11.11 Effect of Bromelain on Immunogenicity 165

11.12 Other Possible Applications and Scope for Future Research 165

References 165

12 The Effect of Probiotic on Oral Health 171
Patricia Nadelman, Marcela Baraúna Magno, Mariana Farias da Cruz, Adriano Gomes da Cruz, Matheus Melo Pithon, Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves and Lucianne Cople Maia

12.1 Introduction 171

12.2 Overview of Oral Communities and Probiotic-Based Therapy to Oral Dysbiosis 172

12.3 Probiotics Mechanisms of Action 175

12.4 Dental Caries 176

12.4.1 Definition and Etiopathology 176

12.4.2 Probiotics and Dental Caries 179

12.4.3 Probiotic-Contained Dairy Products and Dental Caries 179

12.4.4 Probiotic Powder and Dental Caries 180

12.4.5 Probiotic Tablets and Lozenges and Dental Caries 180

12.4.6 Probiotic Mouthwashes and Dental Caries 181

12.5 Periodontal Disease 181

12.5.1 Definition and Etiopathology 181

12.5.2 Probiotics and Periodontal Diseases 182

12.6 Oral Candidiasis 183

12.6.1 Definition and Etiopathology 183

12.6.2 Probiotics and Oral Candidiasis 184

12.7 Halitosis 185

12.7.1 Definition and Etiopathology 185

12.7.2 Probiotics and Halitosis 185

12.8 Conclusion 186

Acknowledgments 186

References 186

13 Charcoal in Dentistry 197
Abhilasha Thakur, Aditya Ganeshpurkar and Anupam Jaiswal

13.1 Introduction 197

13.2 Charcoal Production Methods 199

13.2.1 The Traditional Method 199

13.2.2 The Modern Methods 199

13.3 Uses of Charcoal 200

13.3.1 Medicinal Uses 200

13.3.2 Non-Medicinal Uses 201

13.4 Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products 201

13.5 Benefits of Using Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products 204

13.5.1 Removes Stains and Whitens Teeth 204

13.5.2 Removes Acidic Plaque 204

13.5.3 Gives Fresh Breath and Improves Halitosis 204

13.5.4 Remineralize Teeth 205

13.5.5 Helps Overall Dental Health 205

13.5.6 Protects From Infection 205

13.5.7 Cost Effective for Regular Basis Use 205

13.6 Precautions to be Taken While Using Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products 206

13.7 Conclusion 207

References 207

14 Propolis Benefits in Oral Health 211
Mariana Leonel Martins, Karla Lorene de França Leite, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Lucianne Cople Maia and Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves

14.1 Introduction 211

14.2 Types of Propolis 213

14.2.1 Brown Propolis 213

14.2.2 Green Propolis 214

14.2.3 Red Propolis 214

14.3 Biological Properties of Propolis 215

14.3.1 Oral Antibacterial Activity 216

14.3.2 Oral Antifungal Activity 219

14.4 Other Biological Properties of Propolis 220

14.4.1 Anti-Inflammatory Activity 220

14.4.2 Antioxidant Activity 221

14.4.3 Anticancer Activity 221

14.5 Benefits for Oral Health and Applications in Dentistry 221

14.6 Final Considerations 222

Acknowledgment 223

References 223

15 Grape Seed Extract in Dental Therapy 229
Anusuya V, Ashok Kumar Jena and Jitendra Sharan

15.1 Introduction 229

15.2 Part I: Basics About Grape Seed Extracts 230

15.2.1 Components of Grape Seed Extracts 230

15.2.2 Chemical Structure 231

15.2.3 Types of GSEs 232

15.2.4 Methods of Separation 232

15.2.5 Factors Influencing the Quality and Quantity of Polyphenols in the GSEs 234

15.2.6 Physical Properties of Polyphenols 235

15.2.7 Biochemical Properties (Biological and Pharmacological) 236

15.3 Part II: Biological Applications in Dentistry 240

15.3.1 GSEs in Dental Caries 240

15.3.2 Anti-Erosive Agent (Prevention of Enamel erosion) 242

15.3.3 Antiplaque Effect 243

15.3.4 Antibacterial Agent 244

15.3.5 Biomodifier 245

15.3.6 GSEs as a Remineralizing Agent - Existing Dilemma 247

15.4 GSEs in Restorative Dentistry 248

15.4.1 GSE as Cross-Linking Agent 248

15.4.2 GSE in Bonding 249

15.5 GSEs in Endodontic Treatment 250

15.5.1 Endodontic Irrigants 250

15.5.2 Post Endodontic Restorations 251

15.6 GSEs in Periodontics 251

15.6.1 Anti-Inflammatory Action in Periodontitis 252

15.6.2 Anti-Oxidative Action in Periodontitis 252

15.6.3 Antibacterial Action Against Periodontal Pathogens 253

15.6.4 Antimicrobial Activity in Peri-Implantitis 253

15.7 GSEs in Oral Cancer 254

15.8 Conclusion 254

References 255

16 Ocimum Sanctum L: Promising Agent for Oral Health Care Management 259
Trinette Fernandes, Anisha D’souza and Sujata P. Sawarkar

16.1 Introduction 259

16.2 History of Ocimum sanctum 260

16.3 Chemical Constituents of Ocimum sanctum 260

16.4 Therapeutic Significance of Ocimum in Dental Health and Preventive Care Management 262

16.5 Novel Drug Delivery Formulations and Its Application in Dentistry 264

16.5.1 Nanofibers 264

16.5.2 β-Cyclodextrin Complexes 264

16.5.3 Nanoparticles of Biocompatible Ocimum sanctum-Coated Silver Nanoparticles 264

16.6 Conclusion 265

References 266

17 Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.): A Natural Gift to Humans for Dental Ministrations 271
Navneet Kishore and Akhilesh Kumar Verma

17.1 Introduction 271

17.2 Traditional Usage and Ethnopharmacological Relevance 272

17.3 Pharmacological Properties of Coconut 273

17.4 Role of Coconut Tree in Dental Ministrations 274

17.5 Exemplary Potential of Coconut Water in Dentistry 275

17.6 Other Significance of Coconut 276

17.6.1 Economic Value of Coconut Leaves 276

17.6.2 Use of Coconut Heart 277

17.6.3 Significance of Spathe and Inflorescence 277

17.6.4 Potential of Coconut Fruits 277

17.6.5 Usage of Coconut Milk 277

17.6.6 Importance of Coconut Shell 277

17.6.7 Commercial Usage of Husk Fibers 278

17.6.8 Economic Importance of Coconut Stems 278

17.6.9 Convention of Coconut Roots 278

17.7 Active Constituent Identified from Coconut 278

17.8 Future Prospective 279

17.9 Conclusions 280

Acknowledgments 280

References 281

18 Salvadora persica L. (Miswak): An Effective Folklore Toothbrush 285
Sujata P. Sawarkar, Anisha D’souza and Trinette Fernandes

18.1 Introduction 285

18.2 History 286

18.3 Chemical Constituents 286

18.4 Extraction, Isolation, Identification of Chemical Constituents 287

18.5 Pharmacology - Therapeutic Activity of Salvadora persica L. 287

18.5.1 Theories for Miswak Activities 287

18.5.2 Antibacterial and Antifungal 288

18.5.3 Anti-Viral Effect 290

18.5.4 Anti-Cariogenic Effect 290

18.5.5 Antiplaque Effect 290

18.5.6 Antiperiodontitis Effect 290

18.5.7 Whitening Effect 291

18.6 Conclusion 292

References 292

19 Triphala and Oral Health 297
Kamal Shigli, Sushma S Nayak, Mrinal Shete, Vasanti Lagali Jirge and Veerendra Nanjwade

19.1 Introduction 297

19.2 Taxonomical Classification 298

19.3 Chief Phytoconstituents 298

19.4 Role of Triphala in Dentistry 300

19.4.1 Anti-Caries Activity 300

19.4.2 Triphala as a Root Canal Irrigant 300

19.4.3 Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Effect of Triphala 306

19.4.4 Role of Triphala in Periodontal Diseases 306

19.4.5 Triphala as a Mouth Rinse 306

19.4.6 Anti-Candida Activity of Triphala 306

19.4.7 Anti-Collagenase Activity of Triphala 306

19.5 Pharmacological Activities of Triphala and Future Research 307

19.5.1 Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Triphala 307

19.5.2 Wound Healing Properties 307

19.5.3 Antibacterial Activity of Triphala 307

19.5.4 Anti-Diabetic Effect 307

19.5.5 Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Effect 307

19.5.6 Immunomodulatory Effect 308

19.6 Public Health Importance 308

19.7 Formulation Using Triphala 308

19.6 Conclusion 308

References 309

20 Azadirachta indica (Neem): An Ancient Indian Boon to the Contemporary World of Dentistry 313
Sri Chandana Tanguturi, Sumanth Gunupati and Sreenivas Nagarakanti

20.1 Introduction 313

20.2 Vital Bioactive Compounds of Neem 314

20.2.1 Nimbidin 314

20.2.2 Azadirachtin 315

20.2.3 Nimbolide 315

20.2.4 Gedunin 315

20.2.5 Mahmoodin 315

20.2.6 Tannins 315

20.2.7 Diterpenoids 315

20.3 How to Distinguish Azadirachta Indica (Neem) from its Common Adulterant Melia Azedarach 316

20.4 Therapeutic Applications of Neem 316

20.4.1 Neem as an Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic Agent 317

20.4.2 Antioxidant Activity 317

20.4.3 Anticancerous Activity 317

20.4.4 Antimicrobial Activity 318

20.4.4.1 Antibacterial Activity 318

20.4.4.2 Antiviral Activity 318

20.4.4.3 Antifungal Activity 318

20.4.4.4 Antimalarial Activity 318

20.4.5 Wound Healing Effect 318

20.5 Applications of Neem in Dentistry 318

20.5.1 Neem in Treatment of Periodontal Diseases 319

20.5.2 Role of Neem in Endodontics 319

20.5.3 Potent Role of Neem in Preventive Dentistry 320

20.5.3.1 Application in Dental Erosion Therapy 320

20.5.3.2 Anti-Microbial Activity 320

20.5.3.3 Anticaries Activity of Neem 320

20.5.3.4 Anti-Candidiasis Property 321

20.5.3.5 Anti-Cancer Property 321

20.6 Literature Supporting the Use of Neem in Dentistry 321

20.7 Toxicity and Safety 322

20.8 Contamination and Adulteration 322

20.9 Drug Interactions 322

20.10 Neem’s Prospects in Dentistry 323

20.11 Action Points and Recommendations for Health Care Professionals 323

20.12 Conclusion 323

References 324

21 Ginger in Oral Care 329
Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Abhilasha Thakur and Anupam Jaiswal

21.1 Introduction 329

21.2 Description 330

21.3 Macroscopic Characteristics 330

21.4 Pharmacognostic Standards 330

21.5 Nutrient Composition 331

21.6 Pharmacological and Medicinal Effects 331

21.6.1 Oral Analgesic Effect 331

21.6.2 Antimicrobial Effect 332

21.6.3 Anti-Carries Activity 333

21.6.4 Anti-Decay Effect 333

21.6.5 Healing Effect in Root Canal Therapy 334

21.6.6 Anti-Xerostomia Effect 334

21.6.7 Anti-Pyorrhea Effect 335

21.6.8 Anti-Thrush Effect 335

21.6.9 Anti-Herpes Effect 336

21.6.10 Tooth Polishing 336

21.6.11 Mouth Deodorizing Effect 336

21.6.12 Anticancer Effect 338

21.6.13 Protection Against Aphthous Stomatitis 338

21.6.14 Effect on Dentin Hardness 338

21.7 Pharmacokinetics 339

21.8 Toxicological Studies 339

21.9 Conclusion 339

References 340

22 Effectiveness of Allium sativum on Bacterial Oral Infection 345
Vesna Karic, Anupam Jaiswal, Heidi Abrahamse, Abhilasha Thakur and Aditya Ganeshpurkar

22.1 Introduction 345

22.1.1 History and Origin of Garlic 347

22.1.2 Medicinal Values of Garlic 348

22.2 Types of Allium sativum 349

22.2.1 Allium sativum Ophisocorodon/Hard-Necked Garlic 349

22.2.2 Allium sativum Sativum/Soft-Necked Garlic 349

22.3 Chemical Constituents 351

22.3.1 Allicin 351

22.3.2 Ajoenes 351

22.3.3 Alliin 351

22.4 Dental Infections and Epidemiology 352

22.5 Dental Infection and Antibiotic Resistance 352

22.6 The Antibacterial Application of Garlic in Dentistry 354

22.6.1 The Use of Garlic to Treat Oral Infections 354

22.6.1.1 Periodontitis 354

22.6.1.2 Pediatric Endodontitis 356

22.6.1.3 Dental Caries 357

22.6.1.4 Denture Stomatitis 358

22.6.1.5 Protection Against Fibrosis 359

22.6.1.6 Garlic Chewing Gum 359

22.6.1.7 Garlic Used as a Breath-Freshening Agent 359

22.7 Additional Use of Garlic in Dentistry - Oral Cancer 360

22.7.1 High Blood Pressure 361

22.7.2 Skin Disorders 362

22.7.3 Anti-Allergic 362

22.7.4 Anti-Obesity 362

22.8 Garlic Mechanism of Action 362

22.9 Conclusions and Recommendations 362

Acknowledgments 364

References 364

Part IV: Ethnobotany and Ethanopharmacology 371

23 Curative Plants Worn in the Healing of Mouth Evils 373
P. Shivakumar Singh, Pindi Pavan Kumar and D. Srinivasulu

23.1 Introduction 373

23.2 Materials and Methods 374

23.3 Results and Discussion 375

23.4 Conclusion 381

Acknowledgment 381

References 381

24 Ethnopharmacological Applications of Chewing Sticks on Oral Health Care 383
E. A. Akaji and U. Otakhoigbogie

24.1 Introduction 383

24.1.1 Background 383

24.1.2 Historical Perspectives 384

24.1.3 Sources and Types of Chewing Sticks 384

24.2 Applications of Chewing Sticks in Oral Health Care 384

24.2.1 Chewing Sticks for Oral Hygiene 384

24.2.2 Ethnopharmacological Applications of Chewing Sticks in Oral Health 387

24.2.2.1 Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) 387

24.2.2.2 Periodontal Disease 389

24.2.2.3 Oral Candidiasis 389

24.2.2.4 Oral Ulcers and Halitosis 390

24.2.2.5 Other Oral Conditions 390

24.3 Conclusions 390

References 391

25 Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina 393
Viroj Wiwanitkit

25.1 Introduction 393

25.2 Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology in Indochina 394

25.3 Locally Available Naturally Derived Dental Products in Indochina 396

25.4 Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina 397

25.5 Ethnomedicine for Dental Diseases in Indochina 402

25.6 Future Trend of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina 403

25.7 Conclusion 404

References 404

26 Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in Anti-Halitosis 407
P. Shivakumar Singh, Pindi Pavan Kumar and D. Srinivasulu

26.1 Introduction 407

26.2 Materials and Methods 408

26.3 Results and Discussion 409

26.4 Conclusion 412

Acknowledgment 413

References 413

Index 415

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Durgesh Nandini Chauhan
Prabhu Raj Singh
Kamal Shah
Nagendra Singh Chauhan
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