+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

Layered 2D Materials and Their Allied Applications. Edition No. 1

  • Book
  • 400 Pages
  • July 2020
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5227549
Ever since the discovery of graphene, two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have been the central tool of the materials research community. The reason behind their importance is their superlative and unique electronic, optical, physical, chemical and mechanical properties in layered form rather than in bulk form. The 2DLMs have been applied to electronics, catalysis, energy, environment, and biomedical applications.

The following topics are discussed in the book’s fifteen chapters:

-  The research status of the 2D metal-organic frameworks and the different techniques used to synthesize them.

-  2D black phosphorus (BP) and its practical application in various fields.

-  Reviews the synthesis methods of MXenes and provides a detailed discussion of their structural characterization and physical, electrochemical and optical properties, as well as applications in catalysis, energy storage, environmental management, biomedicine, and gas sensing.

-  The carbon-based materials and their potential applications via the photocatalytic process using visible light irradiation.

-  2D materials like graphene, TMDCs, few-layer phosphorene, MXene in layered form and their heterostructures.

-  The structure and applications of 2D perovskites.

-  The physical parameters of pristine layered materials, ZnO, transition metal dichalcogenides, and heterostructures of layered materials are discussed.

-  The coupling of graphitic carbon nitride with various metal sulfides and oxides to form efficient heterojunction for water purification.

-  The structural features, synthetic methods, properties, and different applications and properties of 2D zeolites.

-  The methods for synthesizing 2D hollow nanostructures are featured and their structural aspects and potential in medical and non-medical applications.

-  The characteristics and structural aspects of 2D layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and the various synthesis methods and role of LDH in non-medical applications as adsorbent, sensor, catalyst, etc.

-  The synthesis of graphene-based 2D layered materials synthesized by using top-down and bottom-up approaches where the main emphasis is on the hot-filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (HFTCVD) method.

-  The different properties of 2D h-BN and borophene and the various methods being used for the synthesis of 2D h-BN, along with their growth mechanism and transfer techniques.

-  The physical properties and current progress of various transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) based on photoactive materials for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution reaction.

-  The state-of-the-art of 2D layered materials and associated devices, such as electronic, biosensing, optoelectronic, and energy storage applications.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

1 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks 1
Fengxian Cao, Jian Chen, Qixun Xia and Xinglai Zhang

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Synthesis Approaches 2

1.2.1 Selection of Synthetic Raw Materials 3

1.2.2 Solvent Volatility Method 4

1.2.3 Diffusion Method 4

1.2.3.1 Gas Phase Diffusion 4

1.2.3.2 Liquid Phase Diffusion 4

1.2.4 Sol-Gel Method 5

1.2.5 Hydrothermal/Solvothermal Synthesis Method 6

1.2.6 Stripping Method 6

1.2.7 Microwave Synthesis Method 8

1.2.8 Self-Assembly 9

1.2.9 Special Interface Synthesis Method 9

1.2.10 Surfactant-Assisted Synthesis Method 10

1.2.11 Ultrasonic Synthesis 10

1.3 Structures, Properties, and Applications 11

1.3.1 Structure and Properties of MOFs 11

1.3.2 Application in Biomedicine 12

1.3.3 Application in Gas Storage 12

1.3.4 Application in Sensors 13

1.3.5 Application in Chemical Separation 13

1.3.6 Application in Catalysis 14

1.3.7 Application in Gas Adsorption 14

1.4 Summary and Outlook 15

Acknowledgements 16

References 16

2 2D Black Phosphorus 21
Chenguang Duan, Hui Qiao, Zongyut Huang and Xiang Qi

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 The Research on Black Phosphorus 23

2.2.1 The Structure and Properties 23

2.2.1.1 The Structure of Black Phosphorus 25

2.2.1.2 The Properties of Black Phosphorus 25

2.2.2 Preparation Methods 26

2.2.2.1 Mechanical Exfoliation 28

2.2.2.2 Liquid-Phase Exfoliation 28

2.2.3 Antioxidant 30

2.2.3.1 Degradation Mechanism 30

2.2.3.2 Adding Protective Layer 31

2.2.3.3 Chemical Modification 31

2.2.3.4 Doping 33

2.3 Applications of Black Phosphorus 33

2.3.1 Electronic and Optoelectronic 34

2.3.1.1 Field-Effect Transistors 34

2.3.1.2 Photodetector 35

2.3.2 Energy Storage and Conversion 36

2.3.2.1 Catalysis 36

2.3.2.2 Batteries 37

2.3.2.3 Supercapacitor 38

2.3.3 Biomedical 39

2.4 Conclusion and Outlook 40

Acknowledgements 41

References 41

3 2D Metal Carbides 47
Peiran Hou, Xinxin Fu, Qixun Xia and Zhengpeng Yang

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Synthesis Approaches 48

3.2.1 Ti3C2 Synthesis 48

3.2.2 V2C Synthesis 50

3.2.3 Ti2C Synthesis 50

3.2.4 Mo2C Synthesis 51

3.3 Structures, Properties, and Applications 52

3.3.1 Structures and Properties of 2D Metal Carbides 52

3.3.1.1 Structures and Properties of Ti3C2 52

3.3.1.2 Structural Properties of Ti2C 53

3.3.1.3 Structural Properties of Mo2C 53

3.3.1.4 Structural Properties of V2C 54

3.3.2 Carbide Materials in Energy Storage Applications 55

3.3.2.1 Ti3C2 56

3.3.2.2 Ti2C 57

3.3.2.3 V2C 58

3.3.2.4 Mo2C 58

3.3.3 Metal Carbide Materials in Catalysis Applications 60

3.3.3.1 Ti3C2 60

3.3.3.2 V2C 61

3.3.3.3 Mo2C 62

3.3.4 Metal Carbide Materials in Environmental Management Applications 63

3.3.4.1 Ti3C2 in Environmental Management Applications 63

3.3.4.2 Ti2C in Environmental Management Applications 64

3.3.4.3 V2C in Environmental Management Applications 64

3.3.4.4 Mo2C in Environmental Management Applications 65

3.3.5 Carbide Materials in Biomedicine Applications 66

3.3.5.1 Ti3C2 in Biomedicine Applications 66

3.3.5.2 Ti2C in Biomedicine Applications 66

3.3.5.3 V2C in Biomedicine Applications 68

3.3.5.4 Mo2C in Biomedicine Applications 68

3.3.6 Carbide Materials in Gas Sensing Applications 69

3.3.6.1 Ti3C2 in Gas Sensing Applications 69

3.3.6.2 Ti2C in Gas Sensing Applications 69

3.3.6.3 V2C in Gas Sensing Applications 70

3.3.6.4 Mo2C in Gas Sensing Applications 71

3.4 Summary and Outlook 72

Acknowledgements 72

References 73

4 2D Carbon Materials as Photocatalysts 79
Amel Boudjemaa

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Carbon Nanostructured-Based Materials 80

4.2.1 Forms of Carbon 80

4.2.2 Synthesis of Carbon Nanostructured-Based Materials 80

4.3 Photo-Degradation of Organic Pollutants 81

4.3.1 Graphene, Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nitride (g-C3N4) 81

4.3.1.1 Graphene-Based Materials 82

4.3.1.2 Graphene Nitride (g-C3N4) 84

4.3.2 Carbon Dots (CDs) 87

4.3.3 Carbon Spheres (CSs) 87

4.4 Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Production 88

4.5 Carbon-Based Materials for CO2 Reduction 90

References 90

5 Sensitivity Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Heterostructure of 2D BlueP/MoS2 and MXene 103
Sarika Pal, Narendra Pal, Y.K. Prajapati and J.P. Saini

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Proposed SPR Sensor, Design Considerations, and Modeling 107

5.2.1 SPR Sensor and Its Sensing Principle 107

5.2.2 Design Consideration 108

5.2.2.1 Layer 1: Prism for Light Coupling 108

5.2.2.2 Layer 2: Metal Layer 109

5.2.2.3 Layer 3: BlueP/MoS2 Layer 110

5.2.2.4 Layer 4: MXene (Ti3C2Tx) Layer as BRE for Biosensing 110

5.2.2.5 Layer 5: Sensing Medium (RI-1.33-1.335) 110

5.2.3 Proposed Sensor Modeling 110

5.3 Results Discussion 112

5.3.1 Role of Monolayer BlueP/MoS2 and MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and Its Comparison With Conventional SPR 112

5.3.2 Influence of Varying Heterostructure Layers for Proposed Design 114

5.3.3 Effect of Changing Prism Material and Metal on Performance of Proposed Design 115

5.4 Conclusion 125

References 125

6 2D Perovskite Materials and Their Device Applications 131
B. Venkata Shiva Reddy, K. Srinivas, N. Suresh Kumar, S. Ramesh, K. Chandra Babu Naidu, Prasun Banerjee, Ramyakrishna Pothu and Rajender Boddula

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Structure 134

6.2.1 Crystal Structure 134

6.2.2 Electronic Structure of 2D Perovskites 134

6.2.3 Structure of Photovoltaic Cell 135

6.3 Discussion and Applications 136

6.4 Conclusion 139

References 139

7 Introduction and Significant Parameters for Layered Materials 141
Umbreen Rasheed, Fayyaz Hussain, Muhammad Imran, R.M. Arif Khalil and Sungjun Kim

7.1 Graphene 143

7.2 Phosphorene 147

7.3 Silicene 148

7.4 ZnO 150

7.5 Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) 151

7.6 Germanene and Stanene 152

7.7 Heterostructures 153

References 156

8 Increment in Photocatalytic Activity of g-C3N4 Coupled Sulphides and Oxides for Environmental Remediation 159
Pankaj Raizada, Abhinadan Kumar and Pardeep Singh

8.1 Introduction 160

8.2 GCN Coupled Metal Sulphide Heterojunctions for Environment Remediation 163

8.2.1 GCN and MoS2-Based Photocatalysts 163

8.2.2 GCN and CdS-Based Heterojunctions 168

8.2.3 Some Other GCN Coupled Metal Sulphide Photocatalysts 171

8.3 GCN Coupled Metal Oxide Heterojunctions for Environment Remediation 173

8.3.1 GCN and MoO3-Based Heterojunctions 177

8.3.2 GCN and Fe2O3-Based Heterojunctions 179

8.3.3 Some Other GCN Coupled Metal Oxide Photocatalysts 180

8.4 Conclusions and Outlook 181

References 181

9 2D Zeolites 193
Moumita Sardar, Manisha Maharana, Madhumita Manna and Sujit Sen

9.1 Introduction 193

9.1.1 What is 2D Zeolite? 195

9.1.2 Advancement in Zeolites to 2D Zeolite 196

9.2 Synthetic Method 197

9.2.1 Bottom-Up Method 197

9.2.2 Top-Down Method 198

9.2.3 Support-Assisted Method 199

9.2.4 Post-Synthesis Modification of 2D Zeolites 200

9.3 Properties 200

9.4 Applications 203

9.4.1 Petro-Chemistry 203

9.4.2 Biomass Conversion 203

9.4.2.1 Pyrolysis of Solid Biomass 203

9.4.2.2 Condensation Reactions 204

9.4.2.3 Isomerization 204

9.4.2.4 Dehydration Reactions 204

9.4.3 Oxidation Reactions 205

9.4.4 Fine Chemical Synthesis 206

9.4.5 Organometallics 206

9.5 Conclusion 206

References 207

10 2D Hollow Nanomaterials 211
S.S. Athira, V. Akhil, X. Joseph , J. Ashtami and P.V. Mohanan

10.1 Introduction 212

10.2 Structural Aspects of HNMs 213

10.3 Synthetic Approaches 214

10.3.1 Template-Based Strategies 215

10.3.1.1 Hard Templating 215

10.3.1.2 Soft Templating 217

10.3.2 Self-Templating Strategies 218

10.3.2.1 Surface Protected Etching 219

10.3.2.2 Ostwald Ripening 219

10.3.2.3 Kirkendall Effect 219

10.3.2.4 Galvanic Replacement 220

10.4 Medical Applications of HNMs 220

10.4.1 Imaging and Diagnosis Applications 221

10.4.2 Applications of Nanotube Arrays 222

10.4.2.1 Pharmacy and Medicine 224

10.4.2.2 Cancer Therapy 224

10.4.2.3 Immuno and Hyperthermia Therapy 226

10.4.2.4 Infection Therapy and Gene Therapy 226

10.4.3 Hollow Nanomaterials in Diagnostics and Therapeutics 227

10.4.4 Applications in Regenerative Medicine 227

10.4.5 Anti-Neurodegenerative Applications 228

10.4.6 Photothermal Therapy 229

10.4.7 Biosensors 230

10.5 Non-Medical Applications of HNMs 231

10.5.1 Catalytic Micro or Nanoreactors 231

10.5.2 Energy Storage 232

10.5.2.1 Lithium Ion Battery 232

10.5.2.2 Supercapacitor 232

10.5.3 Nanosensors 233

10.5.4 Wastewater Treatment 234

10.6 Toxicity of 2D HNMs 234

10.7 Future Challenges 237

10.8 Conclusion 239

Acknowledgement 240

References 240

11 2D Layered Double Hydroxides 249
J. Ashtami, X. Joseph, V. Akhil , S.S. Athira and P.V. Mohanan

11.1 Introduction 250

11.2 Structural Aspects 251

11.3 Synthesis of LDHs 252

11.3.1 Co-Precipitation Method 253

11.3.2 Urea Hydrolysis 254

11.3.3 Ion-Exchange Method 254

11.3.4 Reconstruction Method 254

11.3.5 Hydrothermal Method 255

11.3.6 Sol-Gel Method 255

11.4 Nonmedical Applications of LDH 255

11.4.1 Adsorbent 255

11.4.2 Catalyst 257

11.4.3 Sensors 260

11.4.4 Electrode 261

11.4.5 Polymer Additive 261

11.4.6 Anion Scavenger 262

11.4.7 Flame Retardant 263

11.5 Biomedical Applications 263

11.5.1 Biosensors 263

11.5.2 Scaffolds 265

11.5.3 Anti-Microbial Agents 266

11.5.4 Drug Delivery 267

11.5.5 Imaging 269

11.5.6 Protein Purification 269

11.5.7 Gene Delivery 270

11.6 Toxicity 272

11.7 Conclusion 273

Acknowledgement 274

References 274

12 Experimental Techniques for Layered Materials 283
Tariq Munir, Arslan Mahmood, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Kashif, Amjad Sohail, Zeeshan Yaqoob, Aleena Manzoor and Fahad Shafiq

12.1 Introduction 284

12.2 Methods for Synthesis of Graphene Layered Materials 285

12.3 Selection of a Suitable Metallic Substrate 287

12.4 Graphene Synthesis by HFTCVD 287

12.5 Graphene Transfer 289

12.6 Characterization Techniques 291

12.6.1 X-Ray Diffraction Technique 291

12.6.2 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) 292

12.6.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 293

12.6.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) 294

12.6.5 UV-Visible Spectroscopy 295

12.6.6 Raman Spectroscopy 295

12.6.7 Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) 296

12.7 Potential Applications of Graphene and Derived Materials 297

12.8 Conclusion 298

Acknowledgement 298

References 299

13 Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride and Borophenes 303
Atif Suhail and Indranil Lahiri

13.1 Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D h-BN): An Introduction 304

13.2 Properties of 2D h-BN 305

13.2.1 Structural Properties 305

13.2.2 Electronic and Dielectric Properties 306

13.2.3 Optical Properties 307

13.3 Synthesis Methods of 2D h-BN 308

13.3.1 Mechanical Exfoliation 309

13.3.2 Liquid Exfoliation 310

13.3.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 310

13.3.3.1 Synthesis Parameters 312

13.3.3.2 Growth Mechanism 313

13.3.3.3 Transfer of 2D h-BN Onto Other Substrates 314

13.3.4 Physical Vapor Deposition Method (PVD) 315

13.3.5 Surface Segregation Method 316

13.4 Application of 2D h-BN 317

13.4.1 2D h-BN in Electronic Manufacturing 318

13.4.2 2D h-BN as a Filler in Polymer Composites 319

13.4.3 2D h-BN as a Protective Barrier 320

13.4.4 2D h-BN in Optoelectronics 321

13.5 Borophene 323

13.5.1 Theoretical Investigation and Experimental Synthesis 324

13.5.2 Properties and Application of Borophene 326

13.5.2.1 Electronic Properties of Borophene 326

13.5.2.2 Chemical Properties 326

13.5.3 Potential Applications of Borophene 328

References 328

14 Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction 337
Rozan Mohamad Yunus, Mohd Nur Ikhmal Salehmin and Nurul Nabila Rosman

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 TMDC-Based Photoactive Materials for HER 339

14.2.1 MoS2 339

14.2.2 MoSe2 341

14.2.3 WS2 341

14.2.4 CoSe2 342

14.2.5 FeS2 343

14.2.6 NiSe2 344

14.3 TMDCs Fabrication Methods 345

14.3.1 Hydrothermal 345

14.3.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition/Vapor Phase Growth Process 346

14.3.3 Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) 347

14.3.4 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) 348

14.4 Current Photocatalytic Activity Performance 350

14.5 Summary and Perspective 351

References 352

15 State-of-the-Art and Perspective of Layered Materials 363
Tariq Munir, Muhammad Kashif, Aamir Shahzad, Nadeem Nasir, Muhammad Imran, Nabeel Anjum and Arslan Mahmood

15.1 Introduction 363

15.2 State-of-the-Art and Future Perspective 364

15.2.1 Electronic Devices 365

15.2.2 Optoelectronic Devices 369

15.2.3 Energy Storage Devices 372

15.3 Conclusion 374

References 374

Index 379

Authors

Rajender Boddula National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). Mohd Imran Ahamed Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Abdullah M. Asiri King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.