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Frontiers of Textile Materials. Polymers, Nanomaterials, Enzymes, and Advanced Modification Techniques. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5227684
  • Book
  • April 2020
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
The book “Frontiers and Textile Materials will deal with the important materials that can be utilized for value-addition and functionalization of textile materials. The topics covered in this book includes the materials like enzymes, polymers, etc. that are utilized for conventional textile processing and the advanced materials like nanoparticles which are expected to change the horizons of textiles. The futuristic techniques for textile processing like plasma are also discussed.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xv

1 Introduction to Textiles and Finishing Materials 1
Mohd Shabbir and Javed N. Sheikh

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Polymers 2

1.3 Nanomaterials 3

1.4 Enzymes 4

1.5 Plasma and Radiations for Textiles 6

1.6 Flexible Electronics 7

References 8

2 Polymers for Textile Production 13
Mohammad Tajul Islam, Md. Mostafizur Rahman and Nur-Us-Shafa Mazumder

2.1 Polymers 13

2.2 History of Polymer 15

2.3 Classification of Polymers 16

2.4 Polymerization 19

2.4.1 Chain Polymerization 19

2.4.2 Step Polymerization 21

2.5 Polymers in Textile Fibers 23

2.5.1 Natural Polymers 24

2.5.1.1 Cellulose 24

2.5.1.2 Cotton 25

2.5.1.3 Jute 26

2.5.1.4 Keratin 26

2.5.1.5 Wool 27

2.5.1.6 Fibroin 28

2.5.1.7 Silk 28

2.5.2 Synthetic Polymers 29

2.5.2.1 Polyethylene 29

2.5.2.2 Polypropylene 33

2.5.2.3 Polytetrafluoroethylene 36

2.5.2.4 Poly Vinyl Chloride 38

2.5.2.5 Poly Vinylidene Chloride 40

2.5.2.6 Polyamide 41

2.5.2.7 Polyethylene Terephthalate 47

2.5.2.8 Polyacrylonitrile 50

2.5.2.9 Modacrylic Fiber 52

2.5.2.10 Spandex Fiber 52

2.6 Polymers in Textile Processing 54

2.6.1 Polyvinyl Alcohol 54

2.6.2 Starch 56

2.6.3 Sodium Alginate 56

2.7 Conclusion 57

References 57

3 Advances in Polymer Coating for Functional Finishing of Textiles 61
Asma Bouasria, Ayoub Nadi, Aicha Boukhriss, Hassan Hannache, Omar Cherkaoui and Said Gmouh

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 Polymer Coating Methods 63

3.2.1 Dip Coating 63

3.2.2 Transfer Coating 64

3.2.3 Kiss Roll Coating 64

3.2.4 Gravure Roll Coating 64

3.2.5 Slot Die or Extrusion Coating 65

3.2.6 Powder Coating 65

3.2.7 Knife Coating 66

3.2.7.1 Choice of the Thickness 67

3.2.7.2 The Viscosity 67

3.2.7.3 Drying 67

3.2.7.4 Type of Knife 68

3.2.7.5 Knife Use Technologies 69

3.2.7.6 Type of Knife Coating 70

3.3 New Technologies in Polymer Coatings 71

3.3.1 Plasma Treatment Technology 71

3.3.2 Electrofluidodynamic Treatment Technology 72

3.3.3 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Based Method Technology 73

3.4 Coating Materials 73

3.4.1 Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 74

3.4.2 Polyacrylics (PA) 74

3.4.3 Polyurethane (PU) 75

3.5 New Functionalities of Polymer Coatings 77

3.5.1 Application in Smart Textile 77

3.5.2 Flame Retardant 77

3.5.3 Water Repellence 79

3.5.4 Antibacterial Function 81

3.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 82

References 82

4 Functional Finishing of Textiles with β-Cyclodextrin 87
Aminoddin Haji

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Properties of Cyclodextrins 89

4.3 Chemical Modification of Cyclodextrins 91

4.4 Methods for Attachment of β-CD on Textiles 91

4.5 Functional Properties Obtained by Attachment of β-CD on Textiles 100

4.5.1 Antimicrobial Activity and Drug Delivery 100

4.5.2 Fragrance Release and Anti-Odor Finishing 101

4.5.3 Improved Dyeing and Printing 105

4.5.4 Wastewater Treatment 105

4.5.5 Flame Retardant Finishing 105

4.6 Conclusion 109

References 109

5 Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Their Applications in Textile Industry 117
Rizwan Arif , Sapana Jadoun and Anurakshee Verma

5.1 Introduction 118

5.2 Synthesis of Nanomaterials 119

5.2.1 Preparation of Chitosan Nano-Fibers 119

5.2.2 Preparation of Polyethylene Glycol Capped Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) 120

5.2.3 Preparation of Silk Textile Nano-Composite Materials of TiO2 Nanoparticles 122

5.3 Synthesis of Nano-Fiber-Based Hydrogels (NFHGs) 122

5.3.1 Electrospinning 123

5.3.2 Weaving 123

5.3.3 Freeze Drying 124

5.3.4 3D Printing 124

5.4 Application of Nano Textiles 124

5.5 Conclusion 130

References 131

6 Modification of Textiles via Nanomaterials and Their Applications 135
Sapana Jadoun, Anurakshee Verma and Rizwan Arif

6.1 Introduction 136

6.2 Nanotextiles and Its Properties 137

6.3 Modification of Textiles via Nanoparticles 138

6.3.1 Modification via Silver Nanoparticle 139

6.3.2 Modification via Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle 143

6.3.3 Modification via Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle 144

6.3.4 Modification via Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles 144

6.3.5 Modification via Polymer Nanoparticles 146

6.4 Applications 146

6.5 Conclusion 147

References 148

7 UV Protection via Nanomaterials 153
Kunal Singha, Subhankar Maity and Pintu Pandit

7.1 Introduction 154

7.1.1 Different Types of Nano-Finishing on Textile Materials 154

7.1.1.1 UV Protection 154

7.1.1.2 Nano-Silver (Ag) (Antimicrobial Activity) 155

7.1.1.3 Water Repellence Finishing 155

7.1.1.4 Self-Cleaning or “Lotus Effect” 155

7.1.1.5 New-Age Nano-Finishing on Textile Materials Nano-Care 156

7.2 Zinc Oxide Particle (ZnO) Physical Properties 156

7.2.1 Chemical Properties 156

7.2.2 Nanophase ZnO 157

7.2.3 TiO2 Structure and Properties 157

7.2.3.1 TiO2 Nanoparticle 157

7.3 UV Protective Applications 157

7.3.1 Nanocoating of ZnO–TiO2 on Textile Fabric 158

7.3.2 Polymer Dispersion Methods of Nanocoating 158

7.4 Applications as UV Absorber and Sunscreen 159

7.4.1 Nanomaterials Used in UV Protective Finishing 159

7.5 Nano-ZnO-TiO2 Finishing 161

7.5.1 Mechanism of UV Protection 162

7.5.2 UV Protection Through Nano-Finishing of Textiles 162

7.6 Evaluation of UV Protection Finishes 163

7.7 Conclusions 164

References 165

8 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Modified Textile Nanomaterials 167
Anurakshee Verma, Rizwan Arif and Sapana Jadoun

8.1 Introduction of Textile Nanomaterials 167

8.2 Synthesis of Textiles Nanomaterials 168

8.2.1 Synthesis via Hydrothermal Method 169

8.2.2 Synthesis via Solvo-Thermal Method 169

8.2.3 Synthesis via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method 169

8.2.4 Synthesis via Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Method 170

8.2.5 Synthesis via Template Method 170

8.2.6 Synthesis via Conventional Sol–Gel Method 170

8.2.7 Synthesis via Microwave Method 170

8.2.8 Synthesis via Fabrication Process 170

8.3 Characterization 171

8.3.1 Microscopic Characterization of Textile Nanomaterials 172

8.3.1.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 172

8.3.1.2 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 172

8.3.1.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 173

8.3.1.4 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 174

8.3.2 Spectroscopic Characterization of Textile Nanomaterials 175

8.3.2.1 Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) Spectroscopy 175

8.3.2.2 Raman Spectroscopy 175

8.3.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) 175

8.3.3 Characterization of Textile Nanomaterials by X-Ray 176

8.3.3.1 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) 176

8.3.3.2 Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction 176

8.3.3.3 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 176

8.3.3.4 Particle Size Analyzer 177

8.3.4 Characterization of Textile Nanomaterial by Some Other Technique 178

8.3.4.1 Physical Testing 178

8.3.4.2 Determination of Recovery Angle and Tensile Properties 178

8.3.4.3 Determination of Absorbency by Wicking Test and Bending Length 179

8.3.4.4 Evaluation of Water and Air Permeability 179

8.4 Application of Textiles Nanomaterials 179

8.4.1 Application Based on Properties of Textile Material 179

8.4.1.1 Anti-Bacterial Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 179

8.4.1.2 UV Protective Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 180

8.4.1.3 Water Repellence Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 180

8.4.1.4 Anti-Static Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 180

8.4.1.5 Flame Retardant Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 180

8.4.1.6 Wrinkle-Free Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 181

8.4.1.7 Self-Cleaning Properties of Textile Nanomaterial 181

8.4.1.8 Economical and Environmental Aspects of Textile Nanomaterial 181

8.4.2 Application in Textile Industry 182

8.4.2.1 Textile Nanomaterial Used in Swimming Costume 182

8.4.2.2 Textile Nanomaterial Used in Sports Goods 182

8.4.2.3 Textile Nanomaterial Used Inflexible Electronic Circuit 182

8.4.2.4 Textile Nanomaterial Used in Lifestyle 182

8.5 Current Trends and Future Prospects 183

8.6 Conclusion 183

References 184

9 Biomaterials-Based Nanogenerator: Futuristic Solution for Integration Into Smart Textiles 189
S. Wazed Ali, Satyaranjan Bairagi and Pramod Shankar

9.1 Introduction 190

9.2 Biomaterial-Based Piezoelectric Nanogenerator 191

9.2.1 Cellulose-Based 191

9.2.2 Collagen-Based 194

9.2.3 Protein-Based 197

9.3 Conclusion 198

Acknowledgment 199

References 199

10 Textiles in Solar Cell Applications 203
Khursheed Ahmad

10.1 Introduction 203

10.2 Basic Principle and Types of Solar Cells 205

10.3 Textiles in Solar Cells 206

10.3.1 Textiles in Perovskite Solar Cells 206

10.3.2 Textiles in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells 210

10.4 Conclusion 212

References 213

11 Multifunctionalizations of Textile Materials Highlighted by Unconventional Dyeing 219
Vasilica Popescu

11.1 Introduction 220

11.2 Functionalization of Textile Materials: Functionalization Techniques 220

11.3 PAN: Functionalization/Multifunctionalization by Chemical Treatments 223

11.3.1 Dyeing of Functionalized Acrylic Fibers with Different Reagents 229

11.3.2 Functionalization of PAN-M with Basic Reagents 230

11.3.3 Dyeing of PAN-M Functionalized with Basic Reagents 238

11.4 Multi-Functionalization of Acrylic Fiber by Grafting with Polyfunctional Agents 244

11.4.1 Multifunctionalization of PAN Fiber with Chitosan 244

11.4.1.1 Multifunctionalization of PAN-M Fiber with Chitosan by Means of Electrostatical Bonding 245

11.4.1.2 Multifunctionalization PAN-M Fiber with Chitosan via Covalent Bonds 247

11.4.1.3 Multifunction of PAN Fiber with MCT-β-CD 248

11.5 Polyethylene Terephthalate: Functionalization Ways 249

11.5.1 Functionalization of PET with Basic Reagents 250

11.5.1.1 Dyeing of PET Functionalized with Agents Having Basic Character 253

11.5.2 PET Functionalization with Alcohols 255

11.5.2.1 Multifunctionalized PET Dyeing with Alcohols 257

11.5.3 PET-Multifunctionalization with MCT-β-CD 260

11.5.4 Functionalization of the PET Surface with Plasma Treatment 261

11.5.4.1 Dyeing of PET Functionalized by Means of Plasma and Grafting with Polyfunctional Compounds 264

11.6 Cotton: Multifunctionalization Ways 266

11.6.1 Surface Activation with Plasma Followed by Grafting with Polyfunctional Compounds 267

11.6.1.1 Dyeing of Multifunctionalized Cotton by Plasma and Grafting Treatments 269

11.6.2 Alkyl Chitosan Grafting on Cotton 269

11.6.2.1 Dyeing of Cotton Grafted with Alkyl Chitosans 273

11.6.3 Multifunctionalization of Cotton with Polyfunctional Compounds and Unconventional Dyeing 275

11.6.3.1 Functionalization of Cotton with Tetronic 701 and Chitosan 275

11.6.3.2 Functionalization of Cotton with a Tetrol (Tetronic 701) and MCT-β-CD 277

11.6.3.3 Successive Functionalization of Cotton with a Tetrol (Tetronic 701), Chitosan, and MCT-β-CD 277

11.6.4 Multifunctionalization of Cotton with Carbonyl Compounds and MCT-β-CD 278

11.7 Conclusions 279

References 280

12 Advanced Dyeing or Functional Finishing 291
Kunal Singha, Subhankar Maity and Pintu Pandit

12.1 Introduction 292

12.2 Mechanism of Dyeing by Phase Separation 293

12.3 Advanced Dyeing and Finishing Techniques 293

12.3.1 Ultrasound Technology 293

12.3.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Technology 294

12.3.3 Ozone Technology 294

12.3.4 Plasma Technology/Ion Implantation Technology 295

12.3.5 Gamma Radiation Technology 295

12.3.6 Laser Technology 296

12.3.7 Microwave Technology 296

12.3.8 E-Beam Radiation Technology/Mass-Analyzed Ion Implantation 296

12.3.9 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (Sc. CO2) Technology 296

12.4 Applications of Ultrasonics in Textiles 297

12.4.1 Principle of Ultrasound Dyeing Technique 298

12.4.2 Basic Design of the Ultrasound Dyeing Instrument Developed by SASMIRA, India 299

12.4.3 Different Section of the Machine 299

12.4.4 K/S Value 300

12.4.5 Dye Uptake 301

12.4.6 Comparison of Ultrasound Dyeing Technique with the Conventional Dyeing Technique for Various Textile Materials 301

12.4.7 Dyeing of Polyester by Disperse Dye 303

12.5 Conclusions 304

References 305

13 Plasma and Other Irradiation Technologies Application in Textile 309
Kartick K. Samanta, S. Basak and Pintu Pandit

13.1 Introduction 310

13.2 Plasma Treatment of Textile 312

13.3 Optical Properties of Plasma 314

13.4 Improvement in Hydrophobic Attribute 316

13.4.1 Surface Chemistry of Hydrophobic Textile 317

13.5 Improvement in Liquid Absorbency and Coloration 320

13.6 Plasma Treatment of Protein Fiber 322

13.6.1 On Silk Fiber 322

13.6.2 On Wool Fabric 324

13.7 UV Irradiation 325

13.8 Laser Irradiation 326

13.9 Electron Beam Irradiation 327

13.10 Summary 327

References 328

14 Bio-Mordants in Conjunction With Sustainable Radiation Tools for Modification of Dyeing of Natural Fibers 335
Shahid Adeel, Shumaila Kiran, Tanvir Ahmad, Noman Habib, Kinza Tariq and Muhammad Hussaan

14.1 Natural Dyes 336

14.2 Health and Environmental Aspects 336

14.3 Isolation Process 336

14.3.1 Conventional Methods 337

14.3.2 Modern Methods 337

14.4 Role of US and MW in Isolation 337

14.5 Fabric Chemistry 338

14.6 Shade Development Process 338

14.6.1 Chemical Mordant 339

14.6.2 Bio-Mordant 339

14.7 Arjun 340

14.8 Neem 340

14.9 Coconut 340

14.10 Harmal 340

14.11 Recent Advances 341

Acknowledgments 344

References 344

Index 349

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Mohd Shabbir
Shakeel Ahmed
Javed N. Sheikh
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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