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Supramolecular Gels. Materials and Emerging Applications. Edition No. 1

  • Book
  • 272 Pages
  • July 2021
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5236680
Supramolecular Gels

Discover a current and authoritative overview of the cutting-edge in supramolecular gels from a leading voice in the field

A promising new class of materials shows potential and is receiving increasing attention as an intelligent material for multifunctional systems. In a work that is sure to be of great interest to a wide variety of researchers, chemists, and engineers, Supramolecular Gels: Materials and Emerging Applications delivers an application-oriented and focused book exploring the most recent applications of supramolecular gels.

This interdisciplinary book presents the underlying fundamentals of supramolecular gels before discussing their assembly mechanisms and structures. It also introduces different material systems, including composite supramolecular gels, organogels, hydrogels, self-healing, and graphene-based supramolecular gels.

The book discusses current and emerging applications of these materials in devices like sensors and actuators, biomedical tools, and environmental applications. The distinguished author also offers valuable insights with respect to the design and character of brand-new versatile soft materials.

Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:- A thorough introduction to the fundamentals of supramolecular gels, including their formation, classification, self-assembly, and mechanisms- An exploration of supramolecular chirality and regulation in gel structures, as well as self-assembly and environmental applications of composite supramolecular gels- Practical discussions of fluorescent organogels and hydrogels and their applications in analyte sensing- An examination of self-healing and graphene-based supramolecular gels, and supramolecular gels for sensors and actuators

Perfect for materials scientists, organic chemists, biochemists, catalytic chemists, and environmental chemists, Supramolecular Gels: Materials and Emerging Applications will also earn a place in the libraries of sensor developers and other professionals seeking a one-stop reference for this rapidly developing category of intelligent materials.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Molecular Gel as Medium or Intermediate in Functional Materials Synthesis 1

Rong Miao and Junxia Peng

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Molecular Gel as Intermediate in Synthesizing Fluorescent Sensing Films with High Performance 2

1.2.1 Molecular Design 3

1.2.2 Molecular Gel Strategy-Based Sensing Film for VOC Vapor Detection 4

1.2.3 Molecular Gel Strategy-Based Film for Chemicals Sensing in Liquid Phase 9

1.3 Molecular Gel as Intermediate in Synthesizing Porous Materials 9

1.3.1 Porous Materials for Removal of Oil onWater Surface 11

1.3.2 Porous Materials for VOCs Adsorption 13

1.4 Summary and Perspectives 14

References 16

2 Preparation and Sensing Application of Fluorescent Organogels and Hydrogels 21

Xudong Yu, Lijun Geng, and Jiangbo Guo

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Types of Gels that Respond to Different Stimuli 22

2.2.1 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Physical Stimuli 22

2.2.1.1 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Heat 22

2.2.1.2 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Light 23

2.2.1.3 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Ultrasound 25

2.2.1.4 Fluorescent Xerogels that Respond to Grinding or Pressure 28

2.2.2 Fluorescent Gels for Visual Chemical Stimulus Sensing 30

2.2.2.1 Fluorescent Gels for Cation Sensing 30

2.2.2.2 Fluorescent Gels for Anion Sensing 35

2.2.2.3 Fluorescent Gels for CO2 Sensing 37

2.2.2.4 Fluorescent Gels for Solvent and Humidity Sensing 38

2.2.2.5 Fluorescent Gels for Nitroaromatic Derivative Sensing 42

2.2.2.6 Fluorescent Gels for Amine Sensing 42

2.3 Summary and Perspectives 45

References 46

3 Preparation of Self-Assembled Composite Hydrogels and Their Application in Biomedicine and Wastewater Treatment 51

Ran Wang, Jingxin Zhou, Lexin Zhang, and Tifeng Jiao

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Prepared Composite Hydrogels Used in Biomedicine 52

3.2.1 Self-Assembly and Drug Release Capacities of Organogels via Some Amide Compounds with Aromatic Substituent Headgroups 52

3.3 Prepared Composite Hydrogels Used inWastewater Treatment 55

3.3.1 Preparation and Self-assembly of Some Functionalized Supramolecular Hydrogels 55

3.3.2 Preparation and Self-assembly of Some Graphene Oxide-Based Composite Hydrogels 57

3.4 Conclusion and Perspectives 64

Acknowledgments 65

References 65

4 Conductive Hydrogels for Flexible Mechanical Sensors 71

Zhihui Qin and Tifeng Jiao

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Fabrication of Conductive Hydrogels 73

4.2.1 Electronically Conductive Hydrogel 74

4.2.2 Ionically Conductive Hydrogels 78

4.3 Conductive Hydrogel-Based Mechanical Sensors 80

4.3.1 Strain Sensors 81

4.3.2 Pressure Sensors 85

4.4 Conclusion and Outlook 89

Acknowledgments 90

References 90

5 Recent Progress on Heat-Set Molecular Gels 99

Yuangang Li, Zonglin Yang, Yong Chen, Huajing Li, Rong Yang, and Chenyu Huang

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Heat-Set Molecular Gels 101

5.2.1 Heat-Set Molecular Hydrogel 101

5.2.2 Heat-Set Organic Gel 110

5.3 Conclusion and Perspectives 118

Acknowledgements 120

References 120

6 Supramolecular Gels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers for Water Remediation 127

Xuefeng Zhang and Weiqi Leng

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Hydrogels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers 128

6.2.1 Hydrogels from Native Cellulose or Chitin 129

6.2.2 Hydrogels from Cellulose or Chitin Derivatives 130

6.2.3 Hydrogels from Biopolymer Nanomaterials 132

6.2.3.1 Hydrogels from Physically Cross-Linked NC or NCh 134

6.2.3.2 Hydrogels from Chemically Cross-Linked NC or NCh 137

6.3 Aerogels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers 138

6.4 Biopolymer-Derived Gels forWater Remediation 140

6.4.1 Heavy Metal Removal 141

6.4.2 Organic Pollutants Removal 146

6.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 156

References 156

7 Biobased Aerogels for Oil Spill Remediation 169

Weiqi Leng, Sheng He, Xuefeng Zhang, Xiang Wang, and Chanaka M. Navarathna

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 Aerogels: Classification, Fabrication, and Properties 172

7.2.1 Classification of Aerogels 172

7.2.2 Fabrication of Biobased Aerogels 173

7.2.2.1 Supercritical Drying 177

7.2.2.2 Freeze-drying 179

7.2.3 Functionalization of Biobased Aerogels 186

7.3 Biobased Aerogels for Oil Spill Remediation 193

7.3.1 Parameters That Affect the Oil Absorption Performance 193

7.3.2 Mechanisms of Oil Absorption 197

7.3.3 Post-processing of Aerogel Absorbent After Oil Spill Remediation 200

7.4 Conclusion and Future Scope 201

References 201

8 Luminescent Supramolecular Gels 215

Xue Jin and Pengfei Duan

8.1 Introduction 215

8.2 Fluorescence in Supramolecular Gels 216

8.3 Phosphorescence in Supramolecular Gels 219

8.4 Upconverted Luminescence in Supramolecular Gels 224

8.5 Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Supramolecular Gels 230

8.5.1 CPL-Active Gel Based on Chiral Luminescent Gelators 234

8.5.2 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel Based on Achiral Luminescent Gelators 238

8.5.3 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel by Using Organic Luminophores as Guests 239

8.5.4 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel Based on Inorganic Luminescence Guest 245

8.6 Conclusion and Perspectives 249

Acknowledgments 250

References 250

Index 257

9783527345113

Preface ix

1 Molecular Gel as Medium or Intermediate in Functional Materials Synthesis 1

Rong Miao and Junxia Peng

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Molecular Gel as Intermediate in Synthesizing Fluorescent Sensing Films with High Performance 2

1.2.1 Molecular Design 3

1.2.2 Molecular Gel Strategy-Based Sensing Film for VOC Vapor Detection 4

1.2.3 Molecular Gel Strategy-Based Film for Chemicals Sensing in Liquid Phase 9

1.3 Molecular Gel as Intermediate in Synthesizing Porous Materials 9

1.3.1 Porous Materials for Removal of Oil onWater Surface 11

1.3.2 Porous Materials for VOCs Adsorption 13

1.4 Summary and Perspectives 14

References 16

2 Preparation and Sensing Application of Fluorescent Organogels and Hydrogels 21

Xudong Yu, Lijun Geng, and Jiangbo Guo

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Types of Gels that Respond to Different Stimuli 22

2.2.1 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Physical Stimuli 22

2.2.1.1 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Heat 22

2.2.1.2 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Light 23

2.2.1.3 Fluorescent Gels that Respond to Ultrasound 25

2.2.1.4 Fluorescent Xerogels that Respond to Grinding or Pressure 28

2.2.2 Fluorescent Gels for Visual Chemical Stimulus Sensing 30

2.2.2.1 Fluorescent Gels for Cation Sensing 30

2.2.2.2 Fluorescent Gels for Anion Sensing 35

2.2.2.3 Fluorescent Gels for CO2 Sensing 37

2.2.2.4 Fluorescent Gels for Solvent and Humidity Sensing 38

2.2.2.5 Fluorescent Gels for Nitroaromatic Derivative Sensing 42

2.2.2.6 Fluorescent Gels for Amine Sensing 42

2.3 Summary and Perspectives 45

References 46

3 Preparation of Self-Assembled Composite Hydrogels and Their Application in Biomedicine and Wastewater Treatment 51

Ran Wang, Jingxin Zhou, Lexin Zhang, and Tifeng Jiao

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Prepared Composite Hydrogels Used in Biomedicine 52

3.2.1 Self-Assembly and Drug Release Capacities of Organogels via Some Amide Compounds with Aromatic Substituent Headgroups 52

3.3 Prepared Composite Hydrogels Used inWastewater Treatment 55

3.3.1 Preparation and Self-assembly of Some Functionalized Supramolecular Hydrogels 55

3.3.2 Preparation and Self-assembly of Some Graphene Oxide-Based Composite Hydrogels 57

3.4 Conclusion and Perspectives 64

Acknowledgments 65

References 65

4 Conductive Hydrogels for Flexible Mechanical Sensors 71

Zhihui Qin and Tifeng Jiao

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Fabrication of Conductive Hydrogels 73

4.2.1 Electronically Conductive Hydrogel 74

4.2.2 Ionically Conductive Hydrogels 78

4.3 Conductive Hydrogel-Based Mechanical Sensors 80

4.3.1 Strain Sensors 81

4.3.2 Pressure Sensors 85

4.4 Conclusion and Outlook 89

Acknowledgments 90

References 90

5 Recent Progress on Heat-Set Molecular Gels 99

Yuangang Li, Zonglin Yang, Yong Chen, Huajing Li, Rong Yang, and Chenyu Huang

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Heat-Set Molecular Gels 101

5.2.1 Heat-Set Molecular Hydrogel 101

5.2.2 Heat-Set Organic Gel 110

5.3 Conclusion and Perspectives 118

Acknowledgements 120

References 120

6 Supramolecular Gels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers for Water Remediation 127

Xuefeng Zhang and Weiqi Leng

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Hydrogels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers 128

6.2.1 Hydrogels from Native Cellulose or Chitin 129

6.2.2 Hydrogels from Cellulose or Chitin Derivatives 130

6.2.3 Hydrogels from Biopolymer Nanomaterials 132

6.2.3.1 Hydrogels from Physically Cross-Linked NC or NCh 134

6.2.3.2 Hydrogels from Chemically Cross-Linked NC or NCh 137

6.3 Aerogels from Carbohydrate Biopolymers 138

6.4 Biopolymer-Derived Gels forWater Remediation 140

6.4.1 Heavy Metal Removal 141

6.4.2 Organic Pollutants Removal 146

6.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 156

References 156

7 Biobased Aerogels for Oil Spill Remediation 169

Weiqi Leng, Sheng He, Xuefeng Zhang, Xiang Wang, and Chanaka M. Navarathna

7.1 Introduction 169

7.2 Aerogels: Classification, Fabrication, and Properties 172

7.2.1 Classification of Aerogels 172

7.2.2 Fabrication of Biobased Aerogels 173

7.2.2.1 Supercritical Drying 177

7.2.2.2 Freeze-drying 179

7.2.3 Functionalization of Biobased Aerogels 186

7.3 Biobased Aerogels for Oil Spill Remediation 193

7.3.1 Parameters That Affect the Oil Absorption Performance 193

7.3.2 Mechanisms of Oil Absorption 197

7.3.3 Post-processing of Aerogel Absorbent After Oil Spill Remediation 200

7.4 Conclusion and Future Scope 201

References 201

8 Luminescent Supramolecular Gels 215

Xue Jin and Pengfei Duan

8.1 Introduction 215

8.2 Fluorescence in Supramolecular Gels 216

8.3 Phosphorescence in Supramolecular Gels 219

8.4 Upconverted Luminescence in Supramolecular Gels 224

8.5 Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Supramolecular Gels 230

8.5.1 CPL-Active Gel Based on Chiral Luminescent Gelators 234

8.5.2 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel Based on Achiral Luminescent Gelators 238

8.5.3 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel by Using Organic Luminophores as Guests 239

8.5.4 CPL-Active Supramolecular Gel Based on Inorganic Luminescence Guest 245

8.6 Conclusion and Perspectives 249

Acknowledgments 250

References 250

Index 257

Authors

Tifeng Jiao