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Handbook of Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering. Edition No. 1

  • Book
  • 528 Pages
  • June 2021
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5238234

Learn from this integrated approach to the management and restoration of ecosystems edited by an international leader in the field 

The Handbook of Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering delivers a comprehensive overview of the latest research and practical developments in the rapidly evolving fields of ecological and ecosystem engineering. Beginning with an introduction to the theory and practice of ecological engineering and ecosystem services, the book addresses a wide variety of issues central to the restoration and remediation of ecological environments. 

The book contains fulsome analyses of the restoration, rehabilitation, conservation, sustainability, reconstruction, remediation, and reclamation of ecosystems using ecological engineering techniques. Case studies are used to highlight practical applications of the theory discussed within. 

The material in the Handbook of Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering is particularly relevant at a time when the human population is dramatically rising, and the exploitation of natural resources is putting increasing pressure on planetary ecosystems. The book demonstrates how modern scientific ecology can contribute to the greening of the environment through the inclusion of concrete examples of successful applied management. The book also includes: 

  • A thorough discussion of ecological engineering and ecosystem services theory and practice 
  • An exploration of ecological and ecosystem engineering economic and environmental revitalization 
  • An examination of the role of soil meso and macrofauna indicators for restoration assessment success in a rehabilitated mine site 
  • A treatment of the mitigation of urban environmental issues by applying ecological and ecosystem engineering 
  • A discussion of soil fertility restoration theory and practice 

Perfect for academic researchers, industry scientists, and environmental engineers working in the fields of ecological engineering, environmental science, and biotechnology, the Handbook of Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering also belongs on the bookshelves of environmental regulators and consultants, policy makers, and employees of non-governmental organizations working on sustainable development. 

 

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

1 Ecological Engineering and Ecosystem Services - Theory and Practice 1
Fábio Carvalho Nunes, Thaís de Marchi Soares, Lander de Jesus Alves, José Rodrigues de Souza Filho, Cláudia Cseko Nolasco de Carvalho, and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Ecological Engineering: History and Definition 3

1.3 Ecosystem Services: History, Concepts, and Dimensions 7

1.3.1 Sizing Ecosystem Services 10

1.3.2 Agriculture and Ecosystem Services 15

1.4 Final Considerations: Challenges for the Future 19

Notes 20

References 20

2 Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering for Economic-Environmental Revitalization 25
Bruno Barbosa and Ana Luísa Fernando

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Revitalization of Physical/Environmental Factors 27

2.2.1 Low Temperature 27

2.2.2 Limited Soil Drainage and Shallow Rooting Depth 28

2.2.3 Unfavorable Texture and Stoniness 29

2.2.4 Sloping Areas 30

2.2.5 Dryness 30

2.2.6 Waterlogging 31

2.3 Revitalization of Chemical Factors 32

2.3.1 Acidity 32

2.3.2 Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants 33

2.3.3 Salinity and Sodicity 34

2.4 Economic Revitalization of Degraded Soil Ecosystems 35

2.5 Conclusions 36

References 37

3 Environmental Issues and Priority Areas for Ecological Engineering Initiatives 47
Sanchayita Rajkhowa, Nazmun Ara Khanom, and Jyotirmoy Sarma

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Basic Concepts of Ecological Engineering 50

3.3 Practice and Implication of Ecological Engineering 53

3.4 Priority Areas for Ecological Engineering 54

3.4.1 Coastal Ecosystem Restoration 55

3.4.2 Mangrove Restoration 56

3.4.3 River and Wetland Restoration 57

3.4.4 Ecological Engineering in Soil Restoration and Agriculture 59

3.5 Conclusion 61

Notes 62

References 63

4 Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Indicators of Restoration Success in Rehabilitated Mine Sites 67
Sara Pelaez Sanchez, Ronan Courtney, and Olaf Schmidt

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Restoration to Combat Land Degradation 67

4.3 Mine Rehabilitation 68

4.3.1 Mine Tailings 68

4.3.2 Rehabilitation of Mine Tailings 68

4.3.3 The Challenge of Metal Mine Rehabilitation 68

4.4 Restoration Success Assessment: Monitoring Diversity, Vegetation, and Ecological Processes 69

4.4.1 Monitoring Diversity 70

4.4.2 Vegetation 70

4.4.3 Ecological Processes 71

4.5 Gaps in the Assessment of Restoration Success in Mine Sites 72

4.6 Increasing Restoration Success by Enhancing Soil Biodiversity and Soil Multifunctionality 73

4.7 Using Keystone Species and Ecosystem Engineers in Restoration 74

4.7.1 Earthworms 83

4.7.2 Ants 84

4.7.3 Termites 85

4.7.4 Collembola and Mites 85

4.8 Conclusions and Further Perspective for the Restoration of Metalliferous Tailings 85

Acknowledgements 86

References 86

5 Ecological Engineering and Green Infrastructure in Mitigating Emerging Urban Environmental Threats 95
Florin-Constantin Mihai, Petra Schneider, and Mihail Eva

5.1 Dimensions of Ecological Engineering in the Frame of Ecosystem Service Provision 95

5.2 Landfill Afteruse Practices Based on Ecological Engineering and Green Infrastructure 97

5.2.1 Old Landfill Closure and Rehabilitation Procedures 97

5.2.2 Landfill Restoration Examples Around the World 98

5.2.2.1 Conventional Landfill Closure (Campulung, Romania) 98

5.2.2.2 Elbauenpark Including Am Cracauer Anger Landfill (Magdeburg, Germany) 99

5.2.2.3 World Cup Park (Nanjido Landfill, Seoul, South Korea) 99

5.2.2.4 Fudekeng Environmental Restoration Park (Taiwan) 100

5.2.2.5 Hong Kong 100

5.2.2.6 Hyria Landfill Site (Tel Aviv, Israel) 101

5.2.2.7 Valdemingomez Forest Park (Madrid, Spain) 102

5.2.2.8 Freshkills Park - A Mega Restoration Project in the US 103

5.3 Role of Ecological Engineering in Transforming Brownfields into Greenfields 104

5.3.1 UGI Options for Brownfield Recycling 107

5.3.2 Pilot Case: Restoration of a Brownfield to Provide ES - Albert Railway Station (Dresden, Germany) Transformation into the Weißeritz Greenbelt 107

5.4 Green Infrastructures for Mitigating Urban Transport-Induced Threats 112

5.4.1 Transportation Heritage from the Industrial Period 112

5.4.2 The Cases of the Rose Kennedy Greenway and Cheonggyecheon River Restoration 113

5.4.2.1 The Concept: Expressway-to-Greenway Conversion 113

5.4.2.2 Environmental Efficiency and Effectiveness 114

5.4.2.3 Social Impact 116

5.4.2.4 Economic Efficiency 116

5.5 Conclusions 117

References 118

6 Urban Environmental Issues and Mitigation by Applying Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering 123
Shailendra Yadav, Suvha Lama, and Atya Kapley

6.1 Urbanization 123

6.2 Global Trends of Urbanization and Its Consequences 124

6.3 Urban Environmental Issues 125

6.3.1 Physical Urban Environmental Issues 126

6.3.1.1 Urban Heat Islands 126

6.3.1.2 Urban Flooding 127

6.3.1.3 Urban Pollution (Air, Water, Noise) and Waste Management 128

6.3.2 Biological Urban Environmental Issues 130

6.3.2.1 Declining Urban Ecosystem Services Due to Loss of Biodiversity 130

6.3.2.2 Increasing Disease Epidemiology 131

6.4 Ecosystem Engineering 133

6.5 Approaches for Mitigation of Urban Environmental Issues 134

6.5.1 Nature-Based Solutions 134

6.5.1.1 Green Infrastructure (GI) 134

6.5.1.2 Urban Wetlands and Riparian Forests 136

6.5.1.3 Solar Energy 136

6.5.2 Artificial Engineering Approaches 137

6.5.3 Landfill Gas as an Alternative Source of Energy: Waste to Wealth 137

6.5.3.1 Wastewater/Sewage Treatment Plants as Sources of Energy 137

6.5.3.2 Rainwater Harvesting 137

6.5.3.3 Constructed Floating Islands for Water Treatment 138

6.5.3.4 Microgrids 138

6.6 Future Perspective 138

Acknowledgments 139

References 139

7 Soil Fertility Restoration, Theory and Practice 147
V. Matichenkov and E. Bocharnikova

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 Materials and Methods 148

7.3 Results 149

7.4 Discussion and Conclusions 151

Acknowledgment 155

References 155

8 Extracellular Soil Enzymes Act as Moderators to Restore Carbon in Soil Habitats 159
Rupinder Kaur and Anand Narain Singh

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Soil Organic Matter (SOM) 161

8.3 Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) 162

8.4 Soil Carbon Sequestration 162

8.5 Extracellular Soil Enzymes 164

8.6 Interactive Role of Extracellular Soil Enzymes in Soil Carbon Transformation 166

8.6.1 Cellulase 167

8.6.2 β-Glucosidase 169

8.6.3 Invertase 170

8.6.4 Amylase 170

8.6.5 Xylanase 171

8.7 Conclusion 172

References 172

9 Ecological Engineering for Solid Waste Segregation, Reduction, and Resource Recovery - A Contextual Analysis in Brazil 183
Luís P. Azevedo, Fernando G. da Silva Araújo, Carlos A.F. Lagarinhos, Jorge A.S. Tenório, Denise C.R. Espinosa, and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Municipal Solid Waste in Brazil 188

9.3 Compostable Waste 189

9.4 Anaerobic Digestion 190

9.5 Recycling 190

9.6 Burning Waste Tires 190

9.7 Energy Recovery 191

9.8 Coprocessing Industrial Waste in Cement Kilns 192

9.9 Conclusions 193

References 195

10 Urban Floods and Mitigation by Applying Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering 201
Jyotirmoy Sarma and Sanchayita Rajkhowa

10.1 Sustainable Ecosystems through Engineering Approaches 201

10.2 Flooding and, Specifically, Urban Flooding as a Problem of Interest 202

10.3 Causes and Impacts of Urban Flooding 204

10.4 Protection Against and Mitigation of Urban Flooding in the Context of Sustainability 207

10.4.1 Living with Floods as a Sustainable Approach 208

10.4.2 Urban Flood Risk Management 208

10.4.3 Integrated and Interactive Flood Management 209

10.4.4 Structural and Nonstructural Measures for Flood Control 210

10.4.5 River and Wetland Restoration 211

10.4.6 Low Impact Development (LID) and Best Management Practices (BMPs) 214

10.5 Conclusions and Future Scope 215

References 216

11 Ecological Engineering and Restoration of Mine Ecosystems 219
Marcin Pietrzykowski

11.1 Background and Definitions 219

11.2 Ecological Criteria for Successful Mine Site Restoration 222

11.3 Examples of Reclamation Technology and Afforestation in Mining Areas 223

11.4 Selected Reclamation Practices Versus Mining Extraction and Environmental Conditions 226

11.5 Final Comments and Remarks 227

References 228

12 Ecological Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Theory to Practice 231
Jitendra Ahirwal and Subodh Kumar Maiti

12.1 Introduction 231

12.2 Integration of Ecology Theory, Restoration Ecology, and Ecological Restoration 233

12.2.1 Disturbance 233

12.2.2 Succession 233

12.2.3 Fragmentation 233

12.2.4 Ecosystem Functions 233

12.2.5 Restoration 233

12.2.6 Reclamation 234

12.2.7 Rehabilitation 234

12.2.8 Regeneration 234

12.2.9 Recovery 234

12.3 Restoration Planning 235

12.4 Components of Restoration 236

12.4.1 Natural Processes 236

12.4.2 Physical and Nutritional Constraints 236

12.4.3 Species Diversity 237

12.5 Afforestation of Mine-Degraded Land 237

12.5.1 Miyawaki Planting Methods 237

12.6 Methods of Evaluating Ecological Restoration Success 239

12.6.1 Criteria for Restoration Success 239

12.6.2 Indicator Parameters of a Restored Ecosystem 240

12.6.3 Soil Quality Index 241

12.7 Development of a Post-Mining Ecosystem: A Case Study in India 242

12.8 Conclusions and Future Research 244

References 245

13 Wetland, Watershed, and Lake Restoration 247
Bhupinder Dhir

13.1 Introduction 247

13.2 Renovation of Wastewater 247

13.2.1 Physical Methods 248

13.2.2 Chemical Methods 248

13.2.3 Biological Methods 248

13.2.4 Other Methods 249

13.3 Restoration of Bodies of Water 250

13.3.1 Watersheds 251

13.3.2 Wetlands 252

13.3.2.1 Methods of Restoring Wetlands 253

13.3.3 Rivers 253

13.3.4 Lakes 254

13.3.5 Streams 254

13.3.6 Case Studies 255

13.4 Problems Encountered in Restoration Projects 255

13.5 Conclusion 256

References 256

14 Restoration of Riverine Health: An Ecohydrological Approach -Flow Regimes and Aquatic Biodiversity 261
S.P. Biswas

14.1 Introduction 261

14.2 Habitat Ecology 261

14.2.1 Riverine Habitats 262

14.2.2 Linked Ecosystems 262

14.3 Riverine Issues 262

14.3.1 Bank Erosion, Siltation, and Aggradations of Rivers 263

14.3.2 Deforestation in Catchment Areas 264

14.3.3 River Pollution and Invasive Species 266

14.3.4 Fishing Pressure 266

14.3.5 Status of Wetlands (FPLs) 267

14.3.6 Regulated Rivers and Their Impacts 267

14.4 Ecorestoration of River Basins 268

14.4.1 Environmental Flow 268

14.4.2 Success Story of a Conservation Effort for Aquatic Fauna 268

14.4.2.1 River Dolphins 268

14.4.2.2 Hilsa Fishery 270

14.4.3 Biomonitoring of Riverine Health and Ecosystem Engineering 270

14.4.4 Integrated River Basin Management 271

14.5 Summary and Conclusion 273

Acknowledgments 274

References 274

15 Ecosystem Services of the Phoomdi Islands of Loktak, a Dying Ramsar Site in Northeast India 279
Sijagurumayum Geetanjali Devi, Niteshwori Thongam, Maibam Dhanaraj Meitei, and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

15.1 What Are Ecosystem Services? 279

15.2 Phoomdi Islands of Loktak 279

15.3 Ecosystem Degradation of Loktak 280

15.4 Ecosystem Services Provided by the Phoomdi Islands of Loktak 284

15.5 Phoomdi and Provisioning Services 284

15.6 Phoomdi as Reservoirs of Biodiversity 287

15.7 Phoomdi and Fisheries 288

15.8 Phoomdi and Cultural Services 288

15.9 Phoomdi and Regulating Services 289

15.10 Phoomdi and Supporting Services 289

15.11 Conclusion 290

Acknowledgments 291

References 291

16 The Application of Reefs in Shoreline Protection 295
Anu Joy and Anu Gopinath

16.1 General Introduction 295

16.2 Types of Coral Reefs 296

16.3 Global Distribution of Coral Reefs 296

16.4 Benefits of Coral Reefs 296

16.5 Threats to Coral Reefs 298

16.5.1 Global Threats 298

16.5.1.1 Ocean Acidification 299

16.5.1.2 Coral Bleaching 299

16.5.1.3 Cyclones 300

16.5.2 Local Threats 300

16.5.2.1 Over-Fishing and Destructive Fishing Methods 300

16.5.2.2 Coastal Development 300

16.5.2.3 Recreational Activities 300

16.5.2.4 Sedimentation 300

16.5.2.5 Coral Mining and Harvesting 300

16.5.2.6 Pollution 301

16.5.2.7 Invasive Species 301

16.6 Important Coral Reefs of the World 301

16.7 The Application of Reefs in Shoreline Protection 303

16.7.1 Coral Reefs 304

16.7.2 Oyster Reefs 307

16.7.3 Artificial Reefs 307

16.7.4 Coral Reef Restoration 308

16.7.5 Oyster Reef Restoration 309

16.8 Conclusion 310

References 310

17 Mangroves, as Shore Engineers, Are Nature-Based Solutions for Ensuring Coastal Protection 317
Ajanta Dey, J.R.B. Alfred, Biswajit Roy Chowdhury, and Udo Censkowsky

17.1 Introduction 317

17.2 Sundarban: A Case Study 318

17.3 Restoration Models 319

17.4 Methodology 320

17.5 Results and Analysis 326

17.6 Conclusion 329

Acknowledgments 330

References 331

18 Forest Degradation Prevention Through Nature-Based Solutions: An Indian Perspective 333
Purabi Saikia, Akash Nag, Rima Kumari, Amit Kumar, and M.L. Khan

18.1 Introduction 333

18.2 Causes of Forests Degradation and Present Status Forests in India 335

18.3 Effects of Forest Degradation 338

18.4 Forest Degradation Management Strategies 339

18.5 Policies for Preventing Forest Degradation 339

18.6 Ecological Engineering: A Tool for Restoration of Degraded Forests 341

18.7 Forest Landscape Restoration: A Nature-Based Solution 342

18.8 Success Stories of ER from India 342

18.9 Yamuna Biodiversity Park 343

18.10 Ecological Restoration in Corbett National Park 343

18.11 Conclusion and Recommendations 345

References 345

19 Restoring Ecosystem Services of Degraded Forests in a Changing Climate 353
Smita Chaudhry, Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu, and Rashmi Paliwal

19.1 Introduction 353

19.2 Role of Forests in Maintaining Ecological Balance and Providing Services 354

19.2.1 Forests and Rainfall 355

19.2.2 Forests and Carbon Sequestration 355

19.2.3 Forests and Climate 356

19.2.4 Forests and Soil Erosion 356

19.2.5 Forest and Water Quality 357

19.3 Types of Forests in India 357

19.4 Forest Degradation 357

19.4.1 Invasive Alien Species 360

19.4.2 Forest Fires 361

19.4.3 Overpopulation and Exploitation of Forest Resources 361

19.4.4 Overgrazing 361

19.5 Impacts of Forest Degradation 362

19.5.1 Carbon Sequestration 362

19.6 Nutritional Status of Soil 362

19.7 Hydrological Regimes 362

19.8 Ecological Services 363

19.9 Social Implications 363

19.10 Methods for Restoring and Rehabilitating Forests 364

19.11 Conclusion 367

References 368

20 Forest Degradation Prevention 377
Marta Jaskulak and Anna Grobelak

20.1 Introduction 377

20.2 The Problem of Forest Degradation 379

20.3 Assessing Levels of Forest Degradation 380

20.4 Drivers of Forest Degradation 382

20.4.1 Strategies to Address Causes of Forest Degradation 382

20.4.2 The Hierarchy of Land Degradation Responses 383

20.5 The Role of Forest Management in Degradation Prevention 384

20.5.1 Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) for Prevention of Degradation and the Restoration of Degraded Areas 385

20.6 Conclusions - Prioritization and Implementation 387

References 387

21 Use of Plants for Air Quality Improvement 391
Richa Rai, Madhoolika Agrawal, and S.B. Agrawal

21.1 Introduction 391

21.2 Current Status of Air Pollutants 392

21.3 Green Roofs, Urban Forests, and Air Pollution 393

21.4 Traits for Phytoremediation of Air Pollution 397

21.4.1 Physiological and Biochemical Traits 398

21.5 Conclusions 400

References 400

22 Phylloremediation for Mitigating Air Pollution 405
Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

22.1 Introduction 405

22.2 Significance of Tree Canopy Architecture and Types of Canopies for Mitigating Air Pollution 407

22.3 Air-Improving Qualities of Plants 414

22.3.1 Dust-Capturing Mechanisms Using Plants 414

22.3.2 Environmental Factors for Efficient Dust Capture by Plants 414

22.3.2.1 Light Intensity 414

22.3.2.2 Moisture 414

22.3.2.3 Wind Velocity 414

22.4 Effects of Vegetation on Urban Air Quality 414

22.4.1 Interception and Absorption of Pollution 414

22.4.2 Temperature Effects 416

22.4.3 Impact on Energy Use 416

22.5 Urban Air Quality Improvement through Dust-Capturing Plant Species 416

Acknowledgments 417

References 417

23 Green Belts for Sustainable Improvement of Air Quality 423
S.B. Chaphekar, R.P. Madav, and Seemaa S. Ghate

23.1 Introduction 423

23.2 Tolerance of Plants to Air Pollutants 424

23.2.1 Agro-Climates in India 425

23.2.2 Green Belts 426

23.2.3 Choosing Plant Species 427

23.2.4 Designing Green Belts 427

23.2.4.1 Ground-Level Concentration (GLC) of Emitted Pollutants 427

23.2.4.2 Mathematical Model 429

23.2.4.3 Two Approaches 430

23.2.4.4 Planting Along Roadsides 430

23.2.4.5 Choice of Plants for Roadsides 431

23.2.4.6 Nurturing Green Belts 431

23.3 Conclusion 433

References 433

24 Air Quality Improvement Using Phytodiversity and Plant Architecture 437
D.N. Magana-Arachchi and R.P. Wanigatunge

24.1 Introduction 437

24.2 Phytodiversity 438

24.3 Plant Architecture 438

24.3.1 Leaf Architecture - Regulation of Leaf Position 439

24.3.2 Development of Internal Leaf Architecture 439

24.4 Phytoremediation 440

24.4.1 Role of Plants During Particulate Matter and Gaseous Phytoremediation 440

24.4.2 Ways of Improving Air Quality 442

24.4.2.1 Outdoor Air Pollutants 442

24.4.2.2 Indoor Air Pollutants 444

24.4.2.3 Phyllosphere Microorganisms 444

24.5 Conclusion 446

Acknowledgment 446

References 446

25 Information Explosion in Digital Ecosystems and Their Management 451
Chanchal Kumar Mitra and Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad

25.1 Introduction 451

25.1.1 Digital Computers 452

25.1.2 Modern Architectures for Computer Systems 452

25.1.3 Microprocessors 454

25.1.4 Networks of Computers 454

25.1.5 Development of Databases 455

25.1.6 Data as Knowledge 456

25.2 Growth 456

25.2.1 Traditional Models for Growth 456

25.2.2 Growth Curves 457

25.2.3 Limits of Growth 458

25.2.4 Growth vs. Life 459

25.3 Sustainability 459

25.3.1 Production vs. Consumption 459

25.4 Knowledge vs. Information 460

25.5 Circulation of Information 460

25.6 Quality vs. Quantity 461

25.6.1 Case Study 1: Facebook and Cambridge Analytica Scandal 461

25.6.2 Case Study 2: Aarogya Setu Mobile App by National Informatics Centre (NIC) of the GoI 462

25.7 How Does the Digital Ecosystem Work? 462

25.7.1 Digital Ecosystem and Sustainable Development 463

25.7.2 SDG 4: Quality Education 465

25.7.3 SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth 465

25.7.4 SDG 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure 465

25.7.5 SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities 466

25.7.6 SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production 466

25.8 Conclusions 466

References 466

26 Nanotechnology in Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering 469
L.R. Sendanayake, H.A.D.B. Amarasiri, and Nadeesh M. Adassooriya

26.1 Ecology, Ecosystem, and Ecosystem Engineering 469

26.2 Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, and Nanoscience 469

26.3 Nanotechnology in Ecological and Ecosystem-Engineering 470

26.4 Nanotechnology to Remediate Environmental Pollution 470

26.5 Environmental Remediation 471

26.6 Surface Water Remediation 471

26.6.1 Adsorption 472

26.6.2 Photocatalysis 473

26.6.3 Disinfection 474

26.6.4 Nanomembranes 475

26.7 Groundwater Remediation and Soil Remediation 475

26.8 Air Remediation 478

26.9 Future Scope of Nanotechnology and Nanoscience in Ecological and Ecosystem Engineering 479

References 480

Index 487

Authors

Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad University of Hyderabad, India.