Due to evolving standards for building regulations and demand for occupant comfort, the performance of building envelopes continues to improve. Buildings account for ~30-40% of the world’s total primary energy, and the benefits of energy efficient buildings are numerous, from better thermal comfort to longer buildings lifecycle. In order to adhere to regulations, many new buildings are required to meet energy efficiency targets. These targets are increasingly met through technology, and in most cases rely on advanced materials, either by developing new materials or modifying existing ones.
The use of advanced materials, nanomaterials, and smart materials, is now driving improved building envelope performance by allowing reconciliation of the architectural features of buildings with the new challenges of energy and environmental efficiency.
Technologies and materials include:
- Smart glass and windows
- Electrochromic (EC) smart glass
- Thermochromic smart glass
- Suspended particle device (SPD) smart glass
- Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) smart glass
- Photochromic smart glass
- Electrokinetic glass
- Graphene smart glass
- Heat insulation solar glass (HISG)
- Thermal and sound insulation
- Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP)
- Transparent Insulation Materials (TIM)
- Nanofiber‐based insulation material
- Shape memory sound absorption
- Advanced construction materials
- Advanced concrete additives
- Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)
- Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
- Cellulose nanofibers
- Nano-titania (TiO2)
- Phase change materials
- Self-healing materials
- Self-sensing concrete
- 3D printing construction materials
- Environment-adaptive skin facades
- Memory steel
- Double-skin façades
- Advanced concrete additives
- Vibration dampening
- Passive vibration mitigation materials
- Smart vibration mitigation materials
- Shape memory materials
- Carbon nanotubes
- Magnetorheological fluid (MRF)
- Magnetostrictive materials
- Smart coatings and films
- Cool roofs
- Antireflective glazing
- Photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings
- Hydrophobic coatings
- Superhydrophobic surfaces
- Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean coatings
- Advanced antimicrobial coatings
- Thermally insulating paint
- Smart air filtration and HVAC
- Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF)
- Nanosilver filters
- Carbon nanotubes
- Phase change materials
- Nano-TiO2 photocatalyst filter coatings
- Self-healing coatings
- Heating and energy efficiency
- Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF)
- Phase change materials
- Energy harvesting
- Piezoelectric materials
- Thermoelectric materials
- Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
- Bioadaptive glazing
- Smart sensors
- Temperature sensors
- Motion sensors
- Humidity sensors
- Sensors for air quality
- CO2 sensors for energy efficient buildings
- Smart lighting
- Organic LEDs (OLEDs)
- Quantum dots
- Flexible lighting
Report contents include:
- Market drivers for advanced materials in smart and sustainable buildings.
- Revenues for smart and advanced materials building applications and markets.
- In-depth technology analysis.
- In depth market analysis.
- Profiles of over 210 companies in the smart and sustainable buildings market. Companies profiled include View, Inc., ChromoGenics AB, RavenWindow, Research Frontiers, Inc., Aerogel Technologies LLC, Blueshift Materials, Inc., Aspen Aerogels, Inc., Acoustic Metamaterials Group Limited, Carbon Upcycling Technologies, re-fer AG, Awaji Materia Co., Ltd., Phononic Vibes, Croda, HeatVentors, Solaxess SA and many more.
1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 What are smart buildings?
1.2 Market drivers
1.3 Environmental, social, and economic benefits
126.96.36.199 Smart, sustainable, and inclusive buildings
188.8.131.52 Zero-energy buildings
1.3.2 Green buildings
1.4 Energy consumption
1.5 Traditional construction materials with new properties
1.6 Smart/switchable/dynamic glass or smart windows
1.7 Advanced thermal and sound insulation
1.8 Smart lighting
1.9 Smart coatings
1.10 Energy harvesting
1.11 Bio-perceptive building envelopes
1.12 Market revenues and forecasts, by technology area to 2031
2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4 SMART GLASS AND WINDOWS
4.1 What is smart glass?
4.2 Market drivers for smart glass
4.3 Smart windows
4.4 Types of smart glass
4.4.1 Passive smart glass
4.4.2 Active smart glass
4.5 Comparison of smart glass technologies
4.6 Nanomaterials in smart glass
4.7 Competitive landscape
4.9 Routes to market
4.9.1 Residential and commercial glazing
4.10 Market and technical challenges
4.11 Future of smart glass
4.11.1 Need for innovation
4.11.2 Reducing costs
4.11.3 Integration with building systems/Internet of things (IoT)
4.11.4 Photovoltaic smart glass
4.11.5 Faster switching times:
4.12 Advanced materials for smart glass and windows
4.12.1 Electrochromic (EC) smart glass
184.108.40.206 Technology description
220.127.116.11.1 Inorganic metal oxides
18.104.22.168.2 Organic EC materials
22.214.171.124 Application in residential and commercial windows
4.12.2 Thermochromic smart glass
126.96.36.199 Technology description
188.8.131.52 Application in residential and commercial windows
4.12.3 Suspended particle device (SPD) smart glass
184.108.40.206 Technology description
220.127.116.11 Application in residential and commercial windows
4.12.4 Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) smart glass
18.104.22.168 Technology description
22.214.171.124.1 Laminated Switchable PDLC Glass
126.96.36.199.2 Self-adhesive Switchable PDLC Film
188.8.131.52 Application in residential and commercial windows
184.108.40.206.1 Interior glass
4.12.5 Photochromic smart glass
220.127.116.11 Technology analysis
18.104.22.168 Application in residential and commercial windows
22.214.171.124 Technology analysis
4.12.7 Electrokinetic glass
126.96.36.199 Technology analysis
4.12.8 Other advanced glass technologies
188.8.131.52 Graphene smart glass
184.108.40.206 Heat insulation solar glass (HISG)
5 THERMAL AND SOUND INSULATION
5.1 Market drivers
5.2 Advanced materials for thermal and sound insulation
5.2.1 Super-Insulating materials
5.2.2 Transparent and flexible thermal insulation windows
5.2.3 Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIP)
220.127.116.11 Commercially available aerogels
18.104.22.168 Silica aerogels
22.214.171.124.1.1 Thermal conductivity
126.96.36.199.6 Aerogel boards
188.8.131.52.7 Aerogel renders
184.108.40.206 Aerogel-like polymer foams
220.127.116.11 Biobased aerogels (bio-aerogels)
18.104.22.168.1 Cellulose aerogels
22.214.171.124.1.1 Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) aerogels
126.96.36.199.1.2 Cellulose nanocrystal aerogels
188.8.131.52.2 Lignin aerogels
184.108.40.206.3 Alginate aerogels
220.127.116.11.4 Starch aerogels
18.104.22.168 Thermal and sound insulation
5.2.5 Transparent Insulation Materials (TIM)
22.214.171.124 Flat-plate solar collectors
126.96.36.199 Solar walls
188.8.131.52 Types of metamaterials
184.108.40.206 Sound insulation
220.127.116.11 Graphene foam
5.2.8 Nanofiber‐based insulation material
5.2.9 Shape memory
18.104.22.168 Sound absorption
6 ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
6.1 Market drivers
6.2 Concrete additives
6.2.2 Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)
6.2.3 Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
6.2.4 Cellulose nanofibers
6.2.6 Nano-titania (TiO2)
6.2.8 Phase change materials
6.2.9 Self-healing materials
22.214.171.124 Extrinsic self-healing
126.96.36.199 Vascular self-healing
188.8.131.52 Intrinsic self-healing
184.108.40.206 Healing volume
220.127.116.11 Self-healing concrete
18.104.22.168.2 Fibre concrete
6.3 Self-sensing concrete
6.4 3D printing construction materials
6.5 Environment-adaptive skin facades
6.7 Memory steel
6.7.1 Shape memory alloys
6.9 Double-skin façades
7 VIBRATION DAMPENING
7.1 Market drivers
7.2 Advanced materials for vibration dampeners
7.2.1 Passive vibration mitigation materials
7.2.2 Smart vibration mitigation materials
22.214.171.124 Shape memory materials
126.96.36.199.1 Shape memory effect
188.8.131.52.3 Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys
184.108.40.206.4 Copper-based SMAs
220.127.116.11.5 Iron-based SMAs
18.104.22.168.6 Hardened high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs)
22.214.171.124.7 Titanium-Tantalum (Ti-Ta)-based alloys
126.96.36.199.8 Shape-memory polymers
188.8.131.52 Carbon nanotubes
184.108.40.206 Magnetorheological fluid (MRF)
220.127.116.11 Magnetostrictive materials
8 SMART COATINGS AND FILMS
8.1 Market drivers
8.2 Advanced materials for smart coatings and films
8.2.1 Cool roofs
8.2.2 Antireflective glazing
18.104.22.168 Cooling films
8.2.4 Photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings
22.214.171.124 Glass coatings
126.96.36.199 Exterior coatings
188.8.131.52 Interior coatings
184.108.40.206.1 Medical facilities
220.127.116.11.2 Antimicrobial coating indoor light activation
8.2.5 Hydrophobic coatings
8.2.6 Superhydrophobic surfaces
8.2.7 Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean coatings
8.2.8 Advanced antimicrobial coatings
18.104.22.168 Metallic-based coatings
22.214.171.124 Polymer-based coatings
126.96.36.199 Mode of action
8.2.9 Thermally insulating paint
9 SMART AIR FILTRATION AND HVAC
9.1 Market drivers
9.2 Advanced materials for smart filtration and HVAC
9.2.1 Carbon nanotubes
9.2.5 Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF)
9.2.6 Phase change materials
9.2.7 Nano-TiO2 photocatalyst coatings
9.2.8 Self-healing coatings
10 HEATING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY
10.1 Market drivers
10.2 Advanced materials for heating and energy efficiency
10.2.1 Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF)
10.2.1.1 Heat exchangers for heat pumps
10.2.2 Phase change materials
10.2.2.1 Organic/biobased phase change materials
10.2.2.1.1 Paraffin wax
10.2.2.2 Inorganic phase change materials
10.2.2.2.1 Salt hydrates
10.2.2.2.2 Metal and metal alloy PCMs (High-temperature)
10.2.2.3 Eutectic mixtures
10.2.2.4 Encapsulation of PCMs
10.2.2.5 Nanomaterial phase change materials
10.2.2.6 PCMS in buildings and construction
10.2.2.6.1 Water heaters
10.2.2.6.2 Thermal batteries for water heaters and EVs
11 ENERGY HARVESTING
11.1 Market drivers
11.2 Advanced materials for building energy harvesting
11.2.1 Piezoelectric materials
11.2.2 Thermoelectric materials
11.2.3 Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
188.8.131.52 Technology description
184.108.40.206.1 Printed photovoltaics
220.127.116.11.2 Printed semi-transparent and multi-coloured PV modules
11.2.4 Bioadaptive glazing
12 SMART SENSORS
12.1 Market drivers
12.2 Types of smart building sensors
18.104.22.168 Temperature sensors
22.214.171.124 Humidity sensors
126.96.36.199 Sensors for air quality
188.8.131.52 CO2 sensors for energy efficient buildings
13 SMART LIGHTING
13.1 Advanced materials for smart lighting
13.1.2 Organic LEDs (OLEDs)
13.1.3 Quantum dots
13.1.4 Flexible lighting
14 RISK ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS
List of Tables
Table 1. Advanced materials used in smart and sustainable buildings.
Table 2. Market drivers for advanced materials in smart buildings.
Table 3. Markets for smart glass and windows.
Table 4. Comparison of smart glass and windows types.
Table 5. Market drivers for smart glass.
Table 6. Types of passive smart glass.
Table 7. Types of active smart glass.
Table 8. Advantages and disadvantages of respective smart glass technologies.
Table 9. Market structure for smart glass and windows.
Table 10. Manufacturers of smart film and glass, by type.
Table 11. Routes to market for smart glass companies.
Table 12. Technologies for smart windows in buildings.
Table 13. Market and technical challenges for smart glass and windows, by main technology type.
Table 14. Types of electrochromic materials and applications.
Table 15. Market drivers for advanced materials in sound insulation.
Table 16. Market overview of aerogels in building and construction-market drivers, types of aerogels utilized, motivation for use of aerogels, applications, TRL.
Table 17. General properties and value of aerogels.
Table 18. Commercially available aerogel-enhanced blankets.
Table 19. Physical properties of glazing-perpendicular TIM.
Table 20. Market drivers for advanced construction materials.
Table 21. Improvement in properties of cement-based composites with different nanofillers.
Table 22. Types of self-healing coatings and materials.
Table 23. Comparative properties of self-healing materials.
Table 24. Types of self-healing concrete.
Table 25. Overview of mycelium fibers-description, properties, drawbacks and applications.
Table 26. Market drivers for advanced materials for vibration dampening.
Table 27. Physical properties of NiTi.
Table 28. Applications of shape memory materials in construction and stage of development.
Table 29. Properties of copper-based shape memory alloys
Table 30. Comparison between the SMAs and SMPs.
Table 31. Advanced coating applied in the building and construction industry.
Table 32. Contact angles of hydrophilic, super hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces.
Table 33. Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean coatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications.
Table 34. Polymer-based coatings for antimicrobial coatings and surfaces.
Table 35. Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies
Table 36. PCM Types and properties.
Table 37. Advantages and disadvantages of organic PCM Fatty Acids.
Table 38. Advantages and disadvantages of salt hydrates
Table 39. Advantages and disadvantages of low melting point metals.
Table 40. Market assessment for PCMs in building and construction-market age, applications, key benefits and motivation for use, market drivers and trends, market challenges.
Table 41. CrodaTherm Range.
Table 42. Types of smart building sensors.
Table 43. QD-LEDs and External quantum efficiencies (EQE).
List of Figures
Figure 1. Productivity and comfort gains achieved through window and ventilation technologies.
Figure 2. Global market revenues for smart buildings, by technology areas, 2021-2031 (Millions USD).
Figure 3. Nanocrystal smart glass that can switch between fully transparent, heat-blocking, and light-and-heat-blocking modes.
Figure 4. Typical setup of an electrochromic device (ECD).
Figure 5. Electrochromic smart glass schematic.
Figure 6. Electrochromic smart glass.
Figure 7. Examples of electrochromic smart windows each in fully coloured (left) and bleached state (right).
Figure 8. Argil smart glass for buildings.
Figure 9. CoverLight by Chromogenics.
Figure 10. Thermochromic smart windows schematic.
Figure 11. Vertical insulated glass unit for a Suntuitive® thermochromic window.
Figure 12. SPD smart windows schematic.
Figure 13. SPD film lamination.
Figure 14. SPD smart film schematic. Control the transmittance of light and glare by adjusting AC voltage to the SPD Film.
Figure 15. SPD film glass installation at Indiana University.
Figure 16. Schematic of Cromalite SPD film.
Figure 17. PDLC schematic.
Figure 18. Schematic of PDLC film and self-adhesive PDLC film.
Figure 19. Smart glass made with polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology.
Figure 20. e-Tint® cell in the (a) OFF and in the (b) ON states.
Figure 21. Bestroom Smart VU film.
Figure 22. Schematic of Magic Glass.
Figure 23. Application of Magic Glass in office.
Figure 24. Installation schematic of Magic Glass.
Figure 25. Micro-blinds schematic.
Figure 26. Cross-section of Electro Kinetic Film.
Figure 27. Scheme (left) and a cross section (right) of vacuum insulation panel.
Figure 28. Main characteristics of aerogel type materials.
Figure 29. Classification of aerogels.
Figure 30. Flower resting on a piece of silica aerogel suspended in mid air by the flame of a bunsen burner.
Figure 31. Monolithic aerogel.
Figure 32. Aerogel granules.
Figure 33. Internal aerogel granule applications.
Figure 34. Fabrication routes for starch-based aerogels.
Figure 35. Aerogel construction applications.
Figure 36. Thermal Conductivity Performance of ArmaGel HT.
Figure 37. SLENTEX® roll (piece).
Figure 38. Schematic of TIMs.
Figure 39. Appearance of typical TIMs.
Figure 40. Metamaterials example structures.
Figure 41. Metamaterial schematic versus conventional materials.
Figure 42. Prototype metamaterial device used in acoustic sound insulation.
Figure 43. Metamaterials installed in HVAC sound insulation the Hotel Madera Hong Kong.
Figure 44. Comparison of nanofillers with supplementary cementitious materials and aggregates in concrete.
Figure 45. SEM micrographs of plain (A) and nano-silica modified cement paste (B).
Figure 46. Schematic of self-healing polymers. Capsule based (a), vascular (b), and intrinsic (c) schemes for self-healing materials. Red and blue colours indicate chemical species which react (purple) to heal damage.
Figure 47. Stages of self-healing mechanism.
Figure 48. Schematic of the self-healing concept using microcapsules with a healing agent inside.
Figure 49. Self-healing mechanism in vascular self-healing systems.
Figure 50. Comparison of self-healing systems.
Figure 51. Self-healing concrete test study with cracked concrete (left) and self-healed concrete after 28 days (right).
Figure 52. Self-healing bacteria crack filler for concrete.
Figure 53. Self-healing concrete.
Figure 54. Graphene asphalt additives.
Figure 55. OG (Original Graphene) Concrete Admix Plus.
Figure 56. Talcoat graphene mixed with paint.
Figure 57. Memory-steel reinforcement bars.
Figure 58. Typical structure of mycelium-based foam.
Figure 59. Commercial mycelium composite construction materials.
Figure 60. Robotic metamaterial device for seismic-induced vibration mitigation.
Figure 61. Histeresys cycle for Superelastic and shape memory material.
Figure 62. Shape memory effect.
Figure 63. Superelasticity Elastic Property.
Figure 64. Stress x Strain diagram.
Figure 65. Shape memory pipe joint.
Figure 66. The molecular mechanism of the shape memory effect under different stimuli.
Figure 67. Schematic of dry-cooling technology.
Figure 68. Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles.
Figure 69. Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface.
Figure 70. Titanium dioxide-coated glass (left) and ordinary glass (right).
Figure 71. Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement.
Figure 72. Self-Cleaning mechanism utilizing photooxidation.
Figure 73. (a) Water drops on a lotus leaf.
Figure 74. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating schematic.
Figure 75. Contact angle on superhydrophobic coated surface.
Figure 76. Antibacterial mechanisms of metal and metallic oxide nanoparticles.
Figure 77. Quartzene®.
Figure 78. GermStopSQ mechanism of action.
Figure 79. NOx reduction with TioCem®.
Figure 80. V-CAT® photocatalyst mechanism.
Figure 81. Applications of Titanystar.
Figure 82. Capture mechanism for MOFs toward air pollutants.
Figure 83. Schematic of photocatalytic indoor air purification filter.
Figure 84. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air filter.
Figure 85. Schematic indoor air filtration.
Figure 86. Mosaic Materials MOFs.
Figure 87. MOF-based cartridge (purple) added to an existing air conditioner.
Figure 88. Global energy consumption growth of buildings.
Figure 89. Energy consumption of residential building sector.
Figure 90. MOF-coated heat exchanger.
Figure 91. Classification of PCMs.
Figure 92. Phase-change materials in their original states.
Figure 93. Schematic of PCM use in buildings.
Figure 94. Comparison of the maximum energy storage capacity of 10 mm thickness of different building materials operating between 18 °C and 26 °C for 24 h.
Figure 95. Schematic of PCM in storage tank linked to solar collector.
Figure 96. UniQ line of thermal batteries.
Figure 97. Fourth generation QD-LEDs.
- Acoustic Metamaterials Group Limited
- Aerogel Technologies LLC
- Aspen Aerogels, Inc.
- Awaji Materia Co., Ltd.
- Blueshift Materials, Inc.
- Carbon Upcycling Technologies
- ChromoGenics AB
- Phononic Vibes
- re-fer AG
- Research Frontiers, Inc.
- Solaxess SA
- View, Inc.