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Large Animal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians. Edition No. 2

  • Book
  • 544 Pages
  • February 2022
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5345756

Large Animal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians provides comprehensive guidance on caring for horses, cattle, camelids, small ruminants, pigs, and other farm animals. Reflecting the topics required by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AMVA), this practical resource covers hospital biosecurity, restraint, physical examinations, clinical and diagnostic procedures, reproduction, nutrition, disease, and more. Detailed chapters written by expert contributors contain numerous full-color images, clinical applications, self-review questions, and accurate, species-specific information.   

The second edition features revised and new content throughout, including brand-new chapters on common surgical procedures and general anesthesia, dentistry, and popular hobby farm animals such as fowl, poultry, and pet pigs. Updated and expanded sections on neonatology, diagnostics, and imaging are supported by a wealth of new images and examples. Covering the skills and knowledge necessary for success in both Veterinary Technician Specialty (VTS) programs and in clinical practice, this must-have guide:  

  • Offers new coverage of imaging and diagnostic technologies such as dynamic endoscoping and the use of treadmills 
  • Contains more than 500 high-quality color images, multiple-choice questions with answers, and a glossary of terms 
  • Features a range of pedagogical tools including learning objectives, clinical case problems, charts and diagrams, and “Technician Tip” boxes 
  • Includes a significantly expanded companion website with self-review questions, case studies, PowerPoint slides, and an image bank to aid in breed identification 

Authored and edited by experienced trainers and certified veterinary technicians, Large Animal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians, Second Edition is an invaluable reference for all students, educators, and working professionals in the field. 

Table of Contents

Contributors xii

Preface xv

Abbreviations xvi

About the Companion Website xviii

1 Hospital Biosecurity 1
Leslie Hiber, CVT, BS

Introduction 2

Cycle of Infection 2

Transmission 3

Patient Placement in the Hospital 7

Proper Gowning Techniques 9

Hand Hygiene 12

Disinfection and Sterilization 14

Hospital Management 18

Infection Control Programs 18

Surveillance 20

Multidrug-Resistant Organisms, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus sp., and Zoonotic Diseases 20

Zoonotic Diseases 21

Summary 22

References 22

Activities 23

2 Restraint 25
Ann Elizabeth Goplen, DVM, Sergio Gonzales, BS, Sheryl Ferguson, CVT, VTS (LAIM), Darcy DeCrescenza, CVT, Laura Lien, MS, CVT, VTS (LAIM), and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 26

Basic Behavior of Large Animals 26

Equine Restraint 28

Bovine Restraint 35

Small Ruminant Restraint 41

Camelid Restraint 45

Swine Restraint 48

References 51

Activities 51

3 History 53
Stacie K. Seymour, DVM and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 53

Equine 54

Ruminants 57

Camelids 61

Porcine 62

Multiple Species Management 64

References 64

Activities 65

4 Physical Exam 67
Scott R.R. Haskell, DVM, MPVM, PhD, Bonnie L. Loghry, BAS, MPH, RVT, Carrie J. Finno, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, Kristen Wegner-Fowley, DVM, DACVAA, Erin Matheson Barr, RVT, Jamie DeFazio, AS, CVT, VTS (EVN), William Gilsenan, VMD, DACVIM (LAIM), and Amy L. Johnson, DVM, DACVIM (LAIM & Neurology)

Introduction 68

Equine Physical Exam 69

The Equine Pain Score 87

Food Animal Physical Exam 92

Summary 101

References 101

Activities 103

5 Nutrition 104
Kara M. Burns, MS, MEd, LVT, VTS (Nutrition) and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 104

Equine Nutrition 107

Hand-Fed/Stall-Fed Animals 116

Assessment of Nutritional Status 116

Cattle Nutrition 117

Camelid Nutrition 130

Swine Nutrition 131

Backyard Chicken Nutrition 136

Summary 139

References 139

Activities 140

6 Clinical Procedures 142
Annette M. McCoy, DVM, MS, DACVS, Erica McKenzie, BSc, BVMS, PhD, DACVIM, DACVSMR, and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 143

Venous Catheterization 143

Arterial Catheterization 147

Urinary Catheterization 148

Tracheostomy 150

Blood Products and Administration 152

Medication Administration 154

Respiratory Treatments 162

Fluid Administration 163

Intraosseous Administration 166

Nasogastric and Orogastric Intubation 166

Transfaunation 170

Ongoing Monitoring 171

Nursing Care for the Recumbent Patient 173

Dentistry 177

References 181

Activities 183

7 Diagnostic Procedures 185
Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN), JoAnn Slack, DVM, MS, DACVIM (LAIM), Laura Lien, MS, CVT, VTS (LAIM), Rolf B. Modesto, VMD, and Sheryl Ferguson, CVT, VTS (LAIM)

Introduction 186

Abdominocentesis 186

Arthrocentesis 188

Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) 189

Blood Sampling 191

Biopsies 194

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) 200

Coagulation Studies 202

Dermatology 205

Electrocardiogram 206

Endoscopy 215

Milk Cultures 219

Thoracocentesis 220

Transtracheal Wash 222

References 223

Activities 226

8 Medical Imaging 228
Myra F. Barrett, DVM, MS, DACVR, Kurt Selberg, MS, DVM, DACVR, Sheryl Ferguson, CVT, VTS (LAIM), JoAnn Slack, DVM, MS, DACVIM (LAIM), and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 228

Safety and Quality 229

Radiography 229

Nuclear Scintigraphy 254

Ultrasonography 256

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 264

Computed Tomography 268

C-arm 269

References 271

Activities 272

9 Reproduction 274
Harry Momont, DVM, PhD, Dipl ACT, Celina M. Checura, DVM, MS, PhD, Dipl ACT, Zach Loppnow, DVM, and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 275

Anatomy and Physiology of Reproduction 275

Clinical Examination of the Male and Female for Breeding Soundness 281

Reproductive Disorders 286

Reproductive Management 286

Artificial Insemination 287

Embryo Transfer 288

In Vitro Fertilization 288

Placentitis 292

Equine Dystocias 293

Retained Placenta 295

Brooding 298

Hatchling Management 299

References 299

Activities 300

10 Anesthesia and Surgery 302
Shana Lemmenes, CVT, VTS (EVN), Jennifer Halleran, DVM, DACVIM (LAIM), and Meagan Smith, RVT, VTS (Anesthesia and Analgesia)

Introduction 303

Large Animal Surgery Considerations 303

Large Animal Sedation and Anesthesia 303

Local Blocks 305

Extremities 307

Equine Surgery 312

Ruminant Surgery Considerations 332

Bovine Surgery 337

Small Ruminant Surgeries 344

Camelid Surgeries 349

Pig Surgeries 353

References 356

Activities 357

11 Neonatology 359
Laura Lien, MS, CVT, VTS (LAIM), Kim Schreiber Young, BS, DVM, and Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN)

Introduction 359

Perinatal Period 360

Neonatal Infections 362

Premature Neonates 364

Nursing Care 368

References 375

Activities 375

12 Diseases 377
Fernando J. Marqués, DVM, DACVIM (LAIM), William Gilsenan, VMD, DACVIM (LAIM), Amy L. Johnson, DVM, DACVIM (LAIM & Neurology), Shirley Sandoval, BAS, LVT, VTS (LAIM), Sian Durward-Akhurst, BVMS, Lauren Hughes, DVM, Stephanie Rutten-Ramos, DVM, PhD, Sue Loly, LVT, VTS (EVN), Heather Hopkinson, RVT, VTS (EVN), CCRP, Derek Foster, DVM, PhD, DACVIM (LAIM), and Danielle Mzyk, DVM, PhD

Introduction 377

Actinobacillus Pleuropneumonia (APP) 378

Actinobacilosis - See Wooden Tongue 379

Actinomycosis - See Lumpy Jaw 379

Acute Hypocalcemia - See Milk Fever 379

Anaplasmosis 379

Anemia 380

Anterior Uveitis 380

Anthrax 381

Aspergillosis (a.k.a. Brooders Pneumonia, Mycotic Pneumonia, Pneumomycosis) 383

Atrophic Rhinitis 383

Azoturia - See Rhabdomyolysis 384

Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (a.k.a. Red Water Disease, Clostridial Hepatitis) 384

Blackleg - See Clostridial Myonecrosis 385

Bloat (Ruminal Tympany) 385

Blue Tongue (a.k.a. BTV, Catarrhal Fever) 386

Botulism 386

Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) 388

Bovine Herpes Virus 1 Infection (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis [IBR]) 389

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV); Adult Lymphosarcoma 389

Bovine Papular Stomatitis (BPS) 390

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy - See Mad Cow Disease 391

Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) 391

Persistent Infection (PI) 391

Acute BVD Infection 391

Hemorrhagic Syndrome 392

Reproductive Implications 392

Congenital Disease 392

Mucosal Disease 392

Brucellosis 393

Calf Scours 393

Campylobacteriosis 394

Cancer Eye - Squamous Cell Carcinoma 395

Candidiasis (Thrush) 395

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) 395

Cataracts 397

Cervical Vertebral Stenotic Myelopathy (CVSM, a.k.a. Wobbler’s Syndrome) 398

Choke 399

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (a.k.a. Heaves, COPD, RAO) 400

Clostridial Myonecrosis (a.k.a. Clostridrial Myositis, Blackleg, Malignant Edema, Gas Gangrene) 401

Clostridium perfringens Diarrhea (a.k.a. Pulpy Kidney Disease) 402

Colitis 403

Contagious Ecthyma (a.k.a. Orf, SoreMouth) 404

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) 404

Copper Toxicity 405

Corneal Stromal Abscess 406

Corneal Ulceration 407

Cutaneous Papillomas - See Warts 408

Dermatophilosis (a.k.a. Rain Scald, Rain Rot, Cutaneous Streptothricosis, Lumpy Wool) 408

Dermatophytosis - See Ringworm 409

Digital Dermatitis (Hairy Heel Wart, Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis, Mortellaro’s Disease) 409

Enterotoxemia 410

Entropion 411

Eperythrozoonosis 412

Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (EDM) 412

Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome 413

Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) 414

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) 416

Equine Leukoencephalomalacia - See Moldy Corn Disease 417

Equine Motor Neuron Disease (EMND) 417

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) 418

Equine Recurrent Uveitis 419

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) 420

Equine Viral Encephalitis (EEE, WEE, VEE) 421

Erysipelas 423

Escherichia coli 423

Exertional Rhabdomyolysis (ER; a.k.a. Monday Morning Disease, Azoturia, Equine Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome, Tying-up, Chronic ER) 424

Fescue Toxicity 425

Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) 426

Foot Rot (Infectious Pododermatitis) 427

Fowl Cholera 428

Fowl Pox 428

Fungal Keratitis 429

Gastric Ulceration - See Equine Gastric Ulceration Syndrome 430

Glässer Disease (Haemophilus parasuis) 430

Glaucoma 430

Grass Tetany 432

Guttural Pouch Empyema 432

Guttural Pouch Mycosis 433

Head Trauma 434

Heaves - See Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 435

Hepatic Encephalopathy 435

Hog Cholera (Classical Swine Fever) 436

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP) 437

Hypocalcemia - See Milk Fever 438

Immune-Mediated Myositis (a.k.a. IMM) 438

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK, “Pink eye”) 439

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis - See Bovine Herpesvirus 440

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) 440

Infectious Pododermatitis - See Foot Rot 440

Influenza 440

Iodine Deficiency 441

Johne’s Disease (Paratuberculosis) 442

Ketosis 443

Laminitis 444

Leptospirosis 445

Equine Leukoencephalomalacia - See Moldy Corn Disease 445

Listeriosis 445

Lumpy Jaw (Actinomycosis) 446

Mad Cow Disease (a.k.a. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) 447

Malignant Hyperthermia (Porcine Stress Syndrome) 448

Marek’s Disease 449

Mastitis 450

Melanoma 451

Milk Fever (Hypocalcemia) 452

Moldy Corn Disease (a.k.a. Equine Leukoencephalomalacia) 453

Navicular Disease 454

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP), Maedi-Visna 455

Paratuberculosis - See Johne’s Disease 455

Pasteurella Pneumonia 455

Pemphigus Foliaceus 456

Phenylbutazone Toxicity 457

Pleuropneumonia (a.k.a. Shipping Fever) 458

Polioencephalomalacia 459

Polyneuritis Equi (Cauda Equina Neuritis) 460

Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (a.k.a. PSSM, EPSM, EPSSM) 461

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) 462

Potomac Horse Fever (a.k.a. Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, Equine Ehrlichial Colitis, Ditch Fever, PHF) 463

Precocious Udder (Inappropriate Lactation) 464

Pseudorabies (PRV, Aujeszky’s Disease) 465

Pulpy Kidney Disease (Type D Enterotoxemia, Overeating Disease) 465

Purpura Hemorhagica - See Strangles 466

Q Fever 466

Rabies 467

Recurrent Airway Obstruction - See Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 468

Ringworm (Dermatophytosis) aka. Favus 468

Ruminal Tympany - See Bloat 469

Salmonellosis 469

Scrapie 470

Septic Arthritis 471

Sheep and Goat Pox 472

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (a.k.a. Cancer Eye) 472

Strangles (Purpura Hemorrhagica) 474

Streptococcal Infections 475

Swine Fever - See Hog Cholera 476

Swine Influenza 476

Tetanus 477

Ulcerative Dermatosis 478

Urolithiasis 478

Vesicular Stomatitis 480

Warts (Cutaneous Papillomas) 481

West Nile Virus Infection (WNV) 481

White Muscle Disease 482

Wooden Tongue (Actinobacilosis) 483

References 484

Activities 488

Multiple Choice Questions Answer Bank 490

“Test Your Learning” Answer Bank 495

Glossary 503

Index 510

Authors

Sue Loly University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. Heather Hopkinson