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Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. Edition No. 5

  • Book
  • 544 Pages
  • June 2021
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5351676
Discover the latest developments in fiber-optic communications with the newest edition of this leading textbook 

In the newly revised fifth edition of Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, accomplished researcher and author, Dr. Govind P. Agrawal, delivers brand-new updates and developments in the science of fiber optics communications. The book contains substantial additions covering the topics of coherence detection, space division multiplexing, and more advanced subjects.  You’ll learn about topics like fiber’s losses, dispersion, and nonlinearities, as well as coherent lightwave systems. The latter subject has undergone major changes due to the extensive development of digital coherent systems over the last decade. Space-division multiplexing is covered as well, including multimode and multicore fibers developed in just the last ten years. Finally, the book concludes with a chapter on brand-new developments in the field that are still at the development stage and likely to become highly relevant for practitioners and researchers in the coming years.  Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: 
  • A thorough introduction to the fundamentals of fiber-optic communication systems 
  • An exploration of the management of fiber-optic communication losses, dispersion, and nonlinearities 
  • A practical discussion of coherent lightwave systems, including coherent transmitters and receivers, as well as noise and bit-error rate, sensitivity degradation mechanisms, and the impact of nonlinear effects 
  • A concise treatment of space-division multiplexing, including multicore and multimode fibers, multicore lightwave systems, and multimode lightwave systems 
  • Analyses of advanced topics, including pulse shaping for higher spectral efficiency, Kramers-Kronig receivers, nonlinear Fourier transform, wavelength conversion, and optical regeneration 
Perfect for graduate students, professors, scientists, and professional engineers working or studying in the area of telecommunications technology, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems is an essential update to the leading reference in the area of fiber-optic communications.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Historical Perspective 1

1.1.1 Need for Fiber-Optic Communications 2

1.1.2 Evolution of Lightwave Systems 4

1.2 Basic Concepts 8

1.2.1 Analog and Digital Signals 8

1.2.2 Channel Multiplexing 11

1.2.3 Modulation Formats 13

1.3 Optical Communication Systems 16

1.4 Lightwave System Components 18

1.4.1 Optical Fibers as a Communication Channel 18

1.4.2 Optical Transmitters 18

1.4.3 Optical Receivers 19

Problems 20

References 21

2 Optical Fibers 24

2.1 Geometrical-Optics Description 24

2.1.1 Step-Index Fibers 25

2.1.2 Graded-Index Fibers 27

2.2 Wave Propagation 29

2.2.1 Maxwell’s Equations 29

2.2.2 Fiber Modes 31

2.2.3 Single-Mode Fibers 34

2.3 Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers 37

2.3.1 Group-Velocity Dispersion 38

2.3.2 Material Dispersion 39

2.3.3 Waveguide Dispersion 40

2.3.4 Higher-Order Dispersion 41

2.3.5 Polarization-Mode Dispersion 43

2.4 Dispersion-Induced Limitations 44

2.4.1 Basic Propagation Equation 45

2.4.2 Chirped Gaussian Pulses 46

2.4.3 Limitations on the Bit Rate 49

2.5 Fiber Losses 52

2.5.1 Attenuation Coefficient 52

2.5.2 Material Absorption 53

2.5.3 Rayleigh Scattering 54

2.5.4 Waveguide Imperfections 55

2.6 Nonlinear Optical Effects 56

2.6.1 Stimulated Light Scattering 56

2.6.2 Nonlinear Phase Modulation 60

2.6.3 Four-Wave Mixing 63

2.7 Fiber Design and Fabrication 64

2.7.1 Silica Fibers 64

2.7.2 Plastic Optical Fibers 67

2.7.3 Cables and Connectors 69

Problems 70

References 72

3 Optical Transmitters 75

3.1 Semiconductor Laser Physics 75

3.1.1 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emissions 76

3.1.2 Nonradiative Recombination 77

3.1.3 Optical Gain 78

3.1.4 Feedback and Laser Threshold 80

3.1.5 Laser Structures and Modes 81

3.2 Single-Mode Semiconductor Lasers 83

3.2.1 Distributed Feedback Lasers 83

3.2.2 Coupled-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers 85

3.2.3 Tunable Semiconductor Lasers 86

3.2.4 Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers 88

3.3 Semiconductor Laser Characteristics 89

3.3.1 CW Characteristics 89

3.3.2 Modulation Bandwidth 92

3.3.3 Relative Intensity Noise 94

3.3.4 Spectral Linewidth 97

3.4 Modulation Techniques 98

3.4.1 Direct Modulation 99

3.4.2 External Modulation 100

3.5 Light-Emitting Diodes 103

3.5.1 LED Characteristics 104

3.5.2 LED Structures 106

3.6 Transmitter Design 108

3.6.1 Source-Fiber Coupling 108

3.6.2 Driving Circuitry 110

3.6.3 Reliability and Packaging 111

Problems 113

References 115

4 Optical Receivers 119

4.1 Basic Concepts 119

4.1.1 Responsivity and Quantum Efficiency 119

4.1.2 Rise Time and Bandwidth 121

4.2 Common Photodetectors 122

4.2.1 p-n Photodiodes 122

4.2.2 p-i-n Photodiodes 124

4.2.3 Avalanche Photodiodes 127

4.2.4 MSM Photodetectors 133

4.3 Receiver Design 135

4.3.1 The Front End 135

4.3.2 The Linear Channel 137

4.3.3 Data-Recovery Section 138

4.3.4 Integrated Receivers 139

4.4 Receiver Noise 141

4.4.1 Noise Mechanisms 141

4.4.2 SNR of p-i-n Receivers 143

4.4.3 SNR of APD Receivers 144

4.5 Coherent Detection 148

4.5.1 Local Oscillator 148

4.5.2 Homodyne Detection 149

4.5.3 Heterodyne Detection 150

4.5.4 Signal-to-Noise Ratio 150

4.6 Receiver Sensitivity 151

4.6.1 Bit-Error Rate 151

4.6.2 Minimum Received Power 154

4.6.3 Quantum Limit of Photodetection 156

4.7 Sensitivity Degradation 157

4.7.1 Extinction Ratio 157

4.7.2 Intensity Noise 158

4.7.3 Timing Jitter 160

4.8 Receiver Performance 162

Problems 164

References 166

5 Lightwave Systems 170

5.1 System Architectures 170

5.1.1 Point-to-Point Links 170

5.1.2 Distribution Networks 172

5.1.3 Local-Area Networks 173

5.2 Design Guidelines 175

5.2.1 Loss-Limited Lightwave Systems 175

5.2.2 Dispersion-Limited Lightwave Systems 176

5.2.3 Power Budget 177

5.2.4 Rise-Time Budget 179

5.3 Long-Haul Systems 181

5.3.1 Performance-Limiting Factors 181

5.3.2 Terrestrial Lightwave Systems 183

5.3.3 Undersea Lightwave Systems 186

5.4 Sources of Power Penalty 188

5.4.1 Modal Noise 188

5.4.2 Mode-Partition Noise 190

5.4.3 Reflection Feedback and Noise 191

5.4.4 Dispersive Pulse Broadening 194

5.4.5 Frequency Chirping 195

5.4.6 Eye-Closure Penalty 197

5.5 Forward Error Correction 198

5.5.1 Error-Correcting Codes 198

5.5.2 Coding Gain 199

5.6 Computer-Aided Design 200

Problems 202

References 204

6 Multichannel Systems 208

6.1 WDM Systems and Networks 208

6.1.1 High-Capacity Point-to-Point Links 209

6.1.2 Wide-Area and Metro-Area Networks 212

6.1.3 Multiple-Access WDM Networks 215

6.2 WDM Components 216

6.2.1 Optical Filters 217

6.2.2 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers 222

6.2.3 Add-Drop Multiplexers 224

6.2.4 Star Couplers 227

6.2.5 Wavelength Routers 228

6.2.6 WDM Transmitters and Receivers 230

6.3 System Performance Issues 233

6.3.1 Linear Crosstalk 233

6.3.2 Raman-Induced Nonlinear Crosstalk 235

6.3.3 XPM-Induced Nonlinear Crosstalk 237

6.3.4 FWM-Induced Nonlinear Crosstalk 239

6.3.5 Other Design Issues 240

6.4 Time-Division Multiplexing 241

6.4.1 Time-Domain Multiplexing 242

6.4.2 Time-Domain Demultiplexing 243

6.4.3 Performance of OTDM Systems 245

6.5 Subcarrier Multiplexing 246

6.5.1 Analog and Digital SCM Systems 246

6.5.2 Orthogonal Frequency-Division multiplexing 248

6.6 Code-Division Multiplexing 250

6.6.1 Time-Domain Encoding 251

6.6.2 Frequency-Domain Encoding 253

Problems 255

References 257

7 Loss Management 264

7.1 Compensation of Fiber Losses 264

7.1.1 Periodic Amplification Scheme 265

7.1.2 Lumped Versus Distributed Amplification 267

7.1.3 Bidirectional Pumping Scheme 268

7.2 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 269

7.2.1 Pumping and Gain Spectrum 269

7.2.2 Two-Level Model 270

7.2.3 Amplifier Noise 273

7.2.4 Multichannel Amplification 275

7.3 Raman Amplifiers 277

7.3.1 Raman Gain and Bandwidth 278

7.3.2 Raman-Induced Signal Gain 279

7.3.3 Multiple-Pump Raman Amplification 281

7.3.4 Noise Figure of Raman Amplifiers 283

7.4 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio 285

7.4.1 Lumped Amplification 285

7.4.2 Distributed Amplification 287

7.5 Electrical Signal-To-Noise Ratio 288

7.5.1 ASE-Induced Current Fluctuations 288

7.5.2 Impact of ASE on SNR 290

7.5.3 Noise Buildup in an Amplifier Chain 291

7.6 Receiver Sensitivity and Q Factor 292

7.6.1 Bit-Error Rate 292

7.6.2 Relation between Q Factor and Optical SNR 294

7.7 Role of Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects 295

7.7.1 Noise Growth through Modulation Instability 295

7.7.2 Noise-Induced Signal Degradation 297

7.7.3 Noise-Induced Energy Fluctuations 299

7.7.4 Noise-Induced Timing Jitter 300

7.8 Periodically Amplified Lightwave Systems 300

7.8.1 Numerical Approach 301

7.8.2 Optimum Launched Power 304

Problems 306

References 307

8 Dispersion Management 310

8.1 Dispersion Problem and Its Solution 310

8.2 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers 312

8.2.1 Conditions for Dispersion Compensation 312

8.2.2 Dispersion Maps 313

8.2.3 DCF Designs 315

8.3 Fiber Bragg Gratings 317

8.3.1 Constant-Period Gratings 318

8.3.2 Chirped Fiber Gratings 320

8.3.3 Sampled Gratings 322

8.4 Dispersion-Equalizing Filters 325

8.4.1 Gires-Tournois Filters 325

8.4.2 Mach-Zehnder and Other Filters 327

8.5 Optical Phase Conjugation 329

8.5.1 Principle of Operation 330

8.5.2 Compensation of Self-Phase Modulation 331

8.5.3 Generation of Phase-Conjugated Signal 332

8.6 Advanced Techniques 335

8.6.1 Tunable Dispersion Compensation 335

8.6.2 Higher-Order Dispersion Management 338

8.6.3 PMD Compensation 340

8.7 Electronic Dispersion Compensation 343

8.7.1 Pre-compensation at the Transmitter 343

8.7.2 Post-Compensation at the Receiver 347

Problems 349

References 351

9 Control of Nonlinear Effects 355

9.1 Impact of Fiber Nonlinearity 355

9.1.1 System Design Issues 356

9.1.2 Semianalytic Approach 359

9.1.3 Soliton and Pseudo-linear Regimes 361

9.2 Solitons in Optical Fibers 363

9.2.1 Properties of Optical Solitons 364

9.2.2 Loss-Managed Solitons 367

9.2.3 Dispersion-Managed Solitons 370

9.2.4 Timing Jitter 374

9.3 Pseudo-linear Lightwave Systems 378

9.3.1 Origin of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects 378

9.3.2 Intrachannel Cross-Phase Modulation 380

9.3.3 Intrachannel Four-Wave Mixing 384

9.4 Management of Nonlinear Effects 387

9.4.1 Optimization of Dispersion Maps 387

9.4.2 Phase-Alternation Technique 390

9.4.3 Polarization Bit Interleaving 392

9.4.4 Optical Phase Conjugation 393

9.4.5 Phase-Sensitive Amplification 395

Problems 396

References 398

10 Coherent Lightwave Systems 402

10.1 Coherent Transmitters 403

10.1.1 Encoding of Optical Signals 403

10.1.2 Amplitude and Phase Modulators 405

10.1.3 Quadrature modulator 406

10.2 Coherent Receivers 408

10.2.1 Synchronous Heterodyne Demodulation 408

10.2.2 Asynchronous Heterodyne Demodulation 410

10.2.3 Optical Delay Demodulation 411

10.2.4 Phase Diversity and Polarization Diversity 413

10.3 Noise and Bit-Error Rate 415

10.3.1 Synchronous Heterodyne Receivers 415

10.3.2 Asynchronous Heterodyne Receivers 418

10.3.3 Receivers with Optical Delay Demodulation 419

10.4 Sources of Performance Degradation 421

10.4.1 Intensity Noise of Lasers 421

10.4.2 Phase Noise of Lasers 422

10.4.3 Effects of Fiber’s Dispersion 424

10.5 Management of Nonlinear Effects 425

10.5.1 Nonlinear Phase Noise 426

10.5.2 Compensation of Nonlinear Phase Noise 429

10.5.3 Nonlinear Interference Noise 432

10.6 Digital Signal Processing 435

10.6.1 Removal of Intermediate Frequency and Phase fluctuations 435

10.6.2 Compensation of GVD and PMD 437

10.6.3 Digital Backward Propagation 440

10.7 Experimental Progress 442

10.7.1 DPSK and DQPSK formats 442

10.7.2 QPSK and QAM formats 445

10.7.3 Coherent Orthogonal FDM 448

10.7.4 Optical Superchannels 450

10.8 Channel Capacity 452

Problems 454

References 455

11 Space-Division Multiplexing 462

11.1 SDM Technique 462

11.2 Modes of Optical Fibers 464

11.2.1 Step-Index Fibers 464

11.2.2 Graded-Index Fibers 467

11.2.3 Multicore Fibers 469

11.3 SDM Components 471

11.3.1 Design of SDM Fibers 471

11.3.2 Spatial Multiplexers and Demultiplexers 474

11.3.3 Multicore/Multimode Fiber Amplifiers 479

11.3.4 Other SDM Components 481

11.4 Modeling of SDM Systems 482

11.4.1 Multimode Coupled Nonlinear Equations 483

11.4.2 Averaged Multimode Nonlinear Equations 486

11.4.3 Nonlinear Effects in MCFs 488

11.4.4 Nonlinear Effects in MMFs 491

11.5 Experimental Progress 494

11.5.1 MCF-Based SDM Systems 494

11.5.2 MMF-Based SDM Systems 496

11.5.3 High-Capacity SDM Systems 498

Problems 499

References 500

12 Advanced Topics 505

12.1 Optical Signal Processing 506

12.1.1 Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirrors 506

12.1.2 Parametric Amplifiers 510

12.1.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 513

12.1.4 Bistable Optical Devices 516

12.1.5 Optical Flip-Flops 518

12.2 Wavelength Conversion 522

12.2.1 XPM-Based Wavelength Converters 522

12.2.2 FWM-Based Wavelength Converters 525

12.2.3 Semiconductor Waveguides 528

12.2.4 SOA-Based Wavelength Converters 530

12.3 Ultrafast Optical Switching 532

12.3.1 Time-Domain Demultiplexing 532

12.3.2 Packet Switching 536

12.3.3 Format Conversion 538

12.4 Optical Regeneration 540

12.4.1 2R Regenerators 541

12.4.2 3R Regenerators 545

12.4.3 Regeneration of Phase-Encoded Signals 549

12.5 Nonlinear Frequency-Division Multiplexing 552

12.5.1 Nonlinear Fourier Transform 552

12.5.2 Practical Implementation 554

Problems 556

References 557

A System of Units 566

B Acronyms 568

C Formula for Pulse Broadening 572

D Nyquist Pulses 574

References 575

Index 576

Authors

Govind P. Agrawal The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester.