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Bioprospecting of Plant Biodiversity for Industrial Molecules. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 5359682
  • Book
  • July 2021
  • 464 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

BIOPROSPECTING OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY FOR INDUSTRIAL MOLECULES

A comprehensive collection of recent translational research on bioresource utilization and ecological sustainability

Bioprospecting of Plant Biodiversity for Industrial Molecules provides an up-to-date overview of the ongoing search for biodiverse organic compounds for use in pharmaceuticals, bioceuticals, agriculture, and other commercial applications. Bringing together work from a panel of international contributors, this comprehensive monograph covers natural compounds of plants, endophyte enzymes and their applications in industry, plant bioprospecting in cosmetics, marine bioprospecting of seaweeds, and more.

Providing global perspectives on bioprospecting of plant biodiversity, the authors present research on enzymes, mineral micro-nutrients, biopesticides, algal biomass, and other bioactive molecules. In-depth chapters assess the health impacts and ecological sustainability of the various biomolecules and identify existing and possible applications ranging from ecological restoration to production of essential oils and cosmetics. Other topics include, bio-energy crops as alternative fuel resources, the role of plants in phytoremediation of industrial waste, and the industrial applications of endophyte enzymes.

This comprehensive resource:

  • Includes a through introduction to plant biodiversity and bioprospecting
  • Will further the knowledge of application of different plants and improve research investigation techniques.
  • Summarizes novel approaches for researchers in food science, microbiology, biochemistry, and biotechnology

Bioprospecting of Plant Biodiversity for Industrial Molecules is an indispensable compendium of biological research for scientists, researchers, graduate and postgraduate students, and academics in the areas of microbiology, food biotechnology, industrial microbiology, plant biotechnology, and microbial biotechnology.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xv

Preface xxi

About the Editors xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

1 An Introduction to Plant Biodiversity and Bioprospecting 1
Ramya Krishnan, Sudhir P. Singh, and Santosh Kumar Upadhyay

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 What is Bioprospecting 1

1.2.1 Chemical Prospecting 3

1.2.2 Gene Prospecting 3

1.2.3 Bionic Prospecting 4

1.3 Significance of Plants in Bioprospecting 4

1.4 Pros and Cons of Bioprospecting 5

1.5 Recent Trends in Bioprospecting 6

1.6 Omics for Bioprospecting and in silico Bioprospecting 7

1.7 An Insight into the Book 8

References 10

2 Entomotoxic Proteins from Plant Biodiversity to Control the Crop Insect Pests 15
Surjeet Kumar Arya, Shatrughan Shiva, and Santosh Kumar Upadhyay

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Lectins 16

2.3 Proteinase Inhibitors 21

2.4 α-Amylase Inhibitors 24

2.5 Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) 27

2.6 Arcelins 30

2.7 Defensins 32

2.8 Cyclotides 32

2.9 Canatoxin-Like Proteins 33

2.10 Ureases and Urease-Derived Encrypted Peptides 33

2.11 Chitinases 36

2.12 Proteases 36

2.13 Conclusions 37

References 37

3 Bioprospecting of Natural Compounds for Industrial and Medical Applications: Current Scenario and Bottleneck 53
Sameer Dixit, Akanchha Shukla, Vinayak Singh, and Santosh Kumar Upadhyay

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Why Bioprospecting Is Important 54

3.3 Major Sites for Bioprospecting 54

3.4 Pipeline of Bioprospecting 55

3.5 Biopiracy: An Unethical Bioprospecting 55

3.6 Bioprospecting Derived Products in Agriculture Industry 56

3.7 Bioprospecting Derived Products for Bioremediation 57

3.8 Bioprospecting for Nanoparticles Development 59

3.9 Bioprospecting Derived Products in Pharmaceutical Industry 60

3.10 Conclusion and Future Prospects 63

Acknowledgments 64

References 64

4 Role of Plants in Phytoremediation of Industrial Waste 73
Pankaj Srivastava and Nishita Giri

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Different Toxic Materials from Industries 75

4.2.1 Fly Ash from Thermal Power Plants 75

4.2.2 Heavy Metals and Pesticides in Environment 75

4.2.2.1 Cadmium 75

4.2.2.2 Arsenic 76

4.2.2.3 Chromium 76

4.2.2.4 Pesticide in Environment 76

4.2.3 Phytoremediation Technology in Present Scenario 77

4.2.4 Conclusion 80

References 81

5 Ecological Restoration and Plant Biodiversity 91
Shalini Tiwari and Puneet Singh Chauhan

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Major Areas of Bioprospecting 92

5.2.1 Chemical/Biochemical Prospecting 92

5.2.2 Gene/Genetic Prospecting 92

5.2.3 Bionic Prospecting 93

5.3 Bioprospecting: Creating a Value for Biodiversity 93

5.4 Conservation and Ecological Restoration for Sustainable Utilization of Resources 94

5.5 Biodiversity Development Agreements 95

5.6 Conclusions 96

References 96

6 Endophyte Enzymes and Their Applications in Industries 99
Rufin Marie Kouipou Toghueo and Fabrice Fekam Boyom

6.1 Introduction 99

6.2 The Rationale for Bioprospecting Endophytes for Novel Industrial Enzymes 100

6.3 Endophytes as a Source of Industrial Enzymes 101

6.3.1 Amylases 104

6.3.2 Asparaginase 105

6.3.3 Cellulases 107

6.3.4 Chitinases 109

6.3.5 Laccases 110

6.3.6 Lipases 111

6.3.7 Proteases 113

6.3.8 Xylanases 115

6.3.9 Other Enzymes Produced by Endophytes 116

6.3.9.1 AHL-Lactonase 116

6.3.9.2 Agarase 116

6.3.9.3 Chromate Reductase 116

6.3.9.4 β-Mannanase 117

6.4 Overview of the Methods Used to Investigate Endophytes as Sources of Enzymes 117

6.5 Strategies Applied to Improve the Production of Enzymes by Endophytes 118

6.6 Conclusion 119

Acknowledgements 122

References 122

7 Resource Recovery from the Abundant Agri-biomass 131
Shilpi Bansal, Jyoti Singh Jadaun, and Sudhir P. Singh

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Potential of Agri-biomass to Produce Different Products 133

7.2.1 Conversion of Agri-biomass into Valuable Chemicals 133

7.2.2 Energy Production Using Agri-biomass 134

7.2.3 Role of Agri-biomass in Heavy Metal Decontamination 135

7.2.4 Manufacturing of Lightweight Materials 137

7.3 Case Studies 138

7.3.1 Utilization of Paddy Waste 138

7.3.2 Utilization of Mustard Waste 140

7.3.3 Utilization of Maize Waste 140

7.3.4 Utilization of Horticulture Waste 142

7.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 144

References 144

8 Antimicrobial Products from Plant Biodiversity 153
Pankaj Kumar Verma, Shikha Verma, Nalini Pandey, and Debasis Chakrabarty

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 Use of Plant Products as Antimicrobials: Historical Perspective 154

8.3 Major Groups of Plants-Derived Antimicrobial Compound 156

8.3.1 Simple Phenols and Phenolic Acids 156

8.3.1.1 Flavonoids 156

8.3.1.2 Quinones 160

8.3.1.3 Tannins 160

8.3.1.4 Coumarins 161

8.3.2 Terpenes and Essential Oils 162

8.3.3 Alkaloids 163

8.4 Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Activity 163

8.4.1 Plant Extracts with Efflux Pump Inhibitory Activity 164

8.4.2 Plant Extracts with Bacterial Quorum Sensing Inhibitory Activity 164

8.4.3 Plant Extracts with Biofilm Inhibitory Activity 165

8.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 165

References 166

9 Functional Plants as Natural Sources of Dietary Antioxidants 175
Ao Shang, Jia-Hui Li, Xiao-Yu Xu, Ren-You Gan, Min Luo, and Hua-Bin Li

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity 176

9.3 Antioxidant Activity of Functional Plants 176

9.3.1 Vegetables 176

9.3.2 Fruits 177

9.3.3 Medicinal Plants 181

9.3.4 Cereal Grains 181

9.3.5 Flowers 181

9.3.6 Microalgae 181

9.3.7 Teas 182

9.4 Applications of Plant Antioxidants 182

9.4.1 Food Additives 182

9.4.2 Dietary Supplements 183

9.5 Conclusions 183

References 184

10 Biodiversity and Importance of Plant Bioprospecting in Cosmetics 189
K. Sri Manjari, Debarati Chakraborty, Aakanksha Kumar, and Sakshi Singh

10.1 Biodiversity, Bioprospecting, and Cosmetics – A Harmony of Triad 189

10.2 The Fury of Synthetic Chemicals in Cosmetics on Health 191

10.3 India’s Biodiversity and Its Traditional Knowledge/Medicine in Cosmetics 191

10.3.1 Herbal Cosmetics 194

10.4 Use of Plant-Based Products in the Cosmetic Industry 194

10.5 Green Cosmetics – Significance and Current Status of the Global Market 196

10.5.1 Sustainable Development Goals (Economic, Ecological Benefits) in Cosmetic Industry – How Bioprospecting and Green Cosmetics Can Help? 199

10.6 Ethical and Legal Implications of Bioprospecting and Cosmetics 200

10.6.1 International Laws Regulating Bioprospecting 201

10.6.2 Indian Law Regulating Bioprospecting 202

10.6.3 Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) 202

10.6.4 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 203

10.6.5 Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge, and Folklore (IGC) 203

10.7 Laws Regulating Cosmetics 203

10.8 Role of Biotechnology in Bioprospecting and Cosmetics 204

References 205

11 Therapeutic Lead Secondary Metabolites Production Using Plant In Vitro Cultures 211
Vikas Srivastava, Aksar Ali Chowdhary, Skalzang Lhamo, Sonal Mishra, and Shakti Mehrotra

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 Secondary Metabolites and Pharmaceutical Significance 212

11.3 Plant In Vitro Cultures and Strategies for Secondary Metabolite Production 214

11.3.1 Precursor Feeding 214

11.3.2 Metabolic Engineering 215

11.3.3 Elicitation 216

11.3.4 Bioreactor Up-scaling 216

11.4 Exemplification of the Utilization of Different Types of Plant In Vitro Cultures for SMs Production 217

11.4.1 Shoot Culture 217

11.4.2 Adventitious Root Culture 220

11.4.3 Callus and Cell Suspension Culture 220

11.4.4 Hairy Root Cultures 221

11.5 Conclusion 221

References 222

12 Plant Diversity and Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Spices and Condiments 231
Thakku R. Ramkumar and Subbiah Karuppusamy

12.1 Introduction 231

12.2 Habitat and Diversity of Major Spices and Condiments in India 232

12.3 Ethnobotanical Context of Spices and Condiments in India 241

12.4 Major Spices and Condiments in India 243

12.4.1 Black Pepper 243

12.4.2 Capsicums 243

12.4.3 Cinnamomum 244

12.4.4 Coriander 244

12.4.5 Cumin 244

12.4.6 Cardamom 245

12.4.7 Fennel 245

12.4.8 Ginger 245

12.4.9 Mustard Seed 246

12.4.10 Nutmeg 246

12.4.11 Saffron 246

12.4.12 Turmeric 246

12.4.13 Vanilla 247

12.5 Importance of Indian Spices 247

12.6 Spice Plantation and Cultivation in India 249

12.7 Cultivation Technology of Caper Bud in India 250

12.8 Export of Indian Spices 251

12.9 Conservation Efforts Against Selected Uncultivated Wild Spices and Condiments 254

12.10 Institutions and Organization Dedicated for Research and Development in Spices and Condiments in India 254

12.11 Recent Researches on Spices and Condiments 255

12.12 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 256

Acknowledgments 256

Authors’ Contribution 256

References 257

13 Plants as Source of Essential Oils and Perfumery Applications 261
Monica Butnariu

13.1 Background 261

13.2 Biochemistry of Essential Oils 262

13.2.1 The Physiological Mechanism of Biosynthesis of Essential Oils 262

13.2.2 The Role of Terpenes in Plants 263

13.2.3 The Prevalence Essential Oils in Plants 264

13.2.4 Paths of Biosynthesis of Volatile Compounds in Plants 265

13.2.4.1 Metabolic Cycles Involved in the Biosynthesis of Different Groups of Secondary Metabolites 265

13.2.4.2 Metabolic Cycles of Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds 266

13.3 The Metabolism Terpenes 269

13.3.1 Metabolic Cycle of Mevalonic Acid Biosynthesis 271

13.3.2 Metabolic Cycle of Methylerythritol Phosphate Biosynthesis 272

13.4 The Role of Essential Oils and the Specificity of Their Accumulation in Plants 272

13.5 Essential Oils from Plants in Perfume 281

13.5.1 Linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), C10H18O 286

13.5.2 Camphor (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-one), C10H16O 286

13.5.3 Cedrol (1S, 2R, 5S, 7R, 8R)-(2,6,6,8-tetramethyltricyclo [5.3.1.01,5] undecan-8-ol or cedran-8-ol), C15H26O 286

13.5.4 Eugenol (2-methoxy-4-allylphenol; 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), C10H12O2 287

13.5.5 Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al), C10H16O 287

13.5.6 Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) C8H8O3 287

13.5.7 Syringe Aldehyde (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde) C9H10O4 288

13.6 Conclusions and Remarks 289

References 290

14 Bioprospection of Plants for Essential Mineral Micronutrients 293
Nikita Bisht and Puneet Singh Chauhan

14.1 Introduction 293

14.2 Plants as a Source of Mineral Micronutrients 293

14.3 Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plants 294

14.3.1 Bioavailability of Fe and Zn 294

14.3.2 Impact of Food Processing on Micronutrient Bioavailability from Plant Foods 295

14.4 Manipulating Plant Micronutrients 296

14.4.1 Improving Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plant Foods 296

14.4.2 Metabolic Engineering of Micronutrients in Crop Plants 297

14.5 Microbes in the Biofortification of Micronutrients in Crops 298

14.6 Conclusions 299

References 299

15 Algal Biomass: A Natural Resource of High-Value Biomolecules 303
Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Ananya Singh, Variyata Agrawal, and Neelam Yadav

15.1 Introduction 303

15.2 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration 304

15.3 Algae in High-Value Biomolecules Production 306

15.3.1 Proteins, Peptides, and Amino Acids 310

15.3.2 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) 311

15.3.3 Polysaccharides 312

15.3.4 Pigments 313

15.3.4.1 Chlorophylls 313

15.3.4.2 Carotenoids 314

15.3.4.3 Phycobilliproteins (PBPs) 315

15.3.5 Vitamins 316

15.3.6 Polyphenols 316

15.3.7 Phytosterols 317

15.3.8 Phytohormones 318

15.3.9 Minerals 318

15.4 Algae in Biofuel Production/Generation 319

15.4.1 Thermochemical Conversion 319

15.4.2 Chemical Conversion by Transesterification 321

15.4.3 Biochemical Conversion 322

15.4.4 Photosynthetic Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) 324

15.5 Algae in Additional Applications 325

15.5.1 Algae as Livestock Feed and Nutrition 325

15.5.2 Algae as Feed in Aquaculture 326

15.5.3 Algae as Bio-Fertilizer 326

15.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 326

References 327

16 Plant Bioprospecting for Biopesticides and Bioinsecticides 335
Aradhana Lucky Hans and Sangeeta Saxena

16.1 Introduction 335

16.2 Current Scenario in India 336

16.3 Plants-Based Active Compounds 337

16.3.1 Azadirachtin 337

16.3.2 Pyrethrins 338

16.3.3 Rotenone 338

16.3.4 Sabadilla 339

16.3.5 Ryania 339

16.3.6 Nicotine 339

16.3.7 Acetogenins 339

16.3.8 Capsaicinoids 339

16.3.9 Essential Oils 340

16.4 Advantages and Future Prospects of Bioinsecticides 340

16.5 Conclusions 342

Acknowledgment 343

References 343

17 Plant Biomass to Bioenergy 345
Mrinalini Srivastava and Debasis Chakrabarty

17.1 Introduction 345

17.2 Plant Biomass 346

17.2.1 Types of Biomass (Source: [17]) 347

17.3 Bioenergy 347

17.4 Biomass Conversion into Bioenergy 348

17.4.1 Cogeneration 349

17.5 The Concept of Biomass Energy (Source: [27]) 349

17.5.1 Thermochemical Conversion 349

17.5.1.1 Direct Combustion 349

17.5.1.2 Pyrolysis 349

17.5.1.3 Gasification 349

17.5.2 Biochemical Conversion 350

17.5.2.1 Anaerobic Digestion 350

17.5.2.2 Alcohol Fermentation 350

17.5.2.3 Hydrogen Production from Biomass 350

17.6 Use of Biofuel in Transportation 350

17.7 Production of Biogas and Biomethane from Biomass 350

17.8 Generation of Biofuel 351

17.8.1 Bioethanol 351

17.8.2 Biodiesel 352

17.9 Advanced Technologies in the Area of Bioenergy 352

17.10 Conclusion 353

Acknowledgment 354

References 354

18 Bioenergy Crops as an Alternate Energy Resource 357
Garima Pathak and Shivanand Suresh Dudhagi

18.1 Introduction 357

18.2 Classification of Bioenergy Crops 358

18.2.1 First-Generation Bioenergy Crops 358

18.2.1.1 Sugarcane 359

18.2.1.2 Corn 359

18.2.1.3 Sweet Sorghum 359

18.2.1.4 Oil Crops 360

18.2.2 Second-Generation Bioenergy Crops 360

18.2.2.1 Switchgrass 360

18.2.2.2 Miscanthus 361

18.2.2.3 Alfalfa 361

18.2.2.4 Reed Canary Grass 361

18.2.2.5 Other Plants 361

18.2.3 Third-Generation Bioenergy Crops 362

18.2.3.1 Boreal Plants 362

18.2.3.2 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) Plants 362

18.2.3.3 Eucalyptus 362

18.2.3.4 Agave 362

18.2.3.5 Microalgae 363

18.2.4 Dedicated Bioenergy Crops 363

18.2.5 Halophytes 363

18.3 Characteristics of Bioenergy Crops 364

18.3.1 Physiological and Ecological Traits 364

18.3.2 Agronomic and Metabolic Traits 364

18.3.3 Biochemical Composition and Caloric Content 365

18.4 Genetic Improvement of Bioenergy Crops 365

18.5 Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy Crops 366

18.5.1 Soil Quality 366

18.5.2 Water and Minerals 367

18.5.3 Carbon Sequestration 367

18.5.4 Phytoremediation 367

18.5.5 Biodiversity 368

18.6 Conclusion and Future Prospect 369

References 369

19 Marine Bioprospecting: Seaweeds for Industrial Molecules 377
Achintya Kumar Dolui

19.1 Introduction 377

19.2 Seaweeds as Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods 378

19.3 Seaweeds in the Alleviation of Lifestyle Disorders 380

19.4 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Seaweeds 381

19.5 Seaweed Is a Source of Anticoagulant Agent 381

19.6 Anticancer Property of Seaweed 382

19.7 Seaweeds as Antiviral Drugs and Mosquitocides 384

19.8 Use of Seaweeds in the Cosmeceutical Industry 385

19.9 Use of Seaweed as Contraceptive Agents 386

19.10 Extraction of Active Ingredients from Seaweed 388

19.10.1 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) 388

19.10.2 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) 389

19.10.3 Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) 389

19.10.4 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction (EAE) and EMEA 390

19.11 Market Potential of Seaweeds 390

19.12 Conclusion 391

References 391

20 Bioprospection of Orchids and Appraisal of Their Therapeutic Indications 401
Devina Ghai, Jagdeep Verma, Arshpreet Kaur, Kranti Thakur, Sandip V. Pawar, and Jaspreet K. Sembi

20.1 Introduction 401

20.2 Orchids as a Bioprospecting Resource 402

20.3 Orchids as Curatives in Traditional India 403

20.4 Therapeutics Indications of Orchids in Asian Region 403

20.5 Evidences of Medicinal Uses of Orchids in Ethnic African Groups 404

20.6 Orchids as a Source of Restoratives in Europe 405

20.7 Remedial Uses of Orchids in American and Australian Cultures 405

20.8 Scientific Appraisal of Therapeutic Indications of Orchids 406

20.8.1 Orchids as Potent Anticancer Agents 406

20.8.2 Immunomodulatory Activity in Orchids 412

20.8.3 Orchids and Their Antioxidant Potential 412

20.8.4 Antimicrobial Studies in Orchids 412

20.8.5 Orchids and Anti-inflammatory Activity 413

20.8.6 Antidiabetic Prospects in Orchids 413

20.8.7 Other Analeptic Properties in Orchids 414

20.9 Conclusions 414

Acknowledgments 415

References 415

Index 425

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Santosh Kumar Upadhyay Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Sudhir P. Singh Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, India.
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