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Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Fundamentals and Applications. Edition No. 4

  • Book
  • 976 Pages
  • October 2021
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5403057
Nuclear and Radiochemistry

The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry

In the newly revised Fourth Edition of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences.

This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment.

Readers will also find: - An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei - Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation - In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements

Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.

Table of Contents

Volume 1

Preface vii

1 Fundamental Concepts 1

1.1 The Atom 1

1.2 Atomic Processes 2

1.3 Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus 4

1.4 Nuclear Decay Types 6

1.5 Some Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry 10

1.5.1 Fundamental Forces 10

1.5.2 Elements from Classical Mechanics 11

1.5.3 Relativistic Mechanics 11

1.5.4 The de Broglie Wavelength 13

1.5.5 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 14

1.5.6 The Standard Model of Particle Physics 15

1.5.7 Force Carriers 19

Reference 20

Further Reading 21

2 Radioactivity in Nature 23

2.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 23

2.2 Radioactive Substances in Nature 26

2.3 Nuclear Forensics 30

References 33

Further Reading 33

3 Radioelements and Radioisotopes and Their Atomic Masses 35

3.1 Periodic Table of the Elements 35

3.2 Isotopes and the Chart of Nuclides 36

3.3 Nuclide Masses and Binding Energies 40

3.4 Evidence for Shell Structure in Nuclei 48

3.5 Precision Mass Spectrometry 51

References 56

Further Reading 56

4 Other Physical Properties of Nuclei 59

4.1 Nuclear Radii 59

4.2 Nuclear Angular Momenta 64

4.3 Magnetic Dipole Moments 66

4.4 Electric Quadrupole Moments 69

4.5 Statistics and Parity 70

4.6 Excited States 71

References 72

Further Reading 72

5 The Nuclear Force and Nuclear Structure 75

5.1 Nuclear Forces 75

5.2 Charge Independence and Isospin 78

5.3 Nuclear Matter 82

5.4 Fermi Gas Model 84

5.5 Shell Model 86

5.6 Collective Motion in Nuclei 95

5.7 Nilsson Model 100

5.8 The Pairing Force and Quasi-Particles 104

5.9 Macroscopic-Microscopic Model 106

5.10 Interacting Boson Approximation 108

5.11 Further Collective Excitations: Coulomb Excitation, High-Spin States, Giant Resonances 110

References 116

Further Reading 116

6 Decay Modes 119

6.1 Nuclear Instability and Nuclear Spectroscopy 119

6.2 Alpha Decay 119

6.2.1 Hindrance Factors 124

6.2.2 Alpha-Decay Energies 125

6.3 Cluster Radioactivity 127

6.4 Proton Radioactivity 129

6.5 Spontaneous Fission 132

6.6 Beta Decay 146

6.6.1 Fundamental Processes 146

6.6.2 Electron Capture-to-Positron Ratios 156

6.6.3 Nuclear Matrix Elements 157

6.6.4 Parity Non-Conservation 160

6.6.5 Massive Vector Bosons 162

6.6.6 Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix 163

6.7 Electromagnetic Transitions 168

6.7.1 Multipole Order and Selection Rules 169

6.7.2 Transition Probabilities 171

6.7.3 Internal Conversion Coefficients 176

6.7.4 Angular Correlations 180

References 183

Further Reading 184

7 Radioactive Decay Kinetics 187

7.1 Law and Energy of Radioactive Decay 187

7.2 Radioactive Equilibria 189

7.3 Secular Radioactive Equilibrium 191

7.4 Transient Radioactive Equilibrium 193

7.5 Half-Life of Mother Nuclide Shorter than Half-Life of Daughter Nuclide 194

7.6 Similar Half-Lives 194

7.7 Branching Decay 196

7.8 Successive Transformations 197

Reference 199

Further Reading 199

8 Nuclear Radiation 201

8.1 General Properties 201

8.2 Heavy Charged Particles (A ≥1) 203

8.3 Beta Radiation 210

8.4 Gamma Radiation 215

8.5 Neutrons 221

8.6 Short-Lived Elementary Particles in Atoms and Molecules 226

References 228

Further Reading 228

9 Measurement of Nuclear Radiation 231

9.1 Activity and Counting Rate 231

9.2 Gas-Filled Detectors 235

9.2.1 Ionization Chambers 238

9.2.2 Proportional Counters 239

9.2.3 Geiger-Müller Counters 241

9.3 Scintillation Detectors 242

9.4 Semiconductor Detectors 245

9.5 Choice of Detectors 251

9.6 Spectrometry 253

9.7 Determination of Absolute Disintegration Rates 255

9.8 Use of Coincidence and Anticoincidence Circuits 258

9.9 Low-Level Counting 258

9.10 Neutron Detection and Measurement 259

9.11 Track Detectors 260

9.11.1 Photographic Emulsions and Autoradiography 260

9.11.2 Dielectric Track Detectors 262

9.11.3 Cloud Chambers 263

9.11.4 Bubble Chambers 263

9.11.5 Spark Chambers 263

9.12 Detectors Used in Health Physics 263

9.12.1 Portable Counters and Survey Meters 264

9.12.2 Film Badges 264

9.12.3 Pocket Ion Chambers 264

9.12.4 Thermoluminescence Dosimeters 264

9.12.5 Contamination Monitors 265

9.12.6 Whole-Body Counters 265

Reference 265

Further Reading 265

10 Statistical Considerations in Radioactivity Measurements 269

10.1 Distribution of Random Variables 269

10.2 Probability and Probability Distributions 271

10.3 Maximum Likelihood 277

10.4 Experimental Applications 278

10.5 Statistics of Pulse-Height Distributions 280

10.6 Statistical Assessments of Lifetimes in α-Decay Chains of Odd-Z Heavy Elements 282

10.7 Setting Upper Limits when no Counts Are Observed 285

References 285

Further Reading 285

11 Techniques in Nuclear Chemistry 287

11.1 Special Aspects of the Chemistry of Radionuclides 287

11.1.1 Short-Lived Radionuclides and the Role of Carriers 287

11.1.2 Radionuclides of High Specific Activity 289

11.1.3 Microamounts of Radioactive Substances 290

11.1.4 Radiocolloids 294

11.1.5 Tracer Techniques 297

11.2 Target Preparation 298

11.3 Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes 304

11.4 Neutron Spectrum in Nuclear Reactors 306

11.4.1 Thermal Neutrons 306

11.4.2 Epithermal Neutrons and Resonances 308

11.4.3 Reaction Rates in Thermal Reactors 309

11.5 Production of Radionuclides 309

11.5.1 Production in Nuclear Reactors 309

11.5.2 Production by Accelerators 314

11.5.3 Separation Techniques 322

11.5.4 Radionuclide Generators 326

11.6 Use of Recoil Momenta 329

11.7 Preparation of Samples for Activity Measurements 337

11.8 Determination of Half-Lives 338

11.9 Decay-Scheme Studies 340

11.10 In-Beam Nuclear Reaction Studies 342

References 356

Further Reading 357

Volume 2

Preface ix

12 Nuclear Reactions 361

12.1 Collision Kinematics 362

12.2 Coulomb Trajectories 364

12.3 Cross Sections 367

12.4 Elastic Scattering 371

12.5 Elastic Scattering and Reaction Cross Section 378

12.6 Optical Model 381

12.7 Nuclear Reactions and Models 383

12.7.1 Investigation of Nuclear Reactions 384

12.7.2 Compound Nucleus Model 384

12.7.3 Precompound Decay 400

12.7.4 Direct Reactions 401

12.7.5 Photonuclear Reactions 403

12.7.6 Fission 404

12.7.7 High-Energy Reactions 414

12.8 Nuclear Reactions Revisited with Heavy Ions 419

12.8.1 Heavy-Ion Fusion Reactions 420

12.8.2 Quasi-Fission 429

12.8.3 Deep Inelastic Collisions 435

12.8.3.1 The 238U+238U Reaction 447

12.8.3.2 Isotope Distributions at Fixed Z Below Z =92 449

12.8.3.3 Bombarding-Energy Dependence of the Deep-Inelastic Collisions 451

12.8.3.4 Isotope Distributions at Fixed Z Above Z =92 454

12.8.3.5 The 238U + 248Cm Reaction 459

12.8.3.6 Comparison of the Element Yields with Diffusion-Model Predictions 461

12.8.4 “Simple” (Quasi-elastic) Reactions at the Barrier 464

12.8.5 “Complex” Transfer Reactions 469

12.8.6 Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions, the Phases of Nuclear Matter 475

References 480

Further Reading 484

13 Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations 489

13.1 General Aspects 489

13.2 Recoil Effects 490

13.3 Excitation Effects 495

13.4 Gases and Liquids 499

13.5 Solids 502

13.6 Szilard-Chalmers Reactions 506

13.7 Recoil Labeling and Self-labeling 506

References 508

Further Reading 509

14 Influence of Chemical Bonding on Nuclear Properties 511

14.1 Survey 511

14.2 Dependence of Half-Lives on Chemical Bonding 512

14.3 Dependence of Radiation Emission on the Chemical Environment 514

14.4 Mössbauer Spectrometry 522

References 527

Further Reading 528

15 Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Fuel, and Fuel Cycles 531

15.1 Energy Production by Nuclear Fission 531

15.2 Nuclear Fuel and Fuel Cycles 536

15.3 Production of Uranium and Uranium Compounds 541

15.4 Fuel Elements 544

15.5 Nuclear Reactors, Moderators, and Coolants 547

15.6 The Chernobyl and Fukushima Accidents 554

15.7 Reprocessing 561

15.8 RadioactiveWaste 567

15.9 The Natural Reactors at Oklo 576

15.10 Controlled Thermonuclear Reactors 577

15.11 Nuclear Explosives 579

References 580

Further Reading 581

16 Sources of Nuclear Bombarding Particles 585

16.1 Neutron Sources 585

16.2 Neutron Generators 586

16.3 Research Reactors 587

16.4 Charged-Particle Accelerators 589

16.4.1 Direct Voltage Accelerators 591

16.4.2 Linear Accelerators 594

16.4.3 Cyclotrons 596

16.4.4 Synchrocyclotrons, Synchrotrons 598

16.4.5 Radioactive Ion Beams 601

16.4.5.1 FAIR - The Universe in the Lab 601

16.4.5.2 Research at FAIR 602

16.4.5.3 Construction of FAIR 604

16.4.5.4 International Partners 604

16.4.5.5 High Tech for FAIR 604

16.4.6 Photon Sources 605

References 606

Further Reading 606

17 Radioelements 609

17.1 Natural and Artificial Radioelements 609

17.2 Technetium and Promethium 613

17.3 Production of Transuranic Elements 616

17.3.1 Hot-Fusion Reactions 622

17.3.2 Cold-Fusion Reactions 625

17.3.3 48Ca-Induced Fusion Reactions 632

17.3.4 Other Disciplines 638

17.4 Cross Sections 640

17.5 Nuclear Structure of Superheavy Elements 645

17.6 Spectroscopy of Actinides and Transactinides 649

17.7 Properties of the Actinides 652

17.8 Chemical Properties of the Transactinides 667

17.8.1 Prediction of Electron Configurations and the Architecture of the Periodic Table of the Elements 668

17.8.2 Methods to Investigate the Chemistry of the Transactinides 670

17.8.3 Selected Experimental Results 690

References 721

Further Reading 727

18 Radionuclides in Geo- and Cosmochemistry 735

18.1 Natural Abundances of the Elements and Isotope Variations 735

18.2 General Aspects of Cosmochemistry 738

18.3 Early Stages of the Universe 738

18.4 Synthesis of the Elements in the Stars 741

18.4.1 Evolution of Stars 741

18.4.2 Evolution of the Earth 743

18.4.3 Thermonuclear Reaction Rates 744

18.4.4 Hydrogen Burning 746

18.4.5 Helium Burning 747

18.4.6 Synthesis of Nuclei with A < 60 748

18.4.7 Synthesis of Nuclei with A >60 748

18.4.7.1 The s- (Slow) Process 749

18.4.7.2 The r (Rapid) Process 749

18.4.7.3 The p (Proton) Process 753

18.5 The Solar Neutrino Problem 754

18.6 Absolute Neutrino Masses 762

18.6.1 m(νμ) from Pion Decay 763

18.6.2 m(ντ) from Tau Decay 763

18.6.3 m(νe) from Nuclear β-Decay 764

18.6.4 The Karlsruhe Tritium Experiment on the Neutrino Mass KATRIN 764

18.7 Interstellar Matter and Cosmic Radiation 765

18.7.1 Interstellar Matter 765

18.7.2 Cosmic Radiation 767

18.7.3 Radionuclides from Cosmic Rays 767

18.7.4 Cosmic-Ray Effects in Meteorites 768

18.7.5 Abundance of Li, Be, and B 769

References 769

Further Reading 770

19 Dating by Nuclear Methods 775

19.1 General Aspect 775

19.2 Cosmogenic Radionuclides 776

19.3 Terrestrial Mother/Daughter Nuclide Pairs 781

19.4 Natural Decay Series 783

19.5 Ratios of Stable Isotopes 786

19.6 Radioactive Disequilibria 788

19.7 Fission Tracks 788

References 789

Further Reading 790

20 Radioanalysis 793

20.1 General Aspects 793

20.2 Analysis on the Basis of Inherent Radioactivity 794

20.3 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) 796

20.4 Activation by Charged Particles 800

20.5 Activation by Photons 800

20.6 Special Features of Activation Analysis 802

20.7 Isotope Dilution Analysis 805

20.8 Radiometric Methods 807

20.9 Other Analytical Applications of Radiotracers 808

20.10 Absorption and Scattering of Radiation 809

20.11 Radionuclides as Radiation Sources in X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XFA) 810

20.12 Analysis with Ion Beams 811

20.13 Radioisotope Mass Spectrometry 815

20.13.1 Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) 815

20.13.2 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 820

20.13.3 Measurements of Ionization Potentials 824

References 830

Further Reading 832

21 Radionuclides in the Life Sciences 837

21.1 Survey 837

21.2 Application in Ecological Studies 838

21.3 Radioanalysis in the Life Sciences 838

21.4 Application in Physiological and Metabolic Studies 840

21.5 Radionuclides Used in Nuclear Medicine 841

21.6 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) 843

21.7 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 844

21.8 Labeled Compounds 844

References 850

Further Reading 851

22 Radionuclides in the Geosphere and the Biosphere 855

22.1 Sources of Radioactivity 855

22.2 Mobility of Radionuclides in the Geosphere 858

22.3 Reactions of Radionuclides with the Components of NaturalWaters 861

22.4 Interactions of Radionuclides with Solid Components of the Geosphere 865

22.5 Radionuclides in the Biosphere 873

22.6 Speciation Techniques with Relevance for Nuclear Safeguards, Verification, and Applications 878

22.6.1 Redox Reactions, Hydrolysis, and Colloid Formation of Pu(IV) 883

22.6.2 Investigation of the Homologs Th(IV) and Zr(IV) 888

22.6.3 Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence 895

22.7 Conclusions 899

References 900

Further Reading 902

23 Dosimetry and Radiation Protection 909

23.1 Dosimetry 909

23.2 External Radiation Sources 911

23.3 Internal Radiation Sources 912

23.4 Radiation Effects in Cell 915

23.4.1 BNCT 916

23.5 Radiation Effects in Humans, Animals, and Plants 921

23.6 Non-occupational Radiation Exposure 925

23.7 Safety Recommendations 925

23.8 Safety Regulations 928

23.9 Monitoring of the Environment 932

23.10 Geological Disposal of RadioactiveWaste 933

References 936

Further Reading 937

Index 941

Authors

Jens-Volker Kratz University of Mainz, Germany.