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3D Printing of Foods. Edition No. 1

  • Book
  • 576 Pages
  • April 2022
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 5513465
3D Printing of Foods <

Explore the fascinating realm of 3D food printing and its applications

In 3D Printing of Foods, a team of distinguished researchers delivers a comprehensive and eye-opening exploration of the rapidly developing field of 3D food printing. In the book, the authors offer readers an examination of “food printability,” the foundation of 3D food printing. They discuss the enormous research gap in the subject that remains to be addressed and envisage a robust discipline in which food processing techniques, combined with 3D food printing, gives rise to a range of synergistic applications.

In addition to treatments of safety challenges and research requirements, the book tackles food industry market trends and consumer preferences, as well as the globalization of printed foods and consumer perception of 3D printed foods. 3D Printing of Foods also explores the integration of electrohydrodynamic processes and encapsulation with 3D food printing.

Readers will also find: - Thorough introductions to 3D printing technology, 3D printing approaches, and food components and their printability - In-depth examinations of the factors affecting the printability of foods, printability and techniques, and natively printable foods - Practical discussions of pre-processing of non-printable foods and alternative ingredients used in food printing - Comprehensive explorations of 4D printing technology and the applications of 3D food printing technology

Perfect for 3D printing professionals and enthusiasts, as well as food scientists, 3D Printing of Foods is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in a one-stop resource addressing this cutting-edge technology with nearly limitless potential.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv

1 Introduction to 3D Printing Technology 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Digital Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Rapid Manufacturing 3

1.3 Milestones in 3D Printing Technology 4

1.4 Different Historical Eras in 3D Printing 5

1.4.1 Ancient Age 5

1.4.2 Middle Age 5

1.4.3 Modern Age 5

1.5 Prospects of 3D Food Printing 6

1.6 Design Considerations of 3D Printer 7

1.6.1 Printer Configurations 7

1.6.2 Components of a Typical 3D Printer 10

1.6.2.1 Enclosure, Build Plate, and Guide Rails 10

1.6.2.2 Mechanical Drive Systems 12

1.6.2.3 Microprocessor Controlling System 12

1.7 Software Requirements and Hardware Integration 13

1.8 Designing, Digital Imaging, and Modelling 16

1.8.1 Image Acquisition, Processing, and Modelling 16

1.8.2 Repairing and Post-Processing 20

1.9 Food Printing Platforms 21

1.9.1 Universal Platform 21

1.9.2 User-Defined Platform 21

1.9.3 Applicability of User Interface Systems 23

1.10 Comparison Between Food 3D Printing and Robotic Food Manufacturing 23

1.11 Conclusion 24

References 24

2 3D Printing Approaches 28

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Additive Manufacturing 30

2.3 3D Food Printing Technologies 33

2.4 Extrusion-Based Printing 35

2.4.1 Working Principle, System Components, and Process Variables 35

2.4.2 Classification of the Extrusion-Based 3D Printing System 39

2.4.2.1 Hot-Melt Extrusion 39

2.4.2.2 Cold Extrusion 41

2.4.2.3 Hydrogel-Forming Extrusion 42

2.5 Selective Sintering 44

2.5.1 Working Principle, System Components, and Process Variables 45

2.5.2 Classification of Selective Sintering System 46

2.5.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering 46

2.5.2.2 Selective Hot Air Sintering and Melting 47

2.6 Inkjet Printing 47

2.6.1 Working Principle, System Components, and Process Variables 48

2.6.2 Classification of Inkjet Printing 49

2.6.2.1 Drop-On-Demand Inkjet Printing 49

2.6.2.2 Continuous Inkjet Printing 50

2.7 Binder Jetting 50

2.7.1 Working Principle, System Components, and Process Variables 51

2.7.2 Classification of Binder Jetting 52

2.8 Bio-Printing 53

2.8.1 Working Principle, System Components, and Process Variables 54

2.8.2 Classification of Bioprinting 55

2.8.2.1 Extrusion-Based Bioprinting 55

2.8.2.2 Droplet-Based Bioprinting 56

2.8.2.3 Photocuring-Based Bioprinting 57

2.9 Future Prospects and Challenges 57

2.10 Conclusion 58

References 59

3 Food Components and Their Role in Printability 67

3.1 Recipes in ‘Print and Eat Technology’ 67

3.2 Role of Food Constituents 68

3.3 Panorama of Food Printing 68

3.4 Insights on the Printability of Different Food Constituents 69

3.4.1 Carbohydrates and Starch 69

3.4.2 Proteins and Amino Acids 71

3.4.3 Lipids and Fatty Acids 73

3.4.4 Dietary Fibre 75

3.4.5 Other Additives 77

3.5 Classification of Foods Based on Their Printability 79

3.6 Conclusion 79

References 80

4 Factors Affecting the Printability of Foods 83

4.1 Introduction 84

4.2 Factors That Affect Extrusion 3D Printing 85

4.3 Intrinsic Properties 85

4.3.1 Physical Properties 85

4.3.2 Rheological Properties 88

4.3.2.1 Steady Shear Rheology 89

4.3.2.2 Dynamic Shear Rheology 92

4.3.2.3 Yield Stress 95

4.3.2.4 Complex Viscosity 97

4.3.2.5 Thixotropy and Creep Recovery 98

4.3.2.6 Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Rheology 100

4.3.3 Mechanical Properties 101

4.3.3.1 Extrusion Assay 101

4.3.3.2 Textural Profile Analysis 102

4.3.4 Frictional Properties 105

4.3.5 Thermal Properties 107

4.3.6 Dielectric Properties 109

4.4 Extrinsic Properties 111

4.4.1 Optimization of Material Supply 111

4.4.2 Optimization of 3D Printing Process Variables 113

4.4.2.1 Nozzle Size and Nozzle Height 113

4.4.2.2 Printing Speed 115

4.4.2.3 Extrusion Rate 116

4.4.2.4 Printing Rate 118

4.4.2.5 Infill Percentage and Infill Pattern 121

4.4.2.6 Extruder Offset and Retraction Length 123

4.5 Factors Affecting Other 3D Printing Technologies 126

4.5.1 Selective Laser Sintering 126

4.5.2 Inkjet Printing and Binder Jetting 127

4.6 Conclusion 129

References 130

5 Printability and Techniques 138

5.1 Introduction 139

5.2 Printability and Material Characteristics 140

5.3 Material Characterization Techniques 141

5.3.1 Structural Imaging 142

5.3.1.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy 142

5.3.1.2 X-ray Microtomography 145

5.3.1.3 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy 149

5.3.2 Crystal Morphology 153

5.3.2.1 X-ray Diffraction 153

5.3.2.2 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering 156

5.3.3 Molecular and Chemical Analysis 159

5.3.3.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging 159

5.3.3.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 162

5.3.4 Thermal Analysis 164

5.3.4.1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry 164

5.4 Assessment of Printability 166

5.4.1 Line Test 166

5.4.2 Lattice Test 168

5.4.3 Cylinder Test 168

5.4.4 Extrusion Test 168

5.4.5 Assessment of the Dimensional Stability 170

5.4.6 Assessment of the Handling Properties 176

5.5 Printability Evaluation of 3D Printed Constructs 176

5.5.1 Shape Resemblance 176

5.5.2 Printing Percentage 177

5.5.3 Dimensional Deviation and Appearance 177

5.5.4 Dimensional Stability 179

5.5.5 Ternary Representation of Printability 179

5.5.6 Correlation of Printability and Rheology 179

5.5.7 Rational Approach for Printability 181

5.6 Conclusion 182

References 182

6 Natively Printable Foods 190

6.1 Introduction 190

6.2 Natively Printable Materials as Basic Food 3D Printing Formulations 191

6.3 Printability: Concepts and Underlying Mechanisms 192

6.4 Types of Natively Printable Materials 194

6.4.1 Cereal-Based Material Supplies 195

6.4.2 Sugar-Based Material Supplies 206

6.4.3 Gel-Based Food Systems 209

6.5 Insights and Scope for Commercialization 214

6.6 Concluding Remarks 215

References 215

7 Pre-Processing of Non-Printable Foods 221

7.1 Introduction 221

7.2 Natively Non-Printable Materials 222

7.2.1 Traditional Foods: What Makes Them ‘Non-Printable’? 223

7.2.2 Role of Food Hydrocolloids in Improving Printability 224

7.2.3 Role of Other Additives 229

7.3 Pre-Processing and Formulations for 3D Printing 230

7.3.1 Plant-Based Cellular Foods 230

7.3.2 Animal-Based Cellular Foods 235

7.4 Post-Printing Stability of the Printed 3D Constructs 237

7.5 Scope of Non-Printable Materials for 3D Printing Applications 239

7.6 Conclusion 240

References 241

8 Alternative Ingredients Used in Food Printing 247

8.1 Introduction 247

8.2 Alternative Food Sources and the Sustainability Perspective 248

8.3 Rationale of Alternative Material Supplies 250

8.4 Innovative Food Sources 252

8.4.1 Uncommon Food Sources 252

8.4.2 Unexplored Food Sources 254

8.4.3 Under-Utilized Food Sources 255

8.5 3D Printing of Alternative Ingredients 256

8.5.1 Insects as Food 257

8.5.2 Microorganisms as Food 258

8.5.3 By-products of Fruits and Vegetables Processing 260

8.5.4 Others 261

8.6 Future Trends and Perspectives 263

8.7 Challenges and Limitations 263

8.8 Conclusion 264

References 265

9 Post-Processing of 3D Printed Foods 273

9.1 Introduction 273

9.2 Material Supply Requirements for Food 3D Printing 274

9.3 Post-Processing Methods 277

9.3.1 Drying 277

9.3.2 Frying 279

9.3.3 Baking 280

9.3.4 Microwave Cooking 282

9.3.5 Sous Vide Cooking 285

9.3.6 Low-Temperature Processing 286

9.3.7 Other Post-Processing Methods 286

9.4 Novel Post-Processing Methods 289

9.5 Assessment of Post-Processing Characteristics 293

9.6 Sensorial Characterization 297

9.6.1 Qualitative Analyses 297

9.6.2 Quantitative Analyses 300

9.7 Requisites, Challenges, and Future Trends 301

9.8 Conclusion 303

References 304

10 4D Printing Technology 310

10.1 Introduction 311

10.2 4D Printing: Concept and Functionality 312

10.3 Smart Materials for 4D Printing 316

10.3.1 Shape Memory Alloys 316

10.3.2 Shape Memory Polymers 317

10.3.3 Shape Memory Composites 318

10.4 Mechanism of Shape Memory Polymers 319

10.5 Shape Memory Effect in 4D Printing 319

10.5.1 One-Way SME 321

10.5.2 Two-Way SME 322

10.5.3 Three-Way SME 322

10.6 Stimuli-Responsive Systems 323

10.6.1 Thermo-Responsive 323

10.6.2 Moisture-Responsive 323

10.6.3 Photo-Responsive 324

10.6.4 Electro-Responsive 324

10.6.5 Magneto-Responsive 324

10.7 Programming Strategies 325

10.7.1 Bending Strategy 326

10.7.1.1 Multilayer Approach 326

10.7.1.2 Material Gradients 329

10.7.1.3 Localized Activation 330

10.7.2 Buckling Strategy 331

10.7.2.1 Material Tessellation 331

10.7.2.2 In-Plane Material Gradients 332

10.7.2.3 Non-Homogenous Exposure 332

10.7.2.4 Mechanically Induced Buckling 333

10.7.3 Sequential Shape-Shifting 333

10.8 Spontaneous Transformation in Foods 334

10.9 Recent Advancements in 4D Food Printing 336

10.9.1 pH-Triggered Colour Transformation 336

10.9.2 Dehydration-Triggered Colour and Flavour Transformation 339

10.9.3 Dehydration-Triggered Shape Transformation 343

10.9.4 Temperature-Triggered Shape Transformation 345

10.10 Future Trends and Challenges 345

10.11 Conclusion 347

References 348

11 Applications of Food 3D Printing Technology 355

11.1 Introduction 355

11.2 Applications of 3D Food Printing 358

11.2.1 Food Customization 358

11.2.2 Personalized Foods and Digitalized Nutrition Control 361

11.2.3 Delivery of Specific Foods with Unique Functionality 364

11.2.4 Food Model Prototyping 366

11.2.5 Sustainable Approach for Conversion of Waste into Wealth 367

11.2.6 Food Packaging Designs 370

11.3 Future Outlook of 3D Food Printing 372

11.3.1 Healthy Dietary Practice 372

11.3.2 Complementing Existing Food Processing Practices 373

11.3.3 Kitchens with Food 3D Printers? 375

11.4 Conclusion 376

References 377

12 Integrating Encapsulation Technique with 3D Food Printing 384

12.1 Introduction 384

12.2 Integration of 3D Printing and Encapsulation 386

12.2.1 Encapsulation Followed by 3D Printing 388

12.2.2 Simultaneous Encapsulation and 3D Printing 392

12.3 Structure Modified Delivery Systems 394

12.3.1 Micro and Nano Emulsions 395

12.3.2 Lipid-Based Delivery Systems 396

12.3.3 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles 397

12.3.4 Nanoliposomes 398

12.3.5 Nanostructured Lipid Carriers 399

12.4 Techniques and Methods for Micro and Nanoencapsulation 400

12.4.1 Polymer-Lipid Based Encapsulation Techniques 401

12.4.1.1 Nanoprecipitation 401

12.4.1.2 Emulsification-Solvent Evaporation 401

12.4.1.3 Inclusion Complexation 402

12.4.1.4 Coacervation 404

12.4.1.5 Supercritical Fluid Technique 405

12.4.1.6 Fluid Bed Coating 406

12.4.2 Drying Techniques for Micro and Nanoencapsulation 408

12.4.2.1 Spray Drying 409

12.4.2.2 Freeze-Drying 415

12.4.2.3 Spray-Freeze-Drying 417

12.4.2.4 Conductive-Hydro Drying 420

12.5 Future Outlook and Prospects of Synergistic Approaches 422

12.6 Barriers and Research Constraints 424

12.7 Conclusion 426

References 426

13 Integrating Electrohydrodynamic Processes with Food 3D Printing 435

13.1 Introduction 435

13.2 Encapsulation Techniques Involving Electrohydrodynamic Process 436

13.2.1 System Components and Process Parameters 437

13.2.2 Encapsulation via Electrospraying 440

13.2.3 Encapsulation via Electrospinning 442

13.3 Applications in the Food Industry 445

13.3.1 Encapsulation of Bioactives and Probiotics 445

13.3.2 Enzyme Immobilization 448

13.3.3 Functional Food Packages 451

13.3.4 Food Coatings 454

13.4 Integrating 3D Printing with Electrospraying/ Electrospinning 458

13.5 Future Perspectives and Challenges 461

13.6 Conclusion 462

References 463

14 Globalization of Printed Foods and Consumer Perception to 3D Printed Foods 468

14.1 Introduction 468

14.2 Circular Economy in Food Printing 470

14.3 Globalization of Food 3D Printing Technology 471

14.4 New Horizons of 3D Food Printing 473

14.4.1 Strategic Market Foresight 474

14.4.2 Strategic Shifts and Economic Paradigms 475

14.4.3 Decentralization and Localization of Production 476

14.4.4 Role of Industry 4.0 477

14.5 3D Food Printing - A Classic Disruptive Technology 479

14.5.1 Food Choice and Consumer Behaviour 479

14.5.2 On Production Patterns 481

14.5.3 Sustainability and Value Addition 482

14.5.4 Anti-Counterfeiting and Food Authentication 483

14.6 Technological Barriers and Challenges 485

14.7 Conclusion 486

References 487

15 Food Industry Market Trends and Consumer Preferences 493

15.1 Introduction 494

15.2 Food Service Market: Consumption to Prosumption 495

15.3 Food Decisions and Consumer Attitude 497

15.3.1 Food Neophobia vs Food Neophilia 498

15.3.2 Food Choice Motives 500

15.3.3 Sensorial and Sustainable Claims 501

15.4 Approaches and Methods to Assess Consumer Perception 503

15.4.1 Theoretical Approaches 504

15.4.1.1 Quantitative Methods 504

15.4.1.2 Means-end Chain Theory 504

15.4.1.3 Social Science Models 505

15.4.1.4 Economic Models 505

15.4.2 Experimental Approaches 505

15.4.2.1 Surveys 505

15.4.2.2 Conjoint Analysis and Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis 506

15.4.2.3 Heuristics 506

15.5 Consumer’s Acceptance of Novel Foods 506

15.5.1 Genetically Modified Foods and 3D Printing 508

15.5.2 Food Irradiation and 3D Printing 508

15.5.3 Nanotechnology and 3D Printing 510

15.5.4 Stem Cell Technology and 3D Printing 511

15.5.4.1 In-Vitro Cultured Meat and 3D Printing 511

15.5.5 Miscellaneous Technologies 511

15.5.5.1 Alternative Proteins and 3D Printing 511

15.5.5.2 Meat Analogues and 3D Printing 512

15.5.6 Presumption and Outcomes of Novel Food Technologies 513

15.6 Intervention Tools for Enhancing Consumer Knowledge 513

15.6.1 Business Schemes and Public Policies 514

15.6.2 Social Media and Communication 514

15.6.3 Academia and Scientific Events 515

15.6.4 Internet and e-commerce 515

15.7 Trends, Advancements, and Future Directions 516

15.8 Conclusion 518

References 519

16 Safety, Challenges, and Research Needs 525

16.1 Introduction 525

16.2 Implications of Food Printing 527

16.3 Applicability and Storability 532

16.4 Food Safety Considerations 533

16.4.1 Process and Product Safety 534

16.4.1.1 Nature of Raw Materials 534

16.4.1.2 Processing and Design Factors 535

16.4.1.3 Finished Product Safety 536

16.4.1.4 Working Premises and Personnel Safety 536

16.4.2 Acceptance of 3D Printed Foods 537

16.4.2.1 Food Poisoning, Food Allergy, and Cross-Contamination 538

16.4.2.2 Long-Term Health Effects and Illness 539

16.5 Legal Framework and Regulations 539

16.5.1 Packed 3D Printed Foods for Mass Population 541

16.5.2 Unpacked 3D Printed Foods at Restaurants and Domestic Kitchen 543

16.6 Challenges and Research Needs 543

16.7 Conclusion 544

References 544

Index 549

Authors

C. Anandharamakrishnan Jeyan A. Moses T. Anukiruthika