Thermoset Nanocomposites for Engineering Applications

  • ID: 561989
  • Book
  • 325 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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Thermoset nanocomposites are complex hybrid materials which integrate nanoparticles with polymers to produce a novel nanostructure, with extraordinary properties. Organic/inorganic hybrids are some of the most challenging nanostructures investigated to date. What differentiates nanocomposite materials from classical composites is the degree of control of fabrication, processing and performance, that can be achieved down to a very small scale.
Thermoset polymer nanocomposites have received less interest in their scientific development and engineering applications than thermoplastic nanocomposites. However, some of these materials may be relatively easy to bring into production. The understanding of characteristics of the interphase region and the estimation of technology-structure-property relationships are the current research frontier in nanocomposite materials.

This book summarise's the experimental results of work on thermoset nanocomposites obtained from the collaboration of three research groups from Bulgaria, Greece and Italy, and analyse's some of results reported in the literature. The engineering resin nanocomposites are restricted to the most commonly used thermosets, such as epoxy resins, unsaturated polyesters, acrylic resins, and so on. Various nanoparticles have been found to be useful for nanocomposite preparation with thermosetting polymers, along with smectite clay, diamond, graphite, alumina and ferroxides.

Thermoset nanocomposites represent a new technology solution. These new formulations benefit from improved dimensional/thermal stability, flame retardancy and chemical resistance; and have potential applications in marine, industrial and construction markets.

This book helps to answer questions related to the design of nanocomposites by controlling the processing technology and structure. The book is addressed not only to researchers and engineers who actively work in the broad field of nanocomposite technology, but also to newcomers and students who have just started investigations in this multidisciplinary field of material science.
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Preface
Contributors
About the Authors

1. Introduction
1.1 Why Nanocomposites?
1.2 Structure Formation in Filled Polymers
1.3 Generation of Nanocomposite by Nanophase Dispersed in Polymer
1.4 Thermoset Nanocomposite Technology
1.4.1 In Situ Polymerisation
1.4.2 Epoxy Resin Nanocomposites
1.4.3 Nanocomposites Based on Unsaturated Polyester
1.4.4 Thermoset Polyimide/Clay Nanocomposites
1.4.5 Others
1.4.6 Real Formulations and Problems

2. Rheological Approach to Nanocomposite Design
2.1 Rheology of Polymer Nanocomposites – An Overview
2.2 Effects of Polymer/Nanofiller Structures
2.3 Rheological Methods for Nanocomposite Characterisation
2.3.1 Rheology as a Tool for Control of Nanocomposites
2.3.2 Control of the Degree of Nanofiller Dispersion
2.3.3 Characterisation of the Superstructure of Nanocomposites
2.3.4 Effects of Nanofiller on Relaxation Behaviour
2.3.5 Summary
2.4 Advantages of Rheological Methods for Thermoset Nanocomposite Technology
2.4.1 Preparation and Characterisation of Nanofiller/Resin Hybrids
2.4.2 Rheological Control of Smectite/Epoxy Hybrids
2.4.3 Rheological Control of Hybrids with Carbon Nanofillers
2.4.4 Rheological Control of Hybrids with Nanoscale Alumina
2.5 Rheological Approach to Prognostic Design of Nanocomposites
2.5.1 Structure–Property Relationships
2.5.2 Prognostic Design in Relation to Percolation Mechanism

3. Formation of Thermoset Nanocomposites
3.1 Fundamental Principles of Thermoset Nanocomposite Formation
3.1.1 The Role of Curing Agent and Organic Modifier
3.1.2 Kinetics of Formation of Smectite/Epoxy Nanocomposites
3.1.3 Effects of Solvent
3.2 Cooperative Motion at the Glass Transition Affected by Nanofiller
3.2.1 Smectite/Epoxy Nanocomposites
3.2.2 Graphite- and Diamond-Containing Epoxy Nanocomposites
3.3 Conclusions

4. Structure and Morphology of Epoxy Nanocomposites With Clay, Carbon and Diamond
4.1 Introduction
4.2 General Outline
4.3 Epoxy Nanocomposites with Clay, Carbon and Diamond
4.4 Materials
4.5Procedures and Techniques
4.5.1 Structural and Morphological Analysis
4.5.2 Thermal Analysis
4.5.3 Analysis of Flammability Properties
4.6 Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites (ECN)
4.6.1 Preparation
4.6.2 Results
4.7 Hybrid Epoxy/Clay/Carbon or Diamond Nanosystems
4.7.1 Preparation
4.7.2 Results
4.8 Nanocomposite Blends Based on iPP
4.8.1 Preparation
4.9 Results and Discussion
4.9.1 Structure and Morphology
4.9.2 Thermal Analysis
4.9.3 Analysis of Flammability and Tensile Properties
4.10 Conclusion

5. Molecular Dynamics of Thermoset Nanocomposites
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Dielectric Techniques for Molecular Dynamics Studies
5.2.1 Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy
5.2.2 Thermally Stimulated Depolarisation Currents Techniques
5.2.3 Impedance Spectroscopy and Ionic Conductivity Measurements
5.3 Overall Behaviour
5.3.1 Epoxy Resin/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
5.3.2 Epoxy Resin Reinforced With Diamond and Magnetic Nanoparticles
5.3.3 Epoxy Resin/Carbon Nanocomposites
5.3.4 Polyimide/Silica Nanocomposites
5.4 Secondary (Local) Relaxations
5.4.1 Epoxy Resin Reinforced With Diamond and Magnetic Nanoparticles
5.4.2 Epoxy Resin/Carbon Nanocomposites
5.4.3 Polyimide/Silica Nanocomposites
5.5 Primary ? Relaxation and Glass Transition
5.5.1 Epoxy Resin/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
5.5.2 Epoxy Resin Reinforced With Diamond and Magnetic Nanoparticles
5.5.3 Epoxy Resin/Carbon Nanocomposites
5.5.4 Polydimethylsiloxane/Silica Nanocomposites
5.6 Conductivity and Conductivity Effects
5.6.1 Epoxy Resin/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites
5.6.2 Epoxy Resin Reinforced With Diamond and Magnetic Nanoparticles
5.6.3 Epoxy Resin/Carbon Nanocomposites
5.7 Conclusions

6. Performance of Thermoset Nanocomposites
6.1 Mechanical Properties
6.1.1 Viscoelastic Properties – Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis
6.1.2 Stiffness, Toughness and Elasticity
6.1.3 Tensile Properties
6.1.4 Flexural Properties of Clay-Containing Thermoset Nanocomposites
6.1.5 Flexural Properties of Thermosets Incorporating Nanoparticles
6.1.6 Impact Properties
6.1.7 Reinforcement in Relation to Percolation Mechanism
6.2 Thermal Properties
6.2.1 Enhanced Thermal Stability
6.2.2 Flammability Resistance
6.2.3 Shrinkage Control and Formability
6.2.4 Thermal Conductivity
6.3 High Protective and Barrier Properties
6.3.1 Wear Resistance
6.3.2 Permeability Control
6.3.3 Water, Solvent and Corrosion Resistance

7. Design Physical Properties of Thermoset Nanocomposites
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Carbon/Thermoset Nanocomposites
7.2.1 Experimental
7.2.2 Rheological Optimisation of Dispersions
7.2.3 Electrical Conductivity of Crosslinked Nanocomposites
7.2.4 Microwave Absorption
7.2.5 Correlation of Rheological and Physical Characteristics
7.3 Nanoscale Binary Fillers of Carbon and Ferroxides in Thermosetting Polymers
7.3.1 Materials Characterisation
7.3.2 Packing Density of Dispersions
7.3.3 Effect of Polydispersity on Rheology of Binary Dispersions
7.3.4 Effect of Ferromagnetic Fillers on Polymeric Structure
7.3.5 Synergy of Properties

Abbreviations
Index
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