Analyzing Algae as a Source of Fuel

  • ID: 655277
  • Report
  • 215 Pages
  • Aruvian's R'search
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  • A2BE Carbon Capture
  • Aurora Biofuels
  • Dao Energy, LLC
  • GS CleanTech
  • Inventure Chemical
  • Sapphire Energy
  • MORE
Algae fuel or algal biofuel is an alternative to fossil fuel that uses algae as its source of natural deposits. The allure of using algae to power the world’s vehicles has been at the heart of many business plans over the years. However, 2013 could represent a pivotal year for some of the algae fuel leaders that have spent years raising funding, building pilot projects, and selling their algae into niche markets like as an ingredient in high-end face lotions. One of the companies which is the farthest along is Solazyme, a South San Francisco-based company that went public in the spring of 2011. Solazyme was one of the first firms to focus on the alternative chemicals and personal care markets, developing a small but steady revenue stream as it braced itself for the difficulty of churning out its algae oil at a scale and cost that can compete with oil for transportation.

Algae production has the potential to outperform other potential biodiesel products such as palm or corn. For example, a 100-acre algae biodiesel plant could potentially produce 10 million gallons of biodiesel in a single year. Experts estimate it will take 140 billion gallons of algae biodiesel to replace petroleum-based products each year. To reach this goal, algae biodiesel companies will only need about 95 million acres of land to build biodiesel plants, compared to billions of acres for other biodiesel products. Since algae can be grown anywhere indoors, it's a promising element in the race to produce a new fuel. However, finding a market for biodiesel is another issue. If algae-based transportation fuels were offered at service stations today, the cost would be quite expensive making it a less attractive option than petroleum fuels.

The possibilities of algae as an all-inclusive biofuel are literally infinite. Whereas most other biofuels must be slowly developed, and can only be harvested at particular times of the year, algae can double in volume overnight and can be harvested day after day. They also utilize carbon dioxide and are nearly 50% oil (whereas palms are only about 20%).

its research report Analyzing Algae as a Source of Fuel – which covers the huge potential of Algae to serve as fuel for the energy-hungry world we live in. The report explores the technologies involved in the process of converting algae into biofuel, the advantages and disadvantages of algae, the challenges facing the industry in commercializing this technology and much more. A section on algae and carbon capture along with the scenarios of regulated versus unregulated carbon marketplace is further included in this research report.

The report also takes a look at the potential competition that algal development faces in this particular field, that is, from petroleum, unconventional fossil fuels, and other biofuels.

A profile of the leading players in this emerging field who are making waves in technological developments is included in the report. Also of interest are three case studies – one on using algae as jet fuel in the future; one of the Maalaea Power Plant based in Hawaii and how it is deriving power from algae; and one on the relationship between algae and coal.

Basic information about algae is also provided in the report.
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  • A2BE Carbon Capture
  • Aurora Biofuels
  • Dao Energy, LLC
  • GS CleanTech
  • Inventure Chemical
  • Sapphire Energy
  • MORE
A. Executive Summary

B. The World of Algae
B.1 Introduction to Algae
B.2 Ecology
B.3 Classifying Algae
B.3.1 Primoplantae/Archaeplastida
B.3.2 Excavata and Rhizaria
B.3.3 Chromista and Alveolata
B.4 Forms of Algae
B.5 Algae in Symbiotic Relations
B.6 Life-cycle of Algae
B.7 Algae Production Methods
B.8 Looking at Terrestrial versus Aquatic Biomass
B.9 State of the Industry
B.10 Algal Fuel Crop Candidates
B.11 Revival of Algae
B.12 Requirements for Algal Cultivation
B.13 Challenges Relating to Plant Physiology, Metabolism, & Behavior
B.14 Fuels from Algae
B.14.1 Biodiesel
B.14.2 Biobutanol
B.14.3 Biogasoline
B.14.4 Methane
B.14.5 Straight Vegetable Oil
B.14.6 Traditional Transport Fuels
B.14.7 Jet Fuel

C. Various Uses of Algae
C.1 Usage as Fertilizer
C.2 Usage as an Energy Source
C.3 Controlling Pollution with Algae
C.4 Algae as Nutrition
C.5 Other Uses

D. Looking at Basic Biological Hydrogen Production by Algae
D.1 Introduction
D.2 History of Algaculture
D.3 Timeline of Developments
D.4 History of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
D.5 Technological Evolution
D.6 Design Issues related to the Bioreactor
D.7 Principle of Biohydrogen Production from Algae
D.8 Applications
D.9 Ongoing Research & Economics of Biological Hydrogen Production
D.10 Improving the Process by Adding Copper

E. Algae & Humans

F. Applications of Algae for Transport & Power Generation

G. Producing Fuel from Algae
G.1 Introduction
G.2 Basics of Fuel Production from Algae
G.3 Production Strategies and Technologies
G.3.1 Production Infrastructure
G.4 Products & Co-products
G.4.1 Biodiesel
G.4.2 Ethanol from Algal Biomass
G.4.3 Hydrocarbons
G.4.4 Mixed Alcohols
G.4.5 Co-products
G.6 Advantages of Algae-based Fuel Production
G.6.1 Challenges Facing the Industry
G.6.2 Emerging Players in the Market
G.6.3 Methods to Improve Yield

H. Looking at the Technology Involved
H.1 Looking at the Biological Concepts
H.2 Producing the Algae
H.3 Options for Fuel Production
H.4 Producing Biodiesel from Algae
H.5 Producing Ethanol from Algae
H.6 Producing Hydrocarbons from Algae
H.7 Algal Oil Extraction
H.8 Types of Biofuel Produced

I. Integrated Biodiesel Production for Microalgae
I.1 Environmental Problems

J. Production of Microalgal Biomass

K. Direct Liquefaction of Algae for Biodiesel Production

L. Algae & Carbon Capture
L.1 Overview
L.2 Looking at the Unregulated Carbon Marketplace
L.3 Looking at the Regulated Carbon Marketplace
L.4 Development of Carbon Networks

M. Analyzing Algal Fuel in the United States

N. Why Use Microalgae – Benefits for the United States
N.1 Introduction
N.2 Energy Security
N.3 Dealing with Climate Change
N.4 Coal & Microalgae
N.5 No Requirement for Land

O. Competition for Algae
O.1 Petroleum
O.2 Other Competitors
O.2.1 Unconventional Fossil Fuels
O.2.2 Other Biofuels

P. Are Algae Biofuels the Future?
P.1 Introduction
P.2 Looking at Global Biodiesel Production
P.3 R&D into Algal-Oil Production for Biodiesel Purposes
P.4 Sequestration of CO2 through Algae Cultivation Plants
P.5 Challenges Facing Conventional Biodiesel Production
P.6 Conclusion

Q. Analyzing the Economics of Producing Microalgae & Biodiesel Processing
Q.1 Introduction
Q.2 Looking at Microalgae
Q.3 R&D on the Usage of Microalgae
Q.4 Cultivating Microalgae as a Business
Q.5 Conclusion

R. Fuel from Algae – At What Cost?

S. Case Study: Deriving Jet Fuel from Algal Lipids

T. Case Study: Coal & Microalgae

U. Case Study: Algae Driving the Maalaea Power Plant

V. Case Study: Algae-fuelled Car in Cross-Country Race

W. Commercialization Outlook for Algae

X. Leading Industry Contributors
X.1 FuelBio
X.2 AlgaeLink
X.3 AlgoDyne Ethanol Energy Corporation
X.4 A2BE Carbon Capture
X.5 Algae Fuel Systems
X.6 Algae Floating Systems Inc
X.7 Algaewheel
X.8 Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
X.9 Aurora Biofuels
X.10 Bio Fuel Systems
X.11 Blue Marble Energy
X.12 Cellana
X.13 Dao Energy, LLC
X.14 Diversified Energy Corporation
X.15 Global Green Solutions
X.16 GreenerBioEnergy Corporation
X.17 GreenFuel Technologies Corporation
X.18 GS CleanTech
X.19 GreenFuel Technologies
X.20 Imperium Renewables
X.21 Inventure Chemical
X.22 International Energy, Inc
X.23 Live Fuels Inc
X.24 PetroAlgae
X.25 PetroSun
X.26 Sapphire Energy
X.27 Seambiotic
X.28 Solazyme
X.29 Solix Biofuels
X.30 Solena Group
X.31 Infinifuel
X.32 Valcent Products Inc
X.33 Virgin Green Fund

Y. Appendix

Z. Glossary of Terms
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AlgoDyne Ethanol Energy Corporation
A2BE Carbon Capture
Algae Fuel Systems
Algae Floating Systems Inc
Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation
Aurora Biofuels
Bio Fuel Systems
Blue Marble Energy
Dao Energy, LLC
Diversified Energy Corporation
Global Green Solutions
GreenerBioEnergy Corporation
GreenFuel Technologies Corporation
GS CleanTech
GreenFuel Technologies
Imperium Renewables
Inventure Chemical
International Energy, Inc
Live Fuels Inc
Sapphire Energy
Solix Biofuels
Solena Group
Valcent Products Inc
Virgin Green Fund
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown