Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

  • ID: 683228
  • Book
  • 710 Pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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Updated and improved, Stress Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials, Hyer's work remains the definitive introduction to the use of mechanics to understand stresses in composites caused by deformations, loading, and temperature changes. In contrast to a materials science approach, Hyer emphasizes the micromechanics of stress and deformation for composite material analysis. The book provides invaluable analytic tools for students and engineers seeking to understand composite properties and failure limits.

A key feature is a series of analytic problems continuing throughout the text, starting from relatively simple problems, which are built up step-by-step with accompanying calculations. The problem series uses the same material properties, so the impact of the elastic and thermal expansion properties for a single-layer of FR material on the stress, strains, elastic properties, thermal expansion and failure stress of cross-ply and angle-ply symmetric and unsymmetric laminates can be evaluated. The book shows how thermally induced stresses and strains due to curing, add to or subtract from those due to applied loads. Another important element, and one unique to this book, is an emphasis on the difference between specifying the applied loads, i.e., force and moment results, often the case in practice, versus specifying strains and curvatures and determining the subsequent stresses and force and moment results. This represents a fundamental distinction in solid mechanics.

Highlights:

- Mechanics of composites for all aspects of stress, deformation, loading
- Special section on thermal stresses caused by curing
- Dozens of key calculations, ready for computer programming in Fortran
- Series of sample problems continued throughout the text
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Preface to the Updated Version

Preface to the Original Edition

1. Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

- Background and Brief Overview
- Utilizing the Strength of Fibers
- Laminae and Laminates
- Fibers
- Matrices
- Fiber Surface Treatments
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

2. Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Material

- Stress and Deformations in Fiber-Reinforced Materials
- Maxwell-Betti Reciprocal Theorem
- Relationships among Material Properties
- Typical Material Properties
- Important Interpretation of Stress-Strain Relations
- Free Thermal Strains
- Stress-Strain Relations, Including the Effects of Free Thermal Strains
- Stress-Strain Relations, Including the Effects of Free Moisture Strains
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

3. Prediction of Engineering Properties Using Micromechanics

- Background
- Finite-Element Results: Square- and Hexagonal-Packed Array Models
- Theory of Elasticity Results: Concentric Cylinders Model
- Strength-of-Materials Results
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

4. The Plane-Stress Assumption

- Stress-Strain Relations for Plane Stress
- Important Interpretation of Stress-Strain Relations Revisited
- Numerical Results for the Plane-Stress Condition
- Plane-Stress Stress-Strain Relations and the Effects of Free Thermal and Free Moisture Strains
- Suggested Readings

5. Plane-Stress Stress-Strain Relations in a Global Coordinate System

- Transformation Relations
- Transformed Reduced Compliances
- Transformed Reduced Stiffnesses
- Engineering Properties in a Global Coordinate System
- Coefficients of Mutual Influence
- Free Thermal and Free Moisture Strains
- Effects of Free Thermal and Free Moisture Strains
- Summary

6. Classical Lamination Theory: The Kirchhoff Hypothesis

- Laminate Nomenclature
- Laminate Strains and Displacements: The Kirchhoff Hypothesis
- Implications of the Kirchhoff Hypothesis
- Laminate Strains
- Laminate Stresses
- Stress Distributions through the Thickness
- Force and Moment Resultants
- Further Examples
· Suggested Readings

7. Classical Lamination Theory: Laminate Stiffness Matrix

- Formal Definition of Force and Moment Resultants
- Laminate Stiffness: The ABD Matrix
- Classification of Laminates and Their Effect on the ABD Matrix
- Reference Surface Strains and Curvatures of Example Laminates
- Comments
- Elastic Couplings
- Effective Engineering Properties of a Laminate
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

8. Classical Lamination Theory: Additional Examples

- CLT Example 6: [0/90]S Laminate Subjected to Known Nx—Counterpart to CLT Example 1
- CLT Example 7: [±30/0]S Laminate Subjected to Known Nx—Counterpart to CLT Example 3
- CLT Example 8: [±30/0]S Laminate Subjected to Known Mx—Counterpart to CLT Example 4
- Summary

9. Failure Theories for Fiber-Reinforced Materials: Maximum Stress Criterion

- Maximum Stress Failure Criterion
- Failure Example 1: Tube with Axial Load—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Failure Example 2: Tube in Torsion—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Failure Example 3: Tube with Combined Load—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Failure Example 4: [0/90]S Laminate Subjected to Nx—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Failure Example 5: [±30/0]S Laminate Subjected to Nx—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Failure Example 6: [±30/0]S Laminate Subjected to Mx—Maximum Stress Criterion
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

10. Failure Theories for Fiber-Reinforced Materials: The Tsai-Wu Criterion

- Determination of the Constants
- Failure Example 7: Tube with Axial Load—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Failure Example 8: Tube in Torsion—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Failure Example 9: Tube with Combined Load—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Failure Example 10: [0/90]S Laminate Subjected to Nx—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Failure Example 11: [±30/0]S Laminate Subjected to Nx—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Failure Example12: [±30/0]S Laminate subjected to Mx—Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

11. Environmentally Induced Stresses in Laminates

- Laminate Response
- Examples of Laminate Response
- Force and Moment Resultants in Examples
- Definition of Thermal Force and Moment Resultants
- Definitions of Unit Thermal Force and Moment Resultants
- The Effect of Laminate Classification on the Unit Thermal Force and Moment Resultants
- Free Thermal Response of Laminates
- Examples of Laminate Free Thermal Response
- Response Due to Stress Resultants and a Temperature Change
- Influence of Thermal Effects on Failure: The Maximum Stress Criterion
- Influence of thermal Effects on Failure: The Tsai-Wu Criterion
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

12. Through-Thickness Laminate Strains

- Thickness Change of a Laminate, No Free Thermal or Moisture Strain Effects
- Through-Thickness Laminate Poisson's Ratios
- Thickness Change of a Laminate Due to Free Thermal Strain Effects
- Through-thickness Laminate Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

13. Introduction to Fiber-Reinforced Laminated Plates

- Equations Governing Plate Behavior
- Governing Conditions in Terms of Displacements
- Simplifications to the Governing Equations
- Plate Example 1: A Long [0/90]S Plate
- Plate Example 2: A Long [02/902]T Plate
- Plate Example 3: A Long [±30/0]S Plate
- Numerical Results for Plate Examples 1, 2, and 3
- Plate Example 4: A Rectangular, Uniformly Loaded, Cross-Ply Plate
- Summary
- Suggested Readings

14. Appendix: Manufacturing Composite Laminates

- Background and Overview
- Fabrication
- Processing
- Manufacturing by Other Methods
- Forming Structural Shapes
- Nonautoclave curing
- Manufacturing Defects
- Suggested Readings

Index
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