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The Use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in Urban Watersheds

  • ID: 688175
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 282 Pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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This new book by leading U.S. stormwater experts is a guide to the main techniques for controlling pollutants from diffuse, mainly wet weather, sources. The volume provides a mass of valuable data on the removal efficiencies, costs, and design parameters of all main runoff control structures—from ponds to swales—for large developments to small parking lots. The book gives planners from the county to state levels the up-to-date information needed to incorporate the best and lowest cost methods of controlling wet weather flows into their watershed management programs.

The book covers all the essential elements of stormwater control from basic design issues to monitoring—and provides critical data on their effectiveness. Covered here are structural, as well as nonstructural (e.g., educational), techniques.

With the information in this book, community water planners and developers can implement the best practices for reducing the environmental impact of wet weather flows. The book will help them protect—and restore—overall surface and groundwater quality.

Features

- Presents and compares all major stormwater/runoff control strategies

- New data on pollutant removal efficiencies, design, costs, environmental impacts and more

- Where and why to use the best techniques for limiting/monitoring diffuse pollution

- Provides the tools to meet regulations and improve water quality in urban/suburban watersheds
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Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

List of Select Acronyms

Chapter 1: The Use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in Urban Watersheds—Executive Summary
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Concept of BMPs
1.3 Summary and Findings of the White Paper
1.4 Conclusions and Recommendations
References

Chapter 2: Types of Best Management Practices
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Nonstructural or Source Control BMPs
2.1.1 Public Education
2.1.2 Planning and Management of Developing Areas
2.1.2.1 Better Site Design
2.1.2.2 Vegetation Control
2.1.2.3 Reduction/Disconnection of Impervious Areas
2.1.2.4 Green Roofs
2.1.2.5 Low-Impact Development (LID)
2.1.3 Materials Management
2.1.3.1 Alternative Product Substitution
2.1.3.2 Housekeeping Practices
2.1.4 Street/Storm Drain Maintenance
2.1.4.1 Street Cleaning
2.1.4.2 Catchbasin Cleaning
2.1.4.3 Roadway and Bridge Maintenance
2.1.4.4 Storm Drain Flushing
2.1.4.5 BMP Maintenance
2.1.4.6 Storm Channel and Creek Maintenance
2.1.4.7 Stormwater ""Hotspots""
2.1.5 Spill Prevention and Cleanup
2.1.5.1 Above Ground Tank Spill Control
2.1.5.2 Vehicle Spill Control
2.1.6 Illegal Dumping Controls
2.1.6.1 Storm Drain Stenciling
2.1.6.2 Household Hazardous Waste Collection
2.1.6.3 Used Oil Recycling
2.1.7 Illicit Connection Controls
2.1.7.1 Illicit Connection - Prevention, Detection and Removal
2.1.7.2 Failing Septic Systems and Sanitary Sewer Overflows
2.1.8 Stormwater Reuse
2.2 Structural or Treatment Best Management Practices
2.2.1 Stormwater Ponds
2.2.1.1 Dry Detention Ponds
2.2.1.2 Dry, Extended-detention (ED) Ponds
2.2.1.3 Wet (Retention) Ponds
2.2.2. Stormwater Wetlands
2.2.2.1 Constructed Wetlands
2.2.3 Vegetated Systems (Biofilters)
2.2.3.1 Grass Swales (Wet, Dry)
2.2.3.1.1 Dry Swales
2.2.3.1.2 Wet Swale
2.2.3.2 Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS)
2.2.3.3 Bioretention
2.2.4 Infiltration Systems
2.2.4.1 Infiltration Basins
2.2.4.2 Infiltration Trenches
2.2.4.3 Porous Pavement
2.2.5 Filtration Systems
2.2.5.1 Surface Sand Filter
2.2.5.2 Underground Vault Sand Filter
2.2.5.3 Perimeter Filter
2.2.5.4 Others
2.2.6 Technology Options and Others
2.2.6.1 Water Quality Inlets
2.2.6.2 Multi Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT)
2.2.6.3 Vortex Separators and Continuous Deflective Systems
2.3 Removal Processes Occurring in Structural BMPs
2.3.1 Sedimentation
2.3.2 Filtration
2.3.3 Sorption
2.3.4 Phytoremediation
2.3.5 Biological Processes
2.4 Performance of Structural BMPs
2.4.1 Suspended Solids, Nutrients, and Heavy Metals, and BMP Performance
References

Chapter 3: Structural BMP Design Practices
3.1 Introduction
3.2 BMP Design Criteria
3.2.1 Unified Stormwater Sizing Criteria
3.2.2 BMP Performance Objectives
3.3 Design of Structural BMPs to Improve Water Quality
3.3.1 Dry Extended-detention (ED) Ponds
3.3.1.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.1.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.1.3 Design Considerations
3.3.2 Wet Ponds
3.3.2.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.2.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.2.3 Design Considerations
3.3.3 Stormwater Wetlands
3.3.3.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.3.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.3.3 Design Considerations
3.3.4 Grassed Swales
3.3.4.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.4.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.4.3 Design Considerations
3.3.5 Vegetated Filter Strips (VFS)
3.3.5.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.5.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.5.3 Design Considerations
3.3.6 Infiltration Trenches
3.3.6.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.6.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.6.3 Design Considerations
3.3.7 Porous Pavement
3.3.7.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.7.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.7.3 Design Considerations
3.3.8 Sand and Organic Filters
3.3.8.1 Stormwater Control
3.3.8.2 Pollutant Removal Capability
3.3.8.3 Design Considerations
References

Chapter 4: BMP Monitoring
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Current Monitoring Practices
4.2 Parameter Selection for Structural BMP Monitoring Programs
4.2.1 Major Parameter Categories
4.2.1.1 Chemical Parameters
4.2.1.2 Physical Parameters
4.2.1.3 Biological Parameters
4.2.1.4 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Parameters
4.2.1.5 Contributing Factors
4.2.2 Key Considerations for Selecting Appropriate Parameters
4.3 Monitoring Nonstructural BMPs
4.4 Watershed Monitoring
4.5 Developing a BMP Effectiveness Monitoring Program
4.5.1 The Planning Phase
4.5.1.1 Defining Program Goals
4.5.1.2 Collecting Background Information
4.5.1.3 Identifying Project Resources
4.5.1.4 Formulating Monitoring Objectives
4.5.2 The Design Phase
4.5.2.1 Monitoring Approach
4.5.2.2 Parameter and Methods Selection
4.5.2.3 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Data Collection
4.5.2.4 Water Quality Data Collection Protocols
4.5.2.5 Selection of Equipment and Materials
4.5.2.6 QA/QC Initiatives
4.5.2.7 Quality Assurance Project Plan
4.5.3 The Implementation Phase
4.5.4 The Evaluation Phase—Quantifying BMP Efficiency
4.5.5 The Presumptive Approach
References

Chapter 5: Effective Use of BMPs in Stormwater Management
5.0 Introduction
5.1 BMP Selection
5.1.1 Regulatory Considerations
5.1.2 Site Factors
5.1.3 Stormwater Quantity Issues
5.1.4 Water Quality Performance—Pollutant Removal
5.1.4.1 Factors Affecting Variability in Pollutant Removal by Structural BMPs
5.1.4.2 Approximate Pollutant Removals of Structural BMPs
5.1.4.3 Approximate Pollutant Removals of Nonstructural BMPs
5.1.5 Maintenance, Reliability, and Cost Issues
5.1.6 Environmental and Community Acceptance Factors
5.2 Structural BMP Placement
5.3 Integrated Approach
5.3.1 Integration of Structural BMPs
5.3.2 Integration of Nonstructural BMPs
5.3.3 Integrating Structural and Nonstructural BMPs
References

Chapter 6: BMP Costs
6.0 Introduction
6.1 BMP Cost Estimating Methods
6.1.1 Bottom-Up Method
6.1.2 Analogy Method
6.1.3 Expert Opinion Method
6.1.4 Parametric Method
6.2 BMP Cost Analyses Elements
6.2.1 Total Costs
6.2.1.1 Capital Costs
6.2.1.2 Design, Permitting, and Contingency Costs
6.2.1.3 Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Costs
6.2.1.4 Land Costs
6.2.1.5 Inflation and Regional Cost Adjustments
6.2.2 Life Cycle Costs
6.3 Economic Benefits of BMPs

References

Index

Contributors
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