Burn-In Testing - Its Quantification and Optimization

  • ID: 689166
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 698 Pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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Burn-in testing (an alternative to ESS) is widely used as an aid in producing failure-free electronic components. When scientifically planned and conducted, burn-in-testing offers one of the most effective methods of reliability screening at the component level. By testing individual elements under constant temperature stress, electrical stress, temperature cycling stress, or a combined thermal-electrical stress, burn-in testing can identify discrete faults that may be harder to perceive at the assembly, module, or system level.

This book covers all aspects of burn-in-testing, from basic definitions to state-of-the-art concepts. Drawing on a broad database of studies, Burn-In Testing emphasizes mathematical and statistical models for quantifying the failure process, optimizing component reliability, and minimizing the total cost. With each chapter, the book also offers the appropriate FORTRAN code for the processes described. Burn-Testing is ideal for practicing engineers in the fields of reliability, life testing, and product assurance. It is also useful for upper division and graduate students in these and related fields.

Features

- Definitions, classifications, and test conditions

- A review of failure patterns during burn-in

- Vividly illustrated with figures, tables and charts

- A quick calculation approach for time determination

- A roadmap for practical applications
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Problems and reference sections are included in each chapter.

Preface

Chapter 1 - Introduction
- Why Burn-In?
- How Burn-In Works
- A Brief Review of Burn-In History
- What This Book Offers

Chapter 2 - Burn-In Definitions, Classifications, Documents and Test Conditions
- Burn-In Definitions
- The Difference between Burn-In and Environmental Stress Screening (ESS)
- Burn-In Methods and Their Effectiveness
- Burn-In Documents
- Burn-In Test Conditions Specified By MIL-STD-883C
- Test Temperature

Chapter 3 - Frequently Encountered Terminologies and Acronyms in Burn-In
Testing
- Burn-In Terminologies
- Burn-In Acronyms

Chapter 4 - Phenomenological Observations and the Physical Insight of the Failure Process during Burn-In
- Introduction
- The Conventional Bathtub Curve Concept
- The S-Shaped CDF Pattern
- The Unified-Field Failure Theory and the Roller-Coaster Failure Rate Curve
- Physical Explanation of the Failure Pattern during Burn-In

Chapter 5 - Math Models Describing the Failure Process During Burn-In and Their Parameters' Estimation
- Reliability Models for a Mixed Weibull Population
- Bathtub Curve Models
- Selection of the Models for Burn-In Tests
- Parameter Estimation for the Bimodal Mixed Population
- Appendix 5a
- Appendix 5b
- Appendix 5c
- Appendix 5d

Chapter 6 - Burn-In Time Determination Using a Quick Calculation Approach

Chapter 7 - Burn-In Time Determination Based On the Bimodal Times-To-Failure
Distribution
- The Subpopulation Truncation Approach
- The Burn-In Time Corresponding To a Zero Slope Point of the Failure Rate Curve
- The Burn-In Time for a Specified Error on the Zero Failure Rate Curve Slope
- The Burn-In Time Corresponding To a Specified Failure Rate Goal
- The Burn-In Time Corresponding To a Specified Reliability Goal
- Graphical Determination of the Burn-In Period from the Failure Rate and Reliability Functions
- Appendix 7a
- Appendix 7b

Chapter 8 - Mean Residual Life (MRL) Concept and Its Applications to Burn-In Time Determination
- Introduction
- Mathematical Definition of MRL and Its Relationship to the Failure Rate Function
- MRL Completely Determines a Life Distribution
- Empirical MRL Functions
- Mean Residual Lifetimes for Some Frequently Used Life Distributions
- The Effect of Burn-In On the MRL Assuming a Bathtub-Shaped Failure Rate Curve
- Application of the MRL Concept to the Optimum Burn-In Time Determination
- Determining the Optimum Burn-In Time Directly From the Empirical MRL
- Function or Plot
- Further Comments
- Appendix 8a
- Appendix 8b
- Appendix 8c
- Appendix 8d
- Appendix 8e
- Appendix 8f
- Appendix 8g

Chapter 9 - Burn-In Time Determination for the Minimum Cost
- Cost Model 1
- Cost Model 2
- Cost Model 3
- Cost Model 4

Chapter 10 - Burn-In Quantification and Optimization Using the Bimodal
Mixed-Exponential Distribution
- Introduction
- The Mixed-Exponential Life Distribution
- The Bimodal Mixed-Exponential Life Distribution
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for a Specified Post-Burn-In Mission Reliability
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for a Specified Mean Residual Life (MRL) Goal
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for a Specified Post-Burn-In Failure Rate Goal
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for a Specified Burn-In Efficiency
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for a Specified Power Function
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for the Specified Burn-In Risks
- The Number and Cost of Failures
- The Optimum Burn-In Time for the Minimum Cost
- Bayesian Approach to Burn-In
- Appendix 10a

Chapter 11 - The Total-Time-On-Test (TTT) Transform And Its Application To Burn-In Time-Determination
- Introduction
- The TTT Transforms, the Scaled TTT Transforms and the Scaled TTT Plots
- Geometrical Properties of the Scaled TTT Transforms
- The Scaled TTT Transforms Of Some Frequently Used Life Distributions
- Scaled TTT Plots for Complete and Incomplete Life Data
- Desired Structure of the Objective Functions To Be Optimized Using the TTT Transform and the Graphical Optimization Procedure
- Optimum Burn-In Time Determination Using the TTT Transform For the Minimum Cost or For the Maximum Profit
- Optimum Burn-In Time Determination Using the TTT Transform for the Maximum Post-Burn-In Mean Residual Life TTT
- Burn-In Time Determination Directly From A Sample of Observed Times to Failure
- Appendix 11a

Chapter 12 - Accelerated Burn-In Testing and Burn-In Time Reduction
Algorithms
- Introduction
- Burn-In Time Reduction Using an Elevated Temperature - The Arrhenius Model
- Burn-In Time Reduction Using an Elevated Voltage Bias Stress - The Inverse Power Law Model
- Burn-In Time Reduction Using an Elevated Temperature Plus an Elevated Voltage Bias - The Combination Model
- Optimum Burn-In Time Determination Based On the Test Results at a Higher Stress Level

Chapter 13 - Accelerated Burn-In Using Temperature Cycling
- Why Temperature Cycling?
- Temperature Profile and the Model for the Acceleration Factor
- Equivalent Acceleration Factor Evaluation Using Eq. (13.6)
- Equivalent Acceleration Factor Evaluation Using Eq. (13.7)
- Application of the Aging Acceleration Models
- Optimum Number of Thermal Cycles for a Specified Field MTBF Goal
- A Summary of Some Useful Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Models For Electronic Equipment
- Conclusions
- Appendix 13a
- Appendix 13b

Chapter 14 - Guidelines for Burn-In Quantification and Optimum Burn-In Time
Determination
- Introduction
- General Procedure
- Times-To-Failure Data Collection
- Initial Data Analysis
- Parametric Burn-In Data Analysis and Optimum Burn-In Time Determination
- Non-Parametric Burn-In Data Analysis and Optimum Burn-In Time Determination
- Burn-In Time Justification and Adjustment
- Accelerated Burn-In and Burn-In Time Conversion from One Stress to another Stress

Index
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