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Contemporary Health Physics. Problems and Solutions. 2nd Edition - Product Image

Contemporary Health Physics. Problems and Solutions. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2180300
  • February 2009
  • 722 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

This is the first text specifically designed to train potential health physicists to think and respond like professionals. Written by a former chairman of the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Panel of Examiners with more than 20 years of professional and academic experience in the field, it offers a balanced presentation of all the theoretical and practical issues essential for a full working knowledge of radiation exposure assessments. As the only book to cover the entire radiation protection field, it includes detailed coverage of the medical, university, reactor, fuel cycle, environmental and accelerator areas, while exploring key topics in radiation basics, external and internal dosimetry, the biological effects of ionizing radiation, and much more besides.

Backed by more than 500 worked examples developed within the context of various scenarios and spanning the full spectrum of real-world challenges, it quickly instills in readers the professional acumen and practical skills they need to perform accurate radiation assessments in virtually any routine or emergency situation.

The result is a valuable resource for upper-level students and anyone preparing to take the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Examination, as well as for professionals seeking to expand their scope and sharpen their skills.

Preface to the Second Edition VII

Preface to the First Edition IX

A Note on Units XI

Part I Basic Concepts: Theory and Problems 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 Scenarios 4

Part II Specialized Areas: Theory and Problems 45

2 Medical Health Physics 47

2.1 Historical Perspective 47

2.2 Medical Accelerator Physics 48

2.3 Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine 51

2.4 Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine 53

2.5 Facility Design 58

2.6 Shielding Design 59

2.7 X-ray Shielding 60

2.8 NCRP-49 61

2.9 NCRP-147 64

2.10 NCRP-151 66

2.11 Management of Radionuclide Therapy Patients 69

2.12 Ventilation Considerations 70

2.13 Scenarios 71

3 University Health Physics 87

3.1 Research Utilizing Radionuclides 87

3.2 Engineering Considerations 90

3.3 Sample Counting 91

3.4 Intake of Radionuclides 92

3.5 Other Research Activities 93

3.6 Agricultural/Environmental Research 93

3.7 Research Reactors 94

3.8 Particle Accelerators 97

3.9 Materials Research Via X-ray Diffraction Techniques 97

3.10 Fusion Energy Research 98

3.11 Overview of an Initial Fusion Power Facility 100

3.12 Scenarios 103

4 Fuel Cycle Health Physics 119

4.1 Radiation in Fuel Cycle Facilities 119

4.2 Nuclear Fuel Cycle 121

4.3 Uranium Fuel Cycle 121

4.4 Thorium Fuel Cycle 131

4.5 Radioactive Waste 132

4.6 Criticality 133

4.7 Dispersion of Radioactive Gas from a Continuous Source 138

4.8 Dispersion of Radioactive Particulates from a Continuous Source 140

4.9 Fuel Cycle Facilities 140

4.10 Detection of Fuel Cycle Facility Activity 142

4.11 Scenarios 143

5 Power Reactor Health Physics 157

5.1 Overview 157

5.2 Generation I, II, III, and IV Reactors 158

5.3 Health Physics Hazards 160

5.4 NCRP-130 Hot Particle Recommendations 169

5.5 Health Physics Program Elements 170

5.6 Outages 176

5.7 Major Radiation Instrumentation Systems 176

5.8 Radiological Considerations During Reactor Accidents 178

5.9 Mitigation of Accident Consequences 180

5.10 Scenarios 181

6 Environmental Health Physics 201

6.1 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material 201

6.2 Radon 203

6.3 Environmental Monitoring Programs 207

6.4 Environmental Releases 208

6.5 Accumulation of Activity in Ponds and Surfaces 208

6.6 Pathways Associated with Open and Closed Fuel Cycles 210

6.7 Regulatory Guidance for Effl uent Pathways 211

6.8 Doses from Liquid Effl uent Pathways 212

6.9 Doses from Gaseous Effl uent Pathways 216

6.10 Annual Doses from All Other Noble Gas Releases 219

6.11 Doses from Radioiodines and Other Radionuclides Released to the Atmosphere 220

6.12 Pathway Selection 222

6.13 Model Parameters 222

6.14 Intentional Dispersal of Radioactive Materials 222

6.15 Protection of the Environment 225

6.16 Scenarios 226

7 Accelerator Health Physics 237

7.1 High-Energy Interactions 237

7.2 Radiation Types 239

7.3 Proton Accelerators 239

7.4 Electron Accelerators 240

7.5 Light Sources 243

7.6 Heavy-Ion Accelerators 244

7.7 Large Hadron Collider 245

7.8 Muon Colliders 248

7.9 Radiation Types of Concern 250

7.10 Shielding 255

7.11 Accelerator Beam Containment 257

7.12 Dose Equivalent Rate from the Accelerator Target 258

7.13 Beam Current 258

7.14 Pulsed Radiation Fields 259

7.15 Scenarios 259

8 Nonionizing Radiation Health Physics 273

8.1 Sources of Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation 273

8.2 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves 274

8.3 Antennas 275

8.4 Attenuation by Biological Systems 278

8.5 Biological Effects 279

8.6 Protection Standards 279

8.7 Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields 280

8.8 Laser Radiation 281

8.9 Biological Effects from Laser Radiation 282

8.10 Laser Standards 284

8.11 Free Electron Lasers 288

8.12 Federal Regulations and Laser Standards 289

8.13 Controlling Laser Radiation 293

8.14 Personnel Protective Equipment 294

8.15 Spectral Effectiveness of Ultraviolet Radiation 294

8.16 Scenarios 295

Part III Answers and Solutions 309

Solutions for Chapter 1 311

Solutions for Chapter 2 375

Solutions for Chapter 3 403

Solutions for Chapter 4 433

Solutions for Chapter 5 455

Solutions for Chapter 6 475

Solutions for Chapter 7 499

Solutions for Chapter 8 521

Part IV Appendices 559

Appendix I Serial Decay Relationships 561

Appendix II Basic Source Geometries and Attenuation Relationships 565

Appendix III Neutron-Induced Gamma Radiation Sources 573

Appendix IV Selected Topics in Internal Dosimetry 577

Appendix V Radiation Risk and Risk Models 627

Appendix VI Key Health Physics Relationships 639

Appendix VII Production Equations in Health Physics 653

Appendix VIII Mathematical Review 661

Appendix IX Selected Data on Radionuclides of Health Physics Interest 673

Subject Index 679

Joseph John Bevelacqua, PhD, CHP, is the President of Bevelacqua Resources. A theoretical nuclear physicist by training, Dr. Bevelacqua is a Certified Health Physicist and Certified Senior Reactor Operator and has over 30 years of professional experience. This includes the medical, fuel cycle, accelerator, power reactor, environmental, and non-ionizing areas. He was a key player in the Three Mile Island and Hanford cleanup activities, and is an active researcher with over 80 publications. His research areas include heavy ion cancer therapy, theoretical physics, and health physics applications. He recently received the California University Pennsylvania's Professional Excellence Award for his accomplishments.

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