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Global and China Solid State Battery Industry Report, 2023

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  • 180 Pages
  • May 2023
  • Region: China, Global
  • Research In China
  • ID: 5835366

Solid state battery research: semi-solid state battery has come out, is all-solid state battery still far away?

In recent years, the new energy vehicle market has been booming, and the penetration of new energy vehicles has sustained steady growth. From January to April 2023, the production and sales of new energy vehicles in China reached 2.291 million units and 2.222 million units, respectively, both jumping by 42.8% on a like-on-like basis, with a market share of 27%. With rising sales, new energy vehicles demand ever more power batteries. It is estimated that the global electric vehicle battery usage is expected to reach approximately 749GWh in 2023.

In the era when the installation of power batteries in vehicles approaches TWh, suppliers step up production of solid-state batteries with higher energy density, driven by favorable policies and market demand.

In China, the 'New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)' issued by the General Office of the State Council on November 2, 2020 specifies that the R&D and industrialization of solid-state power battery technologies should be accelerated, and the R&D of solid-state batteries is raised to the national level for the first time. China's power battery industrialization goal is that in 2025, the energy density of liquid battery cells will reach 350Wh/kg; in 2030, the energy density of solid-liquid hybrid battery cells will be 400Wh/kg; in 2035, the energy density of quasi/all-solid-state battery cells will reach 500Wh/kg.

Meanwhile, Japan, South Korea, Europe and the US have also introduced incentive policies to develop solid-state batteries. For example, the US released the National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries 2021-2030 in 2021; Europe issued the Battery 2030+ and the Battery Innovation Roadmap 2030; most Japanese and Korean companies team up to develop, and automakers, scientific research institutions, and battery and materials companies divide labor clearly and are keen on cooperative development of solid-state battery technology.

1. Compared with the current mainstream liquid batteries, solid-state batteries have begun to get a foothold by virtue of bringing quite a few benefits.

Compared with liquid lithium batteries, solid-state batteries use solid electrodes and solid state electrolytes. In theory their energy density can reach up to 400-500Wh/kg, which is 2 to 3 times that of liquid lithium batteries. Solid-state batteries offers the benefits of cruising range increase, much lower thermal runaway risk, shorter charging time, longer cycle life, and smaller size. It is particularly worth noting that lithium metal anodes can increase the energy density of batteries by more than 70%.

On this basis, ever more companies double down on R&D and production of solid-state batteries. Among power battery companies, CATL, Gotion Hi-Tech, Ganfeng Lithium, EVE Energy and Sunwoda are working hard on layout of solid-state battery technology. Yet for the moment the volume production of semi-solid state batteries will start earlier.

2. With increasing energy density of batteries, semi-solid state battery prototypes begin to be used in vehicles.

As a transitional route, semi-solid state batteries can improve safety performance, because the reduction of electrolytes lowers the thermal runaway risk caused by external heating and shock and internal short circuits. The electrolyte content in semi-solid state batteries is about 10% or below (the electrolyte mass of conventional lithium batteries makes up about 20%), and the soft package + laminated packaging process is used commonly. In terms of system, semi-solid state batteries can follow the 811 system, or adapt to more radical chemical systems such as the group 9, offering improvements in both energy density and comprehensive cost.

On January 22, 2022, E70, the demonstration operating car carrying the Dongfeng-Ganfeng high specific energy solid-state battery jointly developed by Dongfeng Motor and Ganfeng Lithium, made its world debut in Xinyu City, Jiangxi Province. Since then, the trial use of solid-state battery prototypes in vehicles has been kicked off.

At present, companies that can mass-produce semi-solid state batteries include Beijing WeLion New Energy Technology, QingTao (KunShan) Energy Development, Talent New Energy, ProLogium Technology, Ganfeng Lithium, Gotion Hi-Tech, and EVE Energy.

Among them, WeLion New Energy's first semi-solid state battery was rolled off the production line in November 2022, with energy density of 360Wh/kg; Talent New Energy put into production China’s first semi-solid state battery production line in October 2022, a facility expected to come into full operation in July 2023, with planned annual capacity up to 10GWh during 2023-2024 and 26GWh during 2024-2026; in April 2023, QingTao (KunShan) Energy Development's first production line with designed capacity of 1GWh became operational, with the first batch of semi-solid state batteries rolled off the line in the Pidu Factory.

3. All-solid-state batteries are expected to be mass-produced around 2024.

The mass production of all-solid-state batteries are expected to start around 2024. Major companies include Nissan, Samsung SDI, and Montavista Energy Technologies.

From the solid-state battery production line layout, it can be seen that foreign companies start earlier, for example:

Solid Power brought into operation a continuous process pilot production line in Louisville, Colorado in 2019; produced 320Wh/kg 20Ah lithium metal batteries in 2020; announced the addition of a second Denver-area production facility in Thornton, Colorado in 2021; on June 6, 2022, announced that it has completed the installation of its pilot production line designed to produce electric vehicle batteries, aiming to accelerate the production of automotive solid-state batteries. In January 2023, BMW and Solid Power started the next-stage joint R&D of all-solid-state batteries. Solid Power licenses cell design and manufacturing processes to the BMW Group to help it build a pilot line in Munich. The first prototype vehicle will be launched before 2025, and the all-solid-state batteries will be produced in quantities in 2030.

In March 2022, Samsung SDI announced that it started the launch of the pilot line (S-line) for manufacturing solid-state batteries at SDI R&D Center located in Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The facility will start trial production in 2023 and achieve large-scale production in 2027.

Among foreign OEMs, in 2024 Nissan will start a pilot plant in Yokohama, Japan and set up an all-solid-state battery production line; it will produce all-solid-state batteries in 2025 and see them installed into vehicles in 2028. Toyota will produce all-solid-state batteries on small scale and first use them in HEV models before 2025; it will achieve continuous and stable production of all-solid-state batteries before 2030.

Most Chinese companies take a production route gradually from semi-solid to all-solid state batteries. The companies that quickly realize the production of all-solid-state batteries are led by GTC-Power, Beijing WeLion New Energy Technology, QingTao (KunShan) Energy Development, ProLogium Technology, Gotion Hi-Tech and EVE Energy.

For example, EVE Energy will iterate its all-solid-state battery technology in three phases, and will concentrate on the oxide, sulfide and halide R&D routes. The company plans to complete the R&D of the all-solid-state battery technology 1.0 in 2024, with energy density of 350Wh/kg and cycle life more than 300 times; iterate its all-solid-state battery technology to 3.0 in 2028, which features high safety, high flexibility and high temperature resistance to meet the requirements of power batteries, with energy density increased to 550Wh/kg and cycle life up to over 1,000 times.

On December 21, 2021, the Japanese laboratory of GTC-Power successfully developed a 1.5Ah all-solid-state lithium battery sample, which heralds GTC-Power’s entry into the fast lane in R&D of all-solid-state lithium batteries. Its all-solid-state power battery has passed the acupuncture and 350°C thermal runaway tests, with energy density greater than 400Wh/kg and cycle life more than 1,200 times, and it can still work at -40°C-150°C.

4. What are the constraints on the industrialization of solid-state batteries?

At present, solid-state batteries still have such problems as high interfacial impedance between the solid-state electrolyte and the electrode, and relatively low bulk ionic conductivity of the solid-state electrolyte. The solutions to the high interfacial impedance and low conductivity are the key to the industrialization of solid-state lithium batteries.


  • Ultrathin electrolyte is one of the effective ways to reduce interfacial impedance in the industry. For example, Talent New Energy’s research institute and its Chongqing manufacturing base have developed electrolyte ultra-thin film preparation technology and interface softening technology using innovative processes and new customized equipment, and its process system compatible with the existing liquid batteries can go into production quickly.
  • The solid-state battery interface softening technology is also an effective solution to lower interfacial impedance. For example, the existing halide-based all-solid-state thin-film pouch battery technology of EVE Energy can adapt to special high temperature and bending conditions, and allows for stable discharging in the high temperature zone of 150°C by combining high nickel anodes. The softening technology enables normal battery charge and discharge even in the condition of 120 ° bending.
  • Among the three major electrolyte systems (polymer, oxide and sulfide), the sulfides are soft and flexible and feature the highest ionic conductivity, up to the level of liquid electrolyte (10-2 S/cm), breaking the conductivity bottleneck of solid state electrolytes. Yet sulfides with high resistance are easy to have side reactions with air, water, etc., posing many process challenges. Typical companies taking the sulfide route include GTC-Power, Enpower Greentech, CATL, Toyota, Honda, Samsung, and Solid Power.
Nevertheless, oxide solid state electrolyte is currently at the forefront in terms of industrial application and production nodes. With both electrical conductivity and stability, oxides are relatively easy to spawn and thus develop rapidly. Typical companies that choose the oxide system include WeLion New Energy, QingTao (KunShan) Energy, ProLogium Technology, Gotion Hi-Tech, Farasis Energy and Ganfeng Lithium.

In addition to the abovementioned, the varying production processes and the purchase of new equipment have also slowed down the production to a certain extent. At present, semi-solid state batteries can be basically compatible with liquid battery production lines, at almost flat cost. Amid a gradual transition to the production of all-solid-state batteries, because of very different processes and production procedures, a large number of new process equipment like isostatic pressing equipment need to be purchased. Isostatic pressing equipment is difficult to produce, debug and use, and also needs a lot of know-hows and experience to attain the efficiency and yield of lithium battery rolling and hot pressing processes, which undoubtedly places some pressure on the industrialization of solid-state batteries.

Finally, relevant manufacturers also need to continuously optimize their production line equipment and production processes to improve the yield of battery cell packaging and increase sales. This is also one of the key factors to realize the virtuous circle of the solid-state battery industry.

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Table of Contents

1 Overview of Solid State Battery Industry
1.1 What is Solid State Battery
1.2 Advantages/Disadvantages of Solid State Battery
1.2.1 Solid State Battery - Safety Performance
1.2.2 Solid State battery - Material Systems
1.2.3 Solid State battery - Process Iteration (1)
1.2.4 Solid State battery - Process Iteration (2)
1.3 Comparison between Solid State Battery Development Routes
1.3.1 Development Path of Lithium Battery to Solid State
1.4 What Is Solid State Electrolyte
1.5 Solid State Electrolyte: Three Routes
1.5.1 Performance Comparison between Solid State Electrolytes
1.5.2 Solid State Electrolyte - Polymer Manufacturing Process of Polymer Electrolyte Solid State Electrolyte - Polymer Case
1.5.3 Solid State Electrolyte - Oxide Layout of Oxide Electrolyte Companies Oxide Solid State Electrolysis Process Solid State Electrolyte - Oxide Case
1.5.4 Solid State Electrolyte - Sulfide Sulfide Solid State Electrolysis Process Types of Sulfide Electrolytes
1.6 Performance Comparison between Cathode and Anode Materials
1.6.1 Comparison of Specific Capacity between Different Anodes/Cathodes
1.6.2 Cathode Materials for Solid State Batteries
1.6.3 Anode Materials for Solid State Batteries Energy Density of Different Solid State Battery Cathodes
1.7 Cost Composition of Semi-solid State Battery
1.8 Verification of Safety Performance of Semi-solid State Battery on Vehicle
1.9 Automakers’ Planning for Solid State Battery Verification on Vehicle
1.10 Solid State Battery Industry Chain
2 Status Quo of Solid State Battery Industry
2.1 Solid State Battery Policies - Overseas
2.2 Solid State Battery Policies - China
2.3 Status Quo
2.3.1 Progress of Some European and American Solid State Battery Companies
2.3.2 Progress of Some Japanese and Korean Solid State Battery Companies
2.3.3 Progress of Some Chinese Solid State Battery Companies
2.3.4 R&D and Planning of Some Semi-solid/Solid State Battery Companies
2.3.5 Statistics on Production Capacity of Some Solid State Battery Companies
2.4 Background Factors for the Growth of Solid State Batteries
2.4.1 Investment and Financing of Some Companies in Solid State Battery Industry
2.4.2 TOP10 Global Companies by Solid State Battery Patents
2.4.3 Increasing Delivery of New Energy Vehicles
2.4.4 Growth in Global Automotive Power Battery Installations, 2023Q1
2.4.5 China's Automotive Power Battery Production and Installations, Jan.-Apr. 2023
2.4.6 Cursing Range Anxieties - Comparison of New Energy Vehicle Winter Test Cursing Range Data
2.4.7 Cursing Range Anxieties - Cursing Range Test of Some BEV Models
2.5 Sore Points in Commercialization of Solid State Batteries
3 Chinese Solid State Battery Manufacturers
  • Comparison: List of Energy Density of Chinese (Semi-) Solid State Battery Manufacturers
3.1 WeLion New Energy
3.1.1 Profile
3.1.2 Development History
3.1.3 Solid State Lithium-ion Cell
3.1.4 Solid State Battery Module
3.1.5 Cooperative Project
3.1.6 Ongoing Project
3.2 Talent New Energy
3.2.1 Profile
3.2.2 Semi-solid State Battery Products
3.2.3 Semi-solid State Battery Projects
3.2.4 Technology Path
3.2.5 Production Workshop
3.2.6 Development Planning
3.3 ProLogium Technology
3.3.1 Profile
3.3.2 Development History
3.3.3 Products/Solutions
3.3.4 Solid State Battery Products
3.3.5 Core Technologies
3.3.6 Solid State Battery Production Process
3.3.7 Solid State Battery Production Line and Capacity Expansion
3.3.8 Dynamics in Cooperation
3.4 QingTao Energy
3.4.1 Profile
3.4.2 Development History
3.4.3 R&D Innovation System
3.4.4 Technology Route
3.4.5 Semi-solid State Battery
3.4.6 Solid State Battery Energy Storage Industry Base
3.4.7 Cooperation with Automakers
3.5 Ganfeng Lithium
3.5.1 Profile
3.5.2 Development History
3.5.3 R&D History of Solid State Battery Technology
3.5.4 Solid State Battery Technology Route
3.5.5 Solid State Battery Products
3.5.6 Solid State Electrolyte
3.5.7 Solid State Battery Production Bases and Capacity Planning
3.5.8 Models Equipped with Solid State Battery - Dongfeng E70
3.5.9 Models Equipped with Solid State Battery - SERES-5
3.5.10 Distribution of Global Resources
3.5.11 Production Bases in China
3.6 Gotion Hi-Tech
3.6.1 Profile
3.6.2 Development History
3.6.3 R&D Layout
3.6.4 R&D Investment and Patents
3.6.5 Production Layout
3.6.6 Semi-solid State Battery
3.6.7 Revenue
3.7 GTC-Power
3.7.1 Profile
3.7.2 Development History
3.7.3 Dynamics in R&D
3.7.4 Core Technologies
3.7.5 Solid State Battery
3.8 Montavista Energy
3.8.1 Development of Lithium Metal Battery
3.9 Tianjin EV Energies
3.9.1 Profile
3.9.2 Development History
3.9.3 Cell/Semi Solid Battery
3.9.4 Module
3.9.5 System
3.10 EVE Energy
3.11 Farasis Energy
3.12 SVOLT Energy Technology
3.13 Tianneng Battery Group
3.14 Sunwoda EVB
3.15 CALB
3.15.1 Semi-solid State Battery
3.15.2 U-shaped Battery
3.15.3 Battery Application
3.16 CATL
3.16.1 Condensed State Battery
3.16.2 All-solid-state Battery Route
4 Foreign Solid State Battery Manufacturers
4.1 Solid Power
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Development History
4.1.3 Sulfide-based Solid Electrolyte
4.1.4 Solid State Batteries Solid State Batteries - High-Content Silicon Cells (1) Solid State Batteries - High-Content Silicon Cells (2) Solid State Batteries - High-Content Silicon Cells (3)
4.1.5 Revenue
4.1.6 Partners
4.2 QuantumScape
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Development History
4.2.3 Anodeless (Cathode) Design (1)
4.2.3 Anodeless (Cathode) Design (2)
4.2.4 Progress in Multilayer Solid State Battery
4.2.5 Battery Cycle Energy Retention Rate
4.2.5 Fast Charging Performance
4.2.6 Clients
4.3 Factorial Energy
4.3.1 Profile
4.3.2 Solid State Battery and Cooperation
4.3.3 Production of Solid State Battery
4.4 SES
4.5 Samsung SDI
4.5.1 Battery Layout Route
4.5.2 All-solid-state Battery
4.6 LG Energy Solution
4.7 SKI
4.8 Enpower Greentech
5 Solid State Battery Layout of Automakers
  • Comparison: Solid State Battery Installation Timeline of New Energy Vehicle Companies
5.1 All-solid-state Battery of Hongqi
5.2 Solid State Battery of SAIC
5.3 Solid State Battery of Dongfeng
5.4 Solid State Battery of BYD
5.5 Semi-solid State Battery of Voyah
5.6 Semi-solid State Battery of NIO
5.7 Semi-solid State Battery of Changan Deepal
5.8 Solid State Battery of Xiaomi
5.9 All-solid-state Battery of Toyota
5.10 All-solid-state Battery of Nissan
5.11 All-solid-state Battery of Honda
5.12 Solid State Battery of GM
5.13 Solid State Battery of Ford
5.14 Solid State Battery of Mercedes-Benz
5.15 All-solid-state Battery of BMW
5.15.1 Battery Planning of BMW
6 Solid State Battery Materials Manufacturers
6.1 Cathode Materials: Na&Li Technology
6.1.1 Profile
6.1.2 Cathode Materials for Solid State Batteries
6.1.3 Nano Solid State Electrolyte Coating Technology
6.1.4 Development Planning
6.2 Cathode Materials: Beijing Easpring Material Technology
6.3 Cathode Materials: Ningbo Ronbay New Energy Technology
6.4 Electrolyte: Yunnan Energy New Material
6.5 Electrolyte: LionGo New Energy
6.6 Electrolyte: Shanghai Emperor of Cleaning Hi-Tech
6.7 Electrolyte: Liaoning Oxiranchem
6.8 Electrolyte: Jiangsu Ruitai New Energy Materials
6.9 Anode Materials: Tianmulake Excellent Anode Materials
6.10 Anode Materials: BTR New Material Group
6.11 Anode Materials: Shenzhen XFH Technology
6.12 Anode Materials: Lanxi Zhide Advanced Materials
6.13 Anode Materials: Tianqi Lithium
6.13.1 Progress in Solid State Battery Materials
6.14 Solid State Battery Materials: Jinlongyu Group

Companies Mentioned

  • WeLion New Energy
  • Talent New Energy
  • ProLogium Technology
  • QingTao Energy
  • Ganfeng Lithium
  • Gotion Hi-Tech
  • GTC-Power
  • Enpower Greentech
  • Tianjin EV Energies
  • EVE Energy
  • Farasis Energy
  • SVOLT Energy Technology
  • Tianneng Battery Group
  • Sunwoda EVB
  • CALB
  • CATL
  • Montavista Energy
  • Solid Power
  • QuantumScape
  • Factorial Energy
  • SES
  • Samsung SDI
  • LG Energy Solution
  • SKI
  • Na&Li Technology
  • Beijing Easpring Material Technology
  • Ningbo Ronbay New Energy Technology
  • Yunnan Energy New Material
  • LionGo New Energy
  • Shanghai Emperor of Cleaning Hi-Tech
  • Liaoning Oxiranchem
  • Jiangsu Ruitai New Energy Materials
  • Tianmulake Excellent Anode Materials
  • BTR New Material Group
  • Shenzhen XFH Technology
  • Lanxi Zhide Advanced Materials
  • Tianqi Lithium
  • Jinlongyu Group