Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world's highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The use of fluorinated ionomers such as Nafion® have removed the need for mercury and asbestos in these processes and led to a massive reduction in electricity usage in these highly energy-intensive processes. Polymers in this group have also found uses in fuel-cells, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, drug release technologies, gas drying and humidification, and super-acid catalysis used in the production of specialty chemicals. Walther Grot, who invented Nafion® while working for DuPont, has written this book as a practical guide to engineers and scientists working in electrochemistry, the fuel cell industry and other areas of application. His book is a unique guide to this important polymer group and its applications, in membranes and other forms. The 2e expands this handbook by over a third, with new sections covering developments in electrolysis and membranes, additional information about the synthesis and science of the polymer group, and an enhanced provision of reference data.
- An essential reference for scientists working with electrolysis and electrochemical processes (the use of this polymer group in industrial chemistry processes is credited with a 1% reduction in global electricity usage)
- Covers the techniques involved in the growing range of applications for fluorinated ionomers, including fuel cells, batteries and drug delivery The only book on this important polymer group, written by Walther Grot, the inventor of the leading fluorinated ionomer, Nafion® from DuPont
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1 Introduction 1.1 Polymers 1.2 Physical Shapes 1.3 References 2 History 2.1 References 3 Manufacture 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Perfluorinated Ionomers 3.3 Polymerization 3.4 Fabrication 3.5 Hydrolysis and Acid Exchange 3.6 Finishing and Testing 3.7 Liquid Compositions 3.8 Fluorinated Ionomers with Phosphonic or Sulfonyl Imide Functional Groups 3.9 Partially Fluorinated Ionomers 3.10 Composite Materials of Ionomers and Inorganic Oxides 3.11 Composite Materials of Ionomers and a Porous Matrix 3.12 Remanufactured Membranes 3.13 References 4 Properties 4.1 Properties of the Precursor Polymers 4.2 Properties of the Ionic Forms 4.3 Morphology 4.4 Transport Properties 4.5 Optical Properties 4.6 Thermal Properties 4.7 Stability 4.8 References 5 Applications 5.1 Electrolysis 5.2 Sensors and Actuators 5.3 Dialysis 5.4 Gas and Vapor Diffusion 5.5 Protective Clothing 5.6 Catalysis 5.7 References 6 Fuel Cells and Batteries 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Operating Parameters 6.3 Ionomer Stability 6.4 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) 6.5 Manufacture of MEAs 6.6 Rechargeable Flow Through Batteries 6.7 References 6.8 Further Reading 7 Commercial Membrane Types 7.1 Unreinforced Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Films 7.2 Reinforced Perfluorinated Membranes 8 Economic Aspects 8.1 Chlor-Alkali Cells 8.2 Fuel Cells 8.3 References 9 Experimental Methods 9.1 Infrared Spectra 9.2 Hydrolysis, Surface Hydrolysis and Staining 9.3 Other Reactions of the Precursor Polymer 9.4 Ion Exchange Equilibrium 9.5 Determination of EW by Titration or Infrared Analysis 9.6 Determining Melt Flow 9.7 Distinguishing the Precursor Polymer from Various Ionic Forms 9.8 Fenton's Test for Oxidative Stability 9.9 Examination of a Membrane 9.10 Determining the Permselectivity 9.11 Measuring Pervaporation Rates 9.12 Simple Electrolytic Cells 9.13 References 10 Heat Sealing and Repair 10.1 Reference 11 Handling and Storage 11.1 Handling the Film 11.2 Pretreatment 11.3 Installation 11.4 Sealing and Gasketing 12 Toxicology, Safety and Disposal 12.1 Toxicology 12.2 Safety 12.3 Disposal 12.4 References Appendix A A Chromic Acid Regeneration System Appendix B Laboratory Chlor-alkali Cell Appendix C Solution Cast Nafion Film Appendix D Plastic-Based Bipolar Plates Suppliers and Resources Glossary and Web Sites Index