Subsea Pipelines and Risers

  • ID: 1763908
  • Book
  • 840 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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. Updated edition of a best-selling title
. Author brings 25 years experience to the work
. Addresses the key issues of economy and environment

Marine pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas have become a safe and reliable way to exploit the valuable resources below the world's seas and oceans. The design of these pipelines is a relatively new technology and continues to evolve in its quest to reduce costs and minimise the effect on the environment.

With over 25years experience, Professor Yong Bai has been able to assimilate the essence of the applied mechanics aspects of offshore pipeline system design in a form of value to students and designers alike. It represents an excellent source of up to date practices and knowledge to help equip those who wish to be part of the exciting future of this industry.

Please Note: This is an On Demand product, delivery may take up to 11 working days after payment has been received.

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Table of contents

Foreword


Foreword to "Pipelines and Risers" Book


Preface


Part I: Mechanical Design


Chapter 1 Introduction


1.1 Introduction


1.2 Design Stages and Process


1.3 Design Through Analysis (DTA)


1.4 Pipeline Design Analysis


1.5 Pipeline Simulator


1.6 References


Chapter 2 Wall-thickness and Material Grade Selection


2.1 Introduction


2.2 Material Grade Selection


2.3 Pressure Containment (hoop stress) Design


2.4 Equivalent Stress Criterion


2.5 Hydrostatic Collapse


2.6 Wall Thickness and Length Design for Buckle Arrestors


2.7 Buckle Arrestor Spacing Design


2.8 References


Chapter 3 Buckling/Collapse of Deepwater Metallic Pipes


3.1 Introduction


3.2 Pipe Capacity under Single Load


3.3 Pipe Capacity under Couple Load


3.4 Pipes under Pressure Axial Force and Bending


3.5 Finite Element Model


3.6 References


Chapter 4 Limit-state based Strength Design


4.1 Introduction


4.2 Out of Roundness Serviceability Limit


4.3 Bursting


4.4 Local Buckling/Collapse


4.5 Fracture


4.6 Fatigue


4.7 Ratcheting


4.8 Dynamic Strength Criteria


4.9 Accumulated Plastic Strain


4.10 Strain Concentration at Field Joints Due to Coatings


4.11 References


Part II: Pipeline Design


Chapter 5 Soil and Pipe Interaction


5.1 Introduction 83


5.2 Pipe Penetration in Soil 83


5.3 Modeling Friction and Breakout Forces


5.4 References


Chapter 6 Hydrodynamics around Pipes


6.1 Wave Simulators


6.2 Choice of Wave Theory


6.3 Mathematical Formulations Used in the Wave Simulators


6.4 Steady Currents


6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces


6.6 References


Chapter 7 Finite Element Analysis of In-situ Behavior


7.1 Introduction 101


7.2 Description of the Finite Element Model


7.3 Steps in an Analysis and Choice of Analysis Procedure


7.4 Element Types Used in the Model


7.5 Non-linearity and Seabed Model


7.6 Validation of the Finite Element Model


7.7 Dynamic Buckling Analysis


7.8 Cyclic In-place Behaviour during Shutdown Operations


7.9 References


Chapter 8 Expansion, Axial Creeping, Upheaval/Lateral Buckling


8.1 Introduction


8.2 Expansion


8.3 Axial Creeping of Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting


8.4 Upheaval Buckling


8.5 Lateral Buckling


8.6 Interaction between Lateral and Upheaval Buckling


8.7 References


Chapter 9 On-bottom Stability


9.1 Introduction


9.2 Force Balance: the Simplified Method


9.3 Acceptance Criteria


9.4 Special Purpose Program for Stability Analysis


9.5 Use of FE Analysis for Intervention Design


9.6 References


Chapter 10 Vortex-induced Vibrations (VIV) and Fatigue


10.1 Introduction


10.2 Free-span VIV Analysis Procedure


10.3 Fatigue Design Criteria


10.4 Response Amplitude


10.5 Modal Analysis


10.6 Example Cases


10.7 References


Chapter 11 Force Model and Wave Fatigue


11.1 Introduction


11.2 Fatigue Analysis


11.3 Force Model


11.4 Comparisons of Frequency Domain and Time Domain Approaches


11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations


11.6 References


Chapter 12 Trawl Impact, Pullover and Hooking Loads


12.1 Introduction


12.2 Trawl Gears


12.3 Acceptance Criteria


12.4 Impact Response Analysis


12.5 Pullover Loads


12.6 Finite Element Model for Pullover Response Analyses


12.7 Case Study


12.8 References


Chapter 13 Pipe-in-pipe and Bundle Systems


13.1 Introduction


13.2 Pipe-in-pipe System


13.3 Bundle System


13.4 References


Chapter 14 Seismic Design


14.1 Introduction


14.2 Pipeline Seismic Design Guidelines


14.3 Conclusions


14.4 References


Chapter 15 Corrosion Prevention


15.1 Introduction


15.2 Fundamentals of Cathodic Protection


15.3 Pipeline Coatings


15.4 CP Design Parameters


5.5 Galvanic Anodes System Design


15.6 References


Chapter 16 Asgard Flowlines Design Examples


16.1 Introduction


16.2 Wall-thickness and Linepipe Material Selection


16.3 Limit State Strength Criteria


16.4 Installation and On-bottom Stability


16.5 Design for Global Buckling, Fishing Gear Loads and VIV


16.6 Asgard Transport Project


16.7 References


Part III: Flow Assurance


Chapter 17 Subsea System Engineering


17.1 Introduction


17.2 Typical Flow Assurance Process


17.3 System Design and Operability


17.4 References


Chapter 18 Hydraulics


18.1 Introduction


18.2 Composition and Properties of Hydrocarbons


18.3 Emulsion


18.4 Phase Behavior


18.5 Hydrocarbon Flow


18.6 Slugging and Liquid Handling


18.7 Pressure Surge


18.8 Line Sizing


18.9 References


Chapter 19 Heat Transfer and Thermal Insulation


19.1 Introduction


19.2 Heat Transfer Fundamentals


19.3 U-value


19.4 Steady State Heat Transfer


19.5 Transient Heat Transfer


19.6 Thermal Management Strategy and Insulation


19.7 References


19.8 Appendix: U-value and Cooldown Time Calculation Sheet


Chapter 20 Hydrates


20.1 Introduction


20.2 Physics and Phase Behavior


20.3 Hydrate Prevention


20.4 Hydrate Remediation


20.5 Hydrate Control Design Philosophies


20.6 Recover of Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors


20.7 References


Chapter 21 Wax and Asphaltenes


21.1 Introduction


21.2 Wax


21.3 Wax Management


21.4 Wax Remediation


21.5 Asphaltenes


21.7 References


Part IV: Riser Engineering


Chapter 22 Design of Deepwater Risers


22.1 Description of a Riser System


22.2 Riser Analysis Tools


22.3 Steel Catenary Riser for Deepwater Environments


22.4 Stresses and Service Life of Flexible Pipes


22.5 Drilling and Workover Risers


22.6 Reference


Chapter 23 Design Codes for Risers and Subsea Systems


23.1 Introduction


23.2 Design Criteria for Deepwater Metallic Risers


23.3 Limit State Design Criteria


23.4 Loads, Load Effects and Load Cases


23.5 Improving Design Codes and Guidelines


23.6 Regulations and Standards for Subsea Production Systems


23.7 References


Chapter 24 VIV and Wave Fatigue of Risers


24.1 Introduction


24.2 Fatigue Causes


24.3 Riser VIV Analysis and Suppression


24.4 Riser Fatigue due to Vortex-induced Hull Motions (VIM)


24.5 Challenges and Solutions for Fatigue Analysis


24.6 Conclusions


24.7 References


Chapter 25 Steel Catenary Risers


25.1 Introduction


25.2 SCR Technology Development History


25.3 Material Selection, Wall-thickness Sizing, Source Services and Clap Pipe


25.4 SCR Design Analysis


25.5 Welding Technology, S-N Curves and SCF for Welded Connections


25.6 UT Inspections and ECA Criteria


25.7 Flexjoints, Stressjoints and Pulltubes


25.8 Strength Design Challenges and Solutions


25.9 Fatigue Design Challenges and Solutions


25.10 Installation and Sensitivity Considerations


25.11 Integrity Monitoring and Management Systems


25.12 References


Chapter 26 Top Tensioned Risers


26.1 Introduction


26.2 Top Tension Risers Systems


26.3 TTR Riser Components


26.4 Modelling and Analysis of Top Tensioned Risers


26.5 Integrated Marine Monitoring System


26.6 References


Chapter 27 Steel Tube Umbilical & Control Systems


27.1 Introduction


27.2 Control Systems


27.3 Cross-sectional Design of the Umbilical


27.4 Steel Tube Design Capacity Verification


27.5 Extreme Wave Analysis


27.6 Manufacturing Fatigue Analysis


27.7 In-place Fatigue Analysis


27.8 Installation Analysis


27.9 Required On-seabed Length for Stability


27.10 References


Chapter 28 Flexible Risers and Flowlines


28.1 Introduction


28.2 Flexible Pipe Cross Section


28.3 End Fitting and Annulus Venting Design


28.4 Flexible Riser Design


28.5 References


Chapter 29 Hybrid Risers


29.1 Introduction


29.2 General Description of Hybrid Risers


29.3 Sizing of Hybrid Risers


29.4 Preliminary Analysis


29.5 Strength Analysis


29.6 Fatigue Analysis


29.7 Structural and Environmental Monitoring System


29.8 References


Chapter 30 Drilling Risers


30.1 Introduction


30.2 Floating Drilling Equipments


30.3 Key Components of Subsea Production Systems


30.4 Riser Design Criteria


30.5 Drilling Riser Analysis Model


30.6 Drilling Riser Analysis Methodology


30.7 References


Chapter 31 Integrity Management of Flexibles and Umbilicals


31.1 Introduction


31.2 Failure Statistics


31.3 Risk Management Methodology


31.4 Failure Drivers


31.5 Failure Modes


31.6 Integrity Management Strategy


31.7 Inspection Measures


31.8 Monitoring


31.9 Testing and Analysis Measures


31.10 Steel Tube Umbilical Risk Analysis and Integrity Management


31.11 References


Part V: Welding and Installation


Chapter 32 Use of High Strength Steel


32.1 Introduction


32.2 Review of Usage of High Strength Steel Linepipes


32.3 Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of High Strength Steel


32.4 Welding of High Strength Linepipe


32.5 Cathodic Protection


32.6 Fatigue and Fracture of High Strength Steel


32.7 Material Property Requirements


32.8 References


Chapter 33 Welding and Defect Acceptance


33.1 Introduction


33.2 Weld Repair Analysis


33.3 Allowable Excavation Length Assessment


33.4 Conclusions


33.5 References


Chapter 34 Installation Design


34.1 Introduction


34.2 Pipeline Installation Vessels


34.3 Software OFFPIPE and Code Requirements


34.4 Physical Background for Installation


34.5 Finite Element Analysis Procedure for Installation of In-line Valves


34.6 Two Medium Pipeline Design Concept


34.7 References


Chapter 35 Route Optimization, Tie-in and Protection


35.1 Introduction


35.2 Pipeline Routing


35.3 Pipeline Tie-ins


35.4 Flowline Trenching/Burying


35.4.1 Jet Sled


35.5 Flowline Rockdumping


35.6 Equipment Dayrates


35.7 References


Chapter 36 Pipeline Inspection, Maintenance and Repair


36.1 Operations


36.2 Inspection by Intelligent Pigging


36.3 Maintenance


36.4 Pipeline Repair Methods


36.5 Deepwater Pipeline Repair


36.6 References


Part VI: Integrity Management


Chapter 37 Reliability-based Strength Design of Pipelines


37.1 Introduction


37.2 Uncertainty Measures


37.3 Calibration of Safety Factors


37.4 Reliability-based Determination of Corrosion Allowance


37.5 References


Chapter 38 Corroded Pipelines


38.1 Introduction


38.2 Corrosion Defect Predictions


38.3 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe


38.4 New Remaining Strength Criteria for Corroded Pipe


38.5 Reliability-based Design


38.6 Re-qualification Example Applications


38.7 References


Chapter 39 Residual Strength of Dented Pipes with Cracks


39.1 Introduction


39.2 Limit-state based Criteria for Dented Pipe


39.3 Fracture of Pipes with Longitudinal Cracks


39.4 Fracture of Pipes with Circumferential Cracks


39.5 Reliability-based Assessment


39.6 Design Examples


39.7 References


Chapter 40 Integrity Management of Subsea Systems


40.1 Introduction


40.2 Acceptance Criteria


40.3 Identification of Initiating Events


40.4 Cause Analysis


40.5 Probability of Initiating Events


40.6 Causes of Risks


40.7 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Qualitative Review and Databases


40.8 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Structural Reliability Methods


40.9 Consequence Analysis


40.10 Example 1: Risk Analysis for a Subsea Gas Pipeline


40.11 Example 2: Dropped Object Risk Analysis


40.11.4 Results


40.12 Example 3: Example Use of RBIM to Reduce Operation Costs


40.13 References


Chapter 41 LCC Modeling as a Decision Making Tool in Pipeline Design


41.1 Introduction


41.2 Initial Cost


41.3 Financial Risk


41.4 Time Value of Money


41.5 Fabrication Tolerance Example Using the Life-cycle Cost Model


41.6 On-Bottom Stability Example


41.7 References


Subject Index
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Bai, Yong
Dr. Yong Bai obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. He is currently President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR Inc., a design/consulting firm in the field of subsea pipelines, risers and floating systems. In the 1990's, he had been a technical leader for several Asgard Transport pipeline and flowline projects at JP Kenny as Manager of the advanced engineering department. Yong was previously a lead riser engineer at Shell and assisted in offshore rules development at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) as Manager of the offshore technology department. While a professor, he wrote several books and served as a course leader on the design of subsea pipelines and irsers as well as design of floating systems. He also serves at Zhejiang University in China as professor.
Bai, Qiang
Dr. Qiang Bai obtained a doctorate for Mechanical Engineering at Kyushu University, Japan in 1995. He has more than 20 years of experience in subsea/offshore engineering including research and engineering execution. He has worked at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA, OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. His experience includes various aspects of flow assurance and the design and installation of subsea structures, pipelines and riser systems.
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