World Fisheries. A Social–Ecological Analysis. Fish and Aquatic Resources

  • ID: 2178757
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 440 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Difficulties in developing understanding and collaboration between natural scientists, social scientists, and knowledge users on issues of global change in marine socialecological systems include a lack of clarity on the underlying conceptual issues of marine and human community interactions, poor appreciation of the process of knowledge transfer from science to society, and a lack of opportunity to meet and discuss these issues. By global change , we include climate change, but also resource over–exploitation, competing uses of the marine environment, changing lifestyles, and the globalization of trade and economies. While the focus of this volume is on climate and environmental change, how these interact with other global changes are important considerations.

This book brings together work in social–ecological marine research that cuts across disciplines, and identifies key next steps and common elements and approaches that promote resilience of marine social–ecological systems in the face of global changes. The book has contributions on conceptual issues relating to social–ecological responses in marine systems to global changes; offers illustrative case studies of specific examples of social–ecological responses in marine systems to significant environmental changes manifested locally; develops a synthesis between natural and social scientists on the topic, and points the way forward with innovative approaches to the use of science and knowledge in management, policy and advice. Case studies provide the raw material for the synthesis and global interpretations. The book stems from a symposium held at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 8 11 July, 2008 that included participation by a wide range of scholars, including natural and social scientists, marine resources managers, and development and community organizations.

World Fisheries is a landmark publication providing essential information for fisheries managers, sociologists, marine scientists, ecologists and environmental scientists. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have copies of this most valuable volume on their shelves.

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List of Contributors xiv

Series Foreword xix

Acknowledgements xxii

Part I Social–Ecological Systems in Fisheries 1

1 Introduction 3
Rosemary E. Ommer and R. Ian Perry

Reference 8

2 Restoring Unity: The Concept of Marine Social–Ecological Systems 9
Fikret Berkes

Introduction 10

Social–ecological systems concept and background 11

Complexity, globalization, and social–ecological systems 14

Participatory management and governance 19

Conclusions 22

Acknowledgements 24

References 24

Part II Modeling 29

3 Predicting the Impacts and Socio–Economic Consequences of Climate Change on Global Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries: The QUEST—Fish Framework 31
Manuel Barange, Icarus Allen, Eddie Allison, Marie–Caroline Badjeck, Julia Blanchard, Benjamin Drakeford, Nicholas K. Dulvy, James Harle, Robert Holmes, Jason Holt, Simon Jennings, Jason Lowe, Gorka Merino, Christian Mullon, Graham Pilling, Lynda Rodwell, Emma Tompkins, and Francisco Werner

Introduction 32

Framing the problem 35

Geographical and temporal framework 35

The role of GCMs and RCMs 36

Developing physical–biological models for the shelf seas 37

Estimating potential fish production 40

Estimating socio–economic consequences 44

Methodology for national vulnerability assessment 44

Methodology for global assessment of a marine–based commodity: fishmeal 48

Opportunities and boundaries of the QUEST—Fish approach 52

Endnotes 54

References 54

4 Fleets, Sites, and Conservation Goals: Game Theoretic Insights on Management Options for Multinational Tuna Fisheries 60
Kathleen Miller, Peter Golubtsov, and Robert McKelvey

Introduction 61

Background Tuna exploitation and management in the Western and Central Pacific 62

The model 66

The single–season subgame: The split–stream extensive model 68

The two–fleet interior game 68

The RFMO–guided seasonal game between distant–water fleets and coastal countries 70

Simulations and implications 72

Game structure of RFMO sites fleets interaction 72

Policy choices for sustaining stocks 73

Effects of coalition–formation 80

Climate–related shifts in distribution of stocks 84

Summary, policy implications and future directions 86

Acknowledgement 87

Endnotes 87

References 88

5 Fishing the Food Web: Integrated Analysis of Changes and Drivers of Change in Fisheries of the Bay of Biscay 90
Olivier Thébaud and Fabian Blanchard

Introduction 91

Patterns of change in fisheries landings by French fleets 92

Drivers of change 93

Institutional context: a case of regulated open access 94

Increased competition in markets for fish 95

Effects of sea warming on the fish community structure 97

Perspectives 101

Acknowledgements 102

Endnotes 102

References 103

6 Interdisciplinary Modeling for an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Marine Social–Ecological Systems 105
Anthony M. Starfield and Astrid Jarre

Introduction 105

Focusing attention and setting objectives 106

A model of a model 108

Rapid prototyping 109

The question of balance 111

Frame–based modeling 112

People and resources 115

Concluding remarks 117

Acknowledgements 118

References 118

7 People s Seas: Ethno–oceanography as an Interdisciplinary Means to Approach Marine Ecosystem Change 120
Maria A. Gasalla and Antonio C. S. Diegues

Introduction 120

Defining ethno–oceanography 122

Ethnoecology approach 122

The significance of key communication: Ethno–oceanography and changes in marine social–ecological systems of Brazil 124

Ethno–oceanography as a framework to approach climate and marine ecosystem change 128

Looking beyond uncertainty: Implications of climate change to fisheries 129

Redefining the reach of ethno–oceanography: a conceptual approach 130

Concluding remarks 132

Acknowledgements 132

Endnotes 133

References 133

Part III Knowledge 137

8 The Utility of Economic Indicators to Promote Policy–Relevant Science for Climate Change Decisions 139
Judith Kildow

Introduction 139

Indicators 141

Economic indicators: a framework 143

Economic indicators function in multiple ways 143

The evidence from society 146

Conclusion 148

Endnotes 149

References 149

9 Scientific Advice for Fisheries Management in West Africa in the Context of Global Change 151
Bora Masumbuko, Moctar Bâ, P. Morand, P. Chavance, and Pierre Failler

Introduction 151

West African context 152

Method 155

ECOST/ISTAM survey results 156

Scientific advice: content and processes 156

Use and non–use of scientific advice and its implications 157

Improvement of the quality of scientific advice and its use in the decision process 160

Discussion 161

Conclusion 164

Acknowledgements 165

Endnotes 165

References 166

10 Knowledge and Research on Chilean Fisheries Resources: Diagnosis and Recommendations for Sustainable Development 168
Eleuterio Yáñez, Exequiel González, Luis Cubillos, Samuel Hormazábal, Héctor Trujillo, Lorena Álvarez, Alejandra Órdenes, Milton Pedraza, and Gustavo Aedo

Introduction 169

Framework 169

System structure, elements, interactions, and knowledge to be considered 174

Current status of knowledge 176

Governance of the fisheries system (a system of problems) 179

Discussion 179

Future research path for fisheries management 179

Endnotes 181

References 181

11 Moving Forward: Social–Ecological Interactivity, Global Marine Change and Knowledge for the Future 182
Barbara Neis

Introduction 182

Social–ecological knowledge 183

Knowing where we want to go and finding our way there 190

Conclusion 195

Endnote 197

References 197

Part IV Values 201

12 Unaccounted Values: Under–reporting Sardine Catches as a Strategy Against Poverty in the Bali Strait, Indonesia 203
Eny Anggraini Buchary, Tony J. Pitcher, and Ussif Rashid Sumaila

Introduction 203

Area description 204

The Lemuru fishery 205

Materials and methods 206

Data collection 206

Analytical methods 207

Results and discussion 211

Fate of landed lemuru and distribution of reported catch 211

Estimated true catch 214

Financial insecurity: lending schemes and debt–to–assets ratio 215

Measuring relative poverty in fisheries 217

Conclusions 218

Acknowledgements 219

Endnotes 220

References 221

13 You Don t Know What You ve Got Til It s Gone : The Case for Spiritual Values in Marine Ecosystem Management 224
Nigel Haggan

Introduction 224

Golden Rule #1: Love your neighbor as yourself 226

Golden Rule #2: The one with the gold makes the rules 227

Golden Rule #3: The gold goes where the gold grows 227

Concepts of value 228

The roots of whole ecosystem evaluation 229

Formal frameworks, 1987 1991 230

Measuring ecosystem value 231

A bridge between intrinsic and instrumental value 234

Conclusion 236

Acknowledgements 237

Appendix 1: Catagories used in total economic value and ecosystem services frameworks 237

References 239

14 Social–Ecological Restructuring and Implications for Social Values 247
Grant Murray

Introduction 248

Approach and methods 249

Social–ecological restructuring: Putting climate change in context 249

Changes in social structures and processes 251

Size and connection with fishing industry 251

Age structure 252

Internal stratification 253

Fishing as a way of life: Now and in the future 258

Discussion 259

Conclusion 261

Endnotes 262

References 262

15 Economic Valuation of Mangroves in the Niger Delta: An Interdisciplinary Approach 265
Godstime K. James, Jimmy O. Adegoke, Ekechukwu Saba, Peter Nwilo, Joseph Akinyede, and Sylvester Osagie

Introduction 265

Study area 266

Integration of remote sensing and socio–economic data 267

Economic valuation of mangrove resources 268

Methodology 269

Remote sensing analysis 269

Focus group analysis 270

Household survey 271

Empirical data processing 271

Estimation of net income from the sale of mangrove resources 271

Estimation of the mangrove area that supported mangrove income (Ak) 272

Annual household net income at the community level 273

Results and analysis 274

Socio–economic characteristics of household survey respondents 274

Area of mangrove that support income stream (Ak) 274

Results from the economic valuation 274

Conclusions 277

References 278

16 US Marine Ecosystem Habitat Values 281
Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Jackie Alder, G. Ishimura, William. W. L. Cheung, L. Dropkin, S. Hopkins, S. Sullivan, and A. Kitchingman

Introduction 281

Geographical scope of study 282

Assigning use and non–use values to habitat types 283

Direct use: Habitat associated commercial values 283

Direct use: Habitat associated recreational values 284

Non–use and indirect value: Habitat values based on iconic species 285

The results 285

Direct use: Habitat associated commercial values 286

Direct use: Habitat associated recreational values 286

Non–use and indirect value: Habitat values based on iconic species 286

Concluding remarks 287

Acknowledgements 288

Endnotes 288

References 288

Part V Governance 291

17 Historical Transitions in Access to and Management of Alaska s Commercial Fisheries, 1880 1980 293
Emilie Springer

Introduction 293

Early days: Gold and salmon; 1867 1919 294

1899 Report by Jefferson Moser, United States Navy Commander of the steam ship Albatross 294

1920 1939: The records of Hubbell and Waller 296

The mid–century era of fisheries: 1940 1969 299

1954 1970 Total Catch Statistics 300

Species shift, changing technology, improved access, and awareness of off–shore waters: 1970s 1980s 301

Three Alaskan competitors: Japan, Russia/Soviet Union, and Korea 302

Organization of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) 304

Discussion and conclusions 305

Endnotes 307

References 307

18 Can Fishers Virtuous Behavior Improve Large Marine Ecosystem Health? 310
Valentina Giannini

Introduction 310

Guatemala: A case study 314

Vicious chains: Exploitation and degradation 314

Virtous chains and the Red: A partial solution to conflict and overfishing 316

Discussion 317

Conclusions 318

Acknowledgements 319

References 319

Useful websites 321

19 Ecosystem–based Management in the Asia–Pacific Region 322
Mitsutaku Makino and Hiroyuki Matsuda

Introduction 322

Global comparison of fisheries sectors 323

Ecosystem–based management at the Shiretoko World

Natural Heritage, Japan 329

Discussion 331

Conclusion 332

Acknowledgement 332

Endnotes 332

References 333

20 A Network Approach to Understanding Coastal Management and Governance of Small–scale Fisheries in the Eastern Caribbean 334
Kemraj Parsram and Patrick McConney

Introduction 334

Coastal and fisheries resources 335

Governance issues 337

Network governance thinking 340

Tuna fishery management 341

Fisheries science networks 343

Regional fisher folk organization 346

Conclusion 347

References 348

21 Uncertainty Demands an Adaptive Management Approach to the Use of Marine Protected Areas as Management Tools 351
Michel J. Kaiser

Introduction 351

Quantifying the performance of MPAs 352

The plaice–box as a case study 353

Climate effects on MPA performance metrics 355

Dealing with future uncertainty 356

References 357

22 Building Resilience to Climatic and Global Change in High–Latitude Fishing Communities: Three Case Studies from Iceland and Alaska 359
James R. McGoodwin

Introduction 360

Impacts that are forecast for marine ecosystems and the world s coastal fishing communities 361

Case studies from three high–latitude fishing communities 364

Case Study 1: Heimaey, Iceland 365

Case Study 2: Dillingham, Southwest Alaska 367

Case Study 3: The Yup ik community, Southwest Alaska 369

Conclusion: recommendations for increasing the resilience of the three high–latitude coastal fishing communities 372

Recommendations for Heimaey, Iceland 372

Recommendations for Dillingham, Southwest Alaska 373

Recommendations for the Yup ik community, Southwest Alaska 373

General recommendations 373

Regarding ordinary climatic variability 373

Regarding severe coastal storms and extreme weather events, sea–level rise, and saltwater intrusion 374

Regarding changes in marine ecosystem compositions 374

Regarding building the capacity of fisheries–management systems to more effectively deal with global warming and change 375

Regarding future fisheries research 375

Regarding regional fisheries management organizations 376

Acknowledgements 377

Endnotes 377

References 378

23 Coping with Environmental Change: Systemic Responses and the Roles of Property and Community in Three Fisheries 381
Bonnie J. McCay, Wendy Weisman, and Carolyn Creed

Introduction 381

Case Study 1: Fogo Island, Newfoundland, Canada 383

Case Study 2: Pacifico Norte, Baja California Sur, Mexico 386

Case Study 3: US Surfclam Fishery 391

Conclusion: Enclosures, feedback, and the future 394

Acknowledgements 396

References 397

Part VI Conclusions 401

24 Conclusion: Hierarchy, Power, and Potential Regime Shifts in Marine Social–Ecological Systems 403
Rosemary E. Ommer and R. Ian Perry

References 406

Index 407

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Rosemary E. Ommer, Department of History, University of Victoria, Canada

R. Ian Perry, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, Canada

Kevern Cochrane, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy

Philippe Cury, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre de Recherche Halieutique Méditerranéenne et Tropicale, IRD IFREMER & Université Montpellier II, France

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