Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two–Wheeled Vehicles. Automotive Series

  • ID: 2616979
  • Book
  • 368 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Many books have been written on modelling, simulation and control of four–wheeled vehicles (cars, in particular). However, due to the very specific and different dynamics of two–wheeled vehicles, it is very difficult to reuse previous knowledge gained on cars for two–wheeled vehicles.

Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two–Wheeled Vehicles presents all of the unique features of two–wheeled vehicles, comprehensively covering the main methods, tools and approaches to address the modelling, simulation and control design issues. With contributions from leading researchers, this book also offers a perspective on the future trends in the field, outlining the challenges and the industrial and academic development scenarios. Extensive reference to real–world problems and experimental tests is also included throughout.

Key features:

  • The first book to cover all aspects of two–wheeled vehicle dynamics and control
  • Collates cutting–edge research from leading international researchers in the field
  • Covers motorcycle control a subject gaining more and more attention both from an academic and an industrial viewpoint
  • Covers modelling, simulation and control, areas that are integrated in two–wheeled vehicles, and therefore must be considered together in order to gain an insight into this very specific field of research
  • Presents analysis of experimental data and reports on the results obtained on instrumented vehicles.

Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two–Wheeled Vehicles is a comprehensive reference for those in academia who are interested in the state of the art of two–wheeled vehicles, and is also a useful source of information for industrial practitioners.

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About the Editors xi

List of Contributors xiii

Series Preface xv

Introduction xvii


1 Motorcycle Dynamics 3
Vittore Cossalter, Roberto Lot, and Matteo Massaro

1.1 Kinematics 3

1.2 Tyres 6

1.3 Suspensions 13

1.4 In–Plane Dynamics 18

1.5 Out–of–Plane Dynamics 29

1.6 In–Plane and Out–of–Plane Coupled Dynamics 40

References 41

2 Dynamic Modelling of Riderless Motorcycles for Agile Manoeuvres 43
Yizhai Zhang, Jingang Yi, and Dezhen Song

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Related Work 44

2.3 Motorcycle Dynamics 45

2.4 Tyre Dynamics Models 51

2.5 Conclusions 55

Nomenclature 55

Appendix A: Calculation of Ms 56

Appendix B: Calculation of Acceleration G 57

Acknowledgements 57

References 57

3 Identification and Analysis of Motorcycle Engine–to–Slip Dynamics 59
Matteo Corno and Sergio M. Savaresi

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Experimental Setup 60

3.3 Identification of Engine–to–Slip Dynamics 61

3.4 Engine–to–Slip Dynamics Analysis 73

3.5 Road Surface Sensitivity 78

3.6 Velocity Sensitivity 79

3.7 Conclusions 80

References 80

4 Virtual Rider Design: Optimal Manoeuvre Definition and Tracking 83
Alessandro Saccon, John Hauser, and Alessandro Beghi

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Principles of Minimum Time Trajectory Computation 86

4.3 Computing the Optimal Velocity Profile for a Point–Mass Motorcycle 90

4.4 The Virtual Rider 102

4.5 Dynamic Inversion: from Flatland to State–Input Trajectories 103

4.6 Closed–Loop Control: Executing the Planned Trajectory 107

4.7 Conclusions 115

4.8 Acknowledgements 116

References 116

5 The Optimal Manoeuvre 119
Francesco Biral, Enrico Bertolazzi, and Mauro Da Lio

5.1 The Optimal Manoeuvre Concept: Manoeuvrability and Handling 121

5.2 Optimal Manoeuvre as a Solution of an Optimal Control Problem 133

5.3 Applications of Optimal Manoeuvre to Motorcycle Dynamics 145

5.4 Conclusions 152

References 152

6 Active Biomechanical Rider Model for Motorcycle Simulation 155
Valentin Keppler

6.1 Human Biomechanics and Motor Control 156

6.2 The Model 161

6.3 Simulations and Results 167

6.4 Conclusions 179

References 180

7 A Virtual–Reality Framework for the Hardware–in–the–Loop Motorcycle Simulation 183
Roberto Lot and Vittore Cossalter

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Architecture of the Motorcycle Simulator 184

7.3 Tuning and Validation 188

7.4 Application Examples 191

References 194


8 Traction Control Systems Design: A Systematic Approach 199
Matteo Corno and Giulio Panzani

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Wheel Slip Dynamics 202

8.3 Traction Control System Design 206

8.4 Fine tuning and Experimental Validation 212

8.5 Conclusions 218

References 219

9 Motorcycle Dynamic Modes and Passive Steering Compensation 221
Simos A. Evangelou and Maria Tomas–Rodriguez

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Motorcycle Main Oscillatory Modes and Dynamic Behaviour 222

9.3 Motorcycle Standard Model 224

9.4 Characteristics of the Standard Machine Oscillatory Modes and the Influence of Steering Damping 226

9.5 Compensator Frequency Response Design 228

9.6 Suppression of Burst Oscillations 233

9.7 Conclusions 240

References 240

10 Semi–Active Steering Damper Control for Two–Wheeled Vehicles 243
Pierpaolo De Filippi, Mara Tanelli, and Matteo Corno

10.1 Introduction and Motivation 243

10.2 Steering Dynamics Analysis 245

10.3 Control Strategies for Semi–Active Steering Dampers 252

10.3.1 Rotational Sky–Hook and Ground–Hook 253

10.4 Validation on Challenging Manoeuvres 257

10.5 Experimental Results 266

10.6 Conclusions 267

References 268

11 Semi–Active Suspension Control in Two–Wheeled Vehicles: a Case Study 271
Diego Delvecchio and Cristiano Spelta

11.1 Introduction and Problem Statement 271

11.2 The Semi–Active Actuator 272

11.3 The Quarter–Car Model: a Description of a Semi–Active Suspension System 275

11.4 Evaluation Methods for Semi–Active Suspension Systems 277

11.5 Semi–Active Control Strategies 279

11.6 Experimental Set–up 281

11.7 Experimental Evaluation 281

11.8 Conclusions 289

References 289

12 Autonomous Control of Riderless Motorcycles 293
Yizhai Zhang, Jingang Yi, and Dezhen Song

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Trajectory Tracking Control Systems Design 294

12.3 Path–Following Control System Design 305

12.4 Conclusion 315

Acknowledgements 317

Appendix A: Calculation of the Lie Derivatives 317

References 318

13 Estimation Problems in Two–Wheeled Vehicles 319
Ivo Boniolo, Giulio Panzani, Diego Delvecchio, Matteo Corno, Mara Tanelli, Cristiano Spelta, and Sergio M. Savaresi

13.1 Introduction 319

13.2 Roll Angle Estimation 320

13.3 Vehicle Speed Estimation 329

13.4 Suspension Stroke Estimation 337

13.5 Conclusions 342

References 342

Index 345

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Mara Tanelli was born in Lodi, Italy, in 1978. She is an Assistant Professor of Automatic Control at the Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria of the Politecnico di Milano, Italy, where she obtained the Laurea degree in Computer Engineering in 2003 and the Ph.D. in Information Engineering in 2007. She also holds a M.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her main research interests focus on control systems design for vehicles, energy management of electric vehicles, control for energy aware IT systems and sliding mode control. She is co–author of more than 100 peer–reviewed scientific publications and 7 patents in the above research aras. She is also co–author of the monograph Active braking control systems design for vehicles , published in 2010 by Springer.

Matteo Corno was born in Italy in 1980. He received his Master of Science degree in Computer and Electrical Engineering (University of Illinois) and his Ph.D. cum laude degree with a thesis on active stability control of two–wheeled vehicles (Politecnico di Milano) in 2005 and 2009. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Italy. In 2011, his paper On Optimal Motorcycle Braking was awarded the best–paper prize for Control Engineering Practice, published in the period 2008–2010. In 2012 and 2013, he co–founded two highly innovative start–ups: E–Novia and Zehus. His current research interests include dynamics and control of vehicles, Lithium–ion battery modelling, estimation and control and modelling and control of human powered electric vehicles. He held research positions at Thales Alenia Space, University of Illinois, Harley Davidson, University of Minnesota, Johannes Kepler University in Linz, and TU Delft.

Born in Manerbio, Italy, in 1968, Sergio Savaresi holds an MSc in Electrical Engineering and a PhD in Systems and Control Engineering, both from the Politecnico di Milano, and an MSc in Applied Mathematics from Università Cattolica. After receiving the PhD, he was a consultant for McKinsey&Co, Milan Office. He is Full Professor in Automatic Control since 2006.  He has been visiting scholar at Lund University, Sweden, University of Twente, The Netherlans, Canberra National University, Australia, Minnesota University at Minneapolis, USA, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria. He is Associate Editor of several international journals and he has been in the International Program Committee of many International Conferences. His main research interests are in the areas of vehicles control, automotive systems, data analysis and modeling, non–linear control, and industrial control applications. He is the head of the MoVE research group at the Politecnico di Milano, active in many public and industrial projects in all vehicle–related areas.

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