Polymer Processing. Principles and Design. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2617136
  • Book
  • 416 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Fundamental concepts coupled with practical, step–by–step guidance

With its emphasis on core principles, this text equips readers with the skills and knowledge to design the many processes needed to safely and successfully manufacture thermoplastic parts. The first half of the text sets forth the general theory and concepts underlying polymer processing, such as the viscoelastic response of polymeric fluids and diffusion and mass transfer. Next, the text explores specific practical aspects of polymer processing, including mixing, extrusion dies, and post–die processing. By addressing a broad range of design issues and methods, the authors demonstrate how to solve most common processing problems.

This Second Edition of the highly acclaimed Polymer Processing has been thoroughly updated to reflect current polymer processing issues and practices. New areas of coverage include:

  • Micro–injection molding to produce objects weighing a fraction of a gram, such as miniature gears and biomedical devices
  • New chapter dedicated to the recycling of thermoplastics and the processing of renewable polymers
  • Life–cycle assessment, a systematic method for determining whether recycling is appropriate and which form of recycling is optimal
  • Rheology of polymers containing fibers

Chapters feature problem sets, enabling readers to assess and reinforce their knowledge as they progress through the text. There are also special design problems throughout the text that reflect real–world polymer processing issues. A companion website features numerical subroutines as well as guidance for using MATLAB®, IMSL®, and Excel to solve the sample problems from the text. By providing both underlying theory and practical step–by–step guidance, Polymer Processing is recommended for students in chemical, mechanical, materials, and polymer engineering.

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Preface xi

Preface to the First Edition xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 Importance of Process Design 1

1.1 Classification of Polymer Processes, 1

1.2 Film Blowing: Case Study, 5

1.3 Basics of Polymer Process Design, 7

2 Isothermal Flow of Purely Viscous Non–Newtonian Fluids 9

Design Problem I Design of a Blow Molding Die, 9

2.1 Viscous Behavior of Polymer Melts, 10

2.2 One–Dimensional Isothermal Flows, 13

2.2.1 Flow Through an Annular Die, 14

2.2.2 Flow in a Wire Coating Die, 17

2.3 Equations of Change for Isothermal Systems, 19

2.4 Useful Approximations, 26

2.5 Solution to Design Problem I, 27

2.5.1 Lubrication Approximation Solution, 27

2.5.2 Computer Solution, 29

3 Viscoelastic Response of Polymeric Fluids and Fiber Suspensions 37

Design Problem II Design of a Parison Die for a Viscoelastic Fluid, 37

3.1 Material Functions for Viscoelastic Fluids, 38

3.1.1 Kinematics, 38

3.1.2 Stress Tensor Components, 39

3.1.3 Material Functions for Shear Flow, 40

3.1.4 Shear–Free Flow Material Functions, 43

3.2 Nonlinear Constitutive Equations, 44

3.2.1 Description of Several Models, 44

3.2.2 Fiber Suspensions, 52

3.3 Rheometry, 55

3.3.1 Shear Flow Measurements, 56

3.3.2 Shear–Free Flow Measurements, 58

3.4 Useful Relations for Material Functions, 60

3.4.1 Effect of Molecular Weight, 60

3.4.2 Relations Between Linear Viscoelastic Properties and Viscometric Functions, 61

3.4.3 Branching, 61

3.5 Rheological Measurements and Polymer Processability, 62

3.6 Solution to Design Problem II, 64

4 Diffusion and Mass Transfer 73

Design Problem III Design of a Dry–Spinning System, 73

4.1 Mass Transfer Fundamentals, 74

4.1.1 Definitions of Concentrations and Velocities, 74

4.1.2 Fluxes and Their Relationships, 76

4.1.3 Fick’s First Law of Diffusion, 76

4.1.4 Microscopic Material Balance, 78

4.1.5 Similarity with Heat Transfer: Simple Applications, 80

4.2 Diffusivity, Solubility, and Permeability in Polymer Systems, 84

4.2.1 Diffusivity and Solubility of Simple Gases, 84

4.2.2 Permeability of Simple Gases and Permachor, 87

4.2.3 Moisture Sorption and Diffusion, 90

4.2.4 Permeation of Higher–Activity Permeants, 90

4.2.5 Polymer–Polymer Diffusion, 93

4.2.6 Measurement Techniques and Their Mathematics, 94

4.3 Non–Fickian Transport, 95

4.4 Mass Transfer Coefficients, 96

4.4.1 Definitions, 96

4.4.2 Analogies Between Heat and Mass Transfer, 97

4.5 Solution to Design Problem III, 99

5 Nonisothermal Aspects of Polymer Processing 111

Design Problem IV Casting of Polypropylene Film, 111

5.1 Temperature Effects on Rheological Properties, 111

5.2 The Energy Equation, 113

5.2.1 Shell Energy Balances, 113

5.2.2 Equation of Thermal Energy, 117

5.3 Thermal Transport Properties, 120

5.3.1 Homogeneous Polymer Systems, 120

5.3.2 Thermal Properties of Composite Systems, 123

5.4 Heating and Cooling of Nondeforming Polymeric Materials, 124

5.4.1 Transient Heat Conduction in Nondeforming Systems, 125

5.4.2 Heat Transfer Coefficients, 130

5.4.3 Radiation Heat Transfer, 132

5.5 Crystallization, Morphology, and Orientation, 135

5.5.1 Crystallization in the Quiescent State, 136

5.5.2 Other Factors Affecting Crystallization, 142

5.5.3 Polymer Molecular Orientation, 143

5.6 Solution to Design Problem IV, 145

6 Mixing 153

Design Problem V Design of a Multilayered Extrusion Die, 153

6.1 Description of Mixing, 154

6.2 Characterization of the State of Mixture, 156

6.2.1 Statistical Description of Mixing, 157

6.2.2 Scale and Intensity of Segregation, 161

6.2.3 Mixing Measurement Techniques, 163

6.3 Striation Thickness and Laminar Mixing, 164

6.3.1 Striation Thickness Reduction from Geometrical Arguments, 164

6.3.2 Striation Thickness Reduction from Kinematical Arguments, 169

6.3.3 Laminar Mixing in Simple Geometries, 171

6.4 Residence Time and Strain Distributions, 174

6.4.1 Residence Time Distribution, 174

6.4.2 Strain Distribution, 177

6.5 Dispersive Mixing, 180

6.5.1 Dispersion of Agglomerates, 180

6.5.2 Liquid–Liquid Dispersion, 182

6.6 Thermodynamics of Mixing, 188

6.7 Chaotic Mixing, 189

6.8 Solution to Design Problem V, 191

7 Extrusion Dies 201

Design Problem VI Coextrusion Blow Molding Die, 201

7.1 Extrudate Nonuniformities, 202

7.2 Viscoelastic Phenomena, 203

7.2.1 Flow Behavior in Contractions, 203

7.2.2 Extrusion Instabilities, 203

7.2.3 Die Swell, 207

7.3 Sheet and Film Dies, 212

7.4 Annular Dies, 216

7.4.1 Center–Fed Annular Dies, 216

7.4.2 Side–Fed and Spiral Mandrel Dies, 217

7.4.3 Wire Coating Dies, 217

7.5 Profile Extrusion Dies, 220

7.6 Multiple Layer Extrusion, 222

7.6.1 General Considerations, 222

7.6.2 Design Equations, 224

7.6.3 Flow Instabilities in Multiple Layer Flow, 227

7.7 Solution to Design Problem VI, 228

8 Extruders 235

Design Problem VII Design of a Devolatilization Section for a Single–Screw Extruder, 235

8.1 Description of Extruders, 235

8.1.1 Single–Screw Extruders, 237

8.1.2 Twin–Screw Extruders, 238

8.2 Hopper Design, 239

8.3 Plasticating Single–Screw Extruders, 242

8.3.1 Solids Transport, 242

8.3.2 Delay and Melting Zones, 246

8.3.3 Metering Section, 250

8.4 Twin–Screw Extruders, 253

8.4.1 Self–wiping Corotating Twin–Screw Extruders, 253

8.4.2 Intermeshing Counterrotating Extruders, 256

8.5 Mixing, Devolatilization, and Reactions in Extruders, 258

8.5.1 Mixing, 258

8.5.2 Devolatilization in Extruders, 262

8.5.3 Reactive Extrusion, 264

8.6 Solution to Design Problem VII, 265

8.6.1 Dimensional Analysis, 265

8.6.2 Diffusion Theory, 267

9 Postdie Processing 275

Design Problem VIII Design of a Film Blowing Process for Garbage Bags, 275

9.1 Fiber Spinning, 276

9.1.1 Isothermal Newtonian Model, 278

9.1.2 Nonisothermal Newtonian Model, 281

9.1.3 Isothermal Viscoelastic Model, 285

9.1.4 High–Speed Spinning and Structure Formation, 287

9.1.5 Instabilities in Fiber Spinning, 290

9.2 Film Casting and Stretching, 293

9.2.1 Film Casting, 293

9.2.2 Stability of Film Casting, 296

9.2.3 Film Stretching and Properties, 297

9.3 Film Blowing, 297

9.3.1 Isothermal Newtonian Model, 299

9.3.2 Nonisothermal Newtonian Model, 302

9.3.3 Nonisothermal Non–Newtonian Model, 303

9.3.4 Biaxial Stretching and Mechanical Properties, 304

9.3.5 Stability of Film Blowing, 304

9.3.6 Scaleup, 305

9.4 Solution to Design Problem VIII, 305

10 Molding and Forming 311

Design Problem IX Design of a Compression Molding Process, 311

10.1 Injection Molding, 311

10.1.1 General Aspects of Injection Molding, 311

10.1.2 Simulation of Injection Molding, 315

10.1.3 Microinjection Molding, 318

10.2 Compression Molding, 319

10.2.1 General Aspects of Compression Molding, 319

10.2.2 Simulation of Compression Molding, 320

10.3 Thermoforming, 322

10.3.1 General Aspects of Thermoforming, 322

10.3.2 Modeling of Thermoforming, 324

10.4 Blow Molding, 328

10.4.1 Technological Aspects of Blow Molding, 328

10.4.2 Simulation of Blow Molding, 330

10.5 Solution to Design Problem IX, 332

11 Process Engineering for Recycled and Renewable Polymers 343

11.1 Life–Cycle Assessment, 343

11.2 Primary Recycling, 348

11.3 Mechanical or Secondary Recycling, 351

11.3.1 Rheology of Mixed Systems, 352

11.3.2 Filtration, 352

11.4 Tertiary or Feedstock Recycling, 354

11.5 Renewable Polymers and Their Processability, 357

11.5.1 Thermal Stability and Processing of Renewable Polymers, 358

Problems, 362

References, 363

Nomenclature 365

Appendix A Rheological Data for Several Polymer Melts 373

Appendix B Physical Properties and Friction Coefficients for Some Common Polymers in the Bulk State 379

Appendix C Thermal Properties of Materials 381

Appendix D Conversion Table 385

Index 387

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DONALD G. BAIRD, PhD, is the Alexander F. Giacco and Harry C. Wyatt Professor of Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech. His research centers on the use of fundamental non–Newtonian fluid mechanics to develop improved processing operations for polymers and polymer composites. Among his many honors, the Society of Plastics Engineers has awarded him the International Award, the International Award for Research, and the International Award for Education. A holder of seven patents, Dr. Baird has published some 300 refereed publications.

DIMITRIS I. COLLIAS, PhD, is with the corporate R&D department of the Procter & Gamble Co. in Cincinnati, Ohio. He earned his PhD degree from Princeton University. With twenty years of industry experience in polymers, polymer processing, packaging, paper, and activated carbon, his current research focuses on developing renewable materials and processes for key products in the company’s portfolio. Dr. Collias holds fifty–four issued U.S. patents and is inventor or co–inventor in more than thirty U.S. patent applications.

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