Antioxidants and Functional Components in Aquatic Foods

  • ID: 2708377
  • Book
  • 344 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Antioxidants and Functional Components in Aquatic Foods compiles for the first time the past and present research done on pro and antioxidants in aquatic animals. The book addresses an area of extreme importance for aquatic foods, since lipid oxidation leads to such a large number of quality problems. Many of these problems are also seen in other muscle based foods, but are exaggerated in aquatic foods, so the book s contents will be of great use and interest to other fields. Written by top researchers in the field, the book offers not only general overviews of lipid oxidation in aquatic foods and aquatic food pro and antioxidant systems, but also covers specifics and gives the latest information on the key pro and anti–oxidants derived from aquatic foods as well as some of the most recent and innovative means to control lipid oxidations in aquatic foods and food systems with fish oils. Coverage includes the latest research on the effects aquatic foods have on oxidative stress in the human body, an area of great interest recently. Additionally, a chapter is devoted to the latest techniques to measure antioxidative potential of aquatic foods, an area still in development and one very important to the antioxidant research community.Antioxidants and Functional Components in Aquatic Foods will be of great interest to the food science, medical, biochemical and pharmaceutical fields for professionals who deal with aquatic food products, muscle foods products (beef, pork, poultry etc), lipid oxidation, and pro–oxidant and antioxidant systems.
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List of contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Oxidation in aquatic foods and analysis methods 1Magnea G. Karlsdottir, Holly T. Petty , and Hordur G. Kristinsson

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Analysis of lipid oxidation 2

1.3 Conclusions 16

References 16

2 Protein oxidation in aquatic foods 23Caroline P. Baron

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Mechanisms involved in protein oxidation 24

2.3 Impact of protein oxidation on aquatic food 30

2.4 Case studies 33

2.5 Conclusions and perspectives 38

References 38

3 Influence of processing on lipids and lipid oxidation in aquatic foods 43Sivakumar Raghavan and Hordur G. Kristinsson

3.1 Effect of freezing on lipid oxidation 43

3.2 Effect of salting and drying on lipid oxidation 49

3.3 Effect of fermentation on lipid oxidation 53

3.4 Effect of smoking on lipid oxidation 55

3.5 Effect of high–pressure processing on lipid oxidation 58

3.6 Effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation 61

3.7 Effect of microwave processing on lipid oxidation 63

3.8 Effect of modified atmosphere on lipid oxidation 65

3.9 Effect of pH shift extraction method on lipid oxidatio 67

3.10 Effect of canning on lipid oxidation 70

References 73

4 Strategies to minimize lipid oxidation of aquatic food products post harvest 95Huynh Nguyen Duy Bao and Toshiaki Ohshima

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Lipid oxidation and quality deterioration in post–harvest aquatic food products 96

4.3 Post–harvest control of oxidative deterioration in aquatic food products 106

4.4 Conclusions and prospects 117

References 118

5 Antioxidative strategies to minimize oxidation in formulated food systems containing fish oils and omega–3 fatty acids 127Charlotte Jacobsen, Anna Frisenfeldt Horn, Ann–Dorit Moltke Sørensen, K. H. Sabeena Farvin, and Nina Skall Nielsen

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 The lipid oxidation process 128

5.3 Factors affecting lipid oxidation in omega–3–enriched foods 129

5.4 Introduction to antioxidants 131

5.5 Antioxidant effects in different omega–3–enriched food products 132

5.6 Other strategies to protect omega–3 products against oxidation 145

5.7 Conclusions 145

References 146

6 Methods for assessing the antioxidative activity of aquatic food compounds 151Holmfridur Sveinsdottir, Patricia Y. Hamaguchi, Hilma Eidsdottir Bakken, and Hordur G. Kristinsson

6.1 Background 151

6.2 Oxidation and antioxidants 153

6.3 Methods for determining antioxidant activity 157

References 169

7 Influence of fish consumption and some of its individual constituents on oxidative stress in cells, animals, and humans 175Britt Gabrielsson, Niklas Andersson, and Ingrid Undeland

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 What is oxidative stress? 176

7.3 Why is oxidative stress of importance and how does it link to diet? 177

7.4 How is oxidative stress measured? 178

7.6 Effects of fish intake on biomarkers used to evaluate oxidative stress 195

7.7 Methodological considerations 200

7.8 Conclusion and need for future studies 202

References 204

8 Marine antioxidants: polyphenols and carotenoids from algae 219Kazuo Miyashita

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Chain–breaking antioxidants 220

8.3 Antioxidants and their beneficial health effects 221

8.4 Seaweeds as a rich source of antioxidants 222

8.5 Algal polyphenols 222

8.6 Marine carotenoids 224

8.7 Antioxidant activity of carotenoids 225

8.8 Astaxanthin and fucoxanthin 226

8.9 Conclusions 228

References 229

9 Fish protein hydrolysates: production, bioactivities, and applications 237Soottawat Benjakul, Suthasinee Yarnpakdee, Theeraphol Senphan, Sigrun M. Halldorsdottir, and Hordur G. Kristinsson

9.1 Introduction 237

9.2 Source of fish protein hydrolysates 238

9.3 Production of fish protein hydrolysate 241

9.4 Properties of hydrolysate 255

9.5 Applications of fish protein hydrolysates 263

References 266

10 Antioxidant properties of marine macroalgae 283Tao Wang, Rosa Jonsdottir, Gudrun Olafsdottir, and Hordur G. Kristinsson

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Antioxidant properties of algal polyphenols 284

10.3 Antioxidant activity of algal sulfated polysaccharides 298

10.4 Antioxidant activities of fucoxanthin 302

10.5 Antioxidant activities of sterols from marine algae 304

10.6 Antioxidant activities of peptides derived from marine algae 306

10.7 Antioxidant activity of mycosporine–like amino acids 307

10.8 Concluding remarks 310

References 311

Index 319

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Hordur G. Kristinsson
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