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Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles

  • Book

  • October 2018
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
  • ID: 2719676
Given its importance to consumer safety, fire resistant textiles are one of the fastest growing sectors in industrial textiles. Handbook of fire resistant textiles provides a comprehensive review of the considerable advances that have occurred in the field of fire resistant textiles in recent years. It draws together scientific and technical expertise from around the world to produce an important source of current knowledge on fire resistant textiles and their use for protection in hostile environments.

Part one provides an overview of fire resistant textiles. Chapters discuss burning and combustion mechanisms of textile fibers, chemical modification of natural and synthetic fibers to improve flame retardancy, multi-component flame resistant coating techniques for textiles, care and maintenance of fire resistant textiles, along with the safety, health and environmental aspects of flame retardants. Part two covers different types of fire resistant fibers and fabrics, including flame retardant cotton, wool, ceramic fibers and blends, composites and nonwovens. Part three reviews standards, regulations, and characterization of fire resistant textiles. Part four includes case studies of major applications of fire resistant textiles.

The Handbook of fire resistant textiles is an invaluable resource for a broad spectrum of professionals in the textiles and apparel industries, including textile and garment manufacturers, engineers, researchers, designers, developers and buyers.

Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles



Overview of fire resistant textiles

Chapter 1: Combustion processes of textile fibres


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Thermal transitions and degradation of polymers

1.3 Degradation of individual fibre-forming polymer types

1.4 Polymer fires and the influence of polymer degradation steps on subsequent flame retardant behaviour

1.5 Flame retardancy

1.6 Specific mechanistic issues relevant to fibres and textiles: char formation

1.7 Potential of nanotechnology for flame retarding textiles

1.8 Future trends

Chapter 2: Burning mechanisms of fibers


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Ignition source

2.3 Thermal decomposition of solid to produce fuel

2.4 Escape of fuel vapor from the degrading solid

2.5 Reactions in the vapor state oxidation

2.6 Excess heat diffusion back to the solid to produce more degradation

2.7 Reducing flammability

Chapter 3: Chemical modification of natural and synthetic textile fibres to improve flame retardancy


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Flame retardant strategies for textile materials

3.3 Polyesters

3.4 Polyamides

3.5 Cellulose-based fibres: cotton, cotton blends and viscose

3.6 Wool and its blends

3.7 Silk fibres

3.8 Miscellaneous fibre-forming polymers

3.9 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 4: Multi-component flame resistant coating techniques for textiles


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Back-coating techniques

4.3 The sol-gel coating technique

4.4 Plasma surface treatments

4.5 Nanoparticle-based films

4.6 Layer-by-layer assembly (LbL)

Chapter 5: Care and maintenance of fabrics used for flame resistant personal protective equipment (PPE)


5.1 Introduction

5.2 The use of multiple fiber and fabric options in personal protective equipment (PPE)

5.3 Available care and cleaning guidance

5.4 Designing a care and maintenance program

5.5 Implementing a care and maintenance program for flame resistant (FR) PPE garments

5.6 Conclusions

Chapter 6: Safety, health and environmental aspects of flame retardants


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Relevant key types of flame retardants

6.3 Toxicity of smoke from combustion products

6.4 Effects of individual combustion products on fire victims

6.5 Potential toxicity issues associated with individual flame retardants

6.6 Summary of toxicity issues associated with individual flame retardants

6.7 Environmental effects of smoke with and without flame retardants

6.8 Life-cycle assessment of environmental effects of using products with and without flame retardants

6.9 Conclusions

Types of fire resistant fibre

Chapter 7: Flame resistant cotton


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Non-durable and semi-durable flame retardants

7.3 Durable flame retardants

7.4 Flame retardants for cotton fleece fabrics

7.5 Conclusions

7.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 8: Flame resistant manmade cellulosic fibres


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Manmade cellulosic fibres: types and properties

8.3 History of flame resistant manmade cellulosic fibres

8.4 Strategies for making manmade cellulosic fibres flame resistant

8.5 Additive selection

8.6 Commercially available flame resistant manmade cellulosic fibres

8.7 Blends

8.8 Applications of flame resistant manmade cellulosic fibres

8.9 New developments and technologies

8.10 Future trends

Chapter 9: Flame resistant wool and wool blends


9.1 Introduction

9.2 The flame resistant (FR) properties of wool

9.3 The flame resistant properties of wool blends

9.4 Types of fire resistant finishes

9.5 Polymeric fire resistant finishes

9.6 Legislation relating to fire resistant finishes

9.7 Fire resistant (FR) treatments for wool and wool blends: zirconium and titanium salts

9.8 FR treatments for wool and wool blends: ammonium phosphates and organophosphorus species

9.9 FR treatments for wool and wool blends: other treatments

Chapter 10: Flame resistant ceramic fibres


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Types of ceramic fibres

10.3 Applications of ceramic fibres

10.4 Future trends

Chapter 11: Flame resistant composites and nanocomposites


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Key composite and nanocomposite flammability issues

11.3 Composite materials

11.4 Fire resistance of nanocomposites

11.5 Future trends

Chapter 12: Flame resistant nonwoven fabrics


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Nonwoven fabrics

12.3 Production of nonwovens

12.4 Flame resistance of nonwovens

12.5 Types of flame retardants

12.6 Flame resistance of cellulose

12.7 Flame resistant (FR) treatments of cellulosic fibers

12.8 Highloft nonwovens and cotton blend highlofts

12.9 FR nonwoven applications

12.10 Future trends

Testing and regulation of fire resistant textiles

Chapter 13: Selection of flame resistant protective clothing


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Compliance with minimum requirements

13.3 Key protection factors for the selection of flame resistant (FR) protective clothing

13.4 Other factors effecting the selection of FR garments

13.5 Case study: selection of FR workwear garments for protection against flash fires

13.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Flame resistant clothing standards and regulations


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Standardisation bodies

14.3 Basic health and safety requirements (BHSR)

14.4 General standards which apply to all types of protective clothing

14.5 Standards for industrial garments

14.6 Clothing standards for specific jobs

14.7 Application of standards

14.8 Future trends

Chapter 15: Characterizing comfort properties of flame resistant fabrics and garments


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Definition of comfort in clothing

15.3 Comfort characterization methods

15.4 Comfort properties of fabrics and garments

15.5 Interactions between thermal protection and comfort

15.6 Future trends

Chapter 16: Physiological impact of flame resistant clothing: managing heat stress


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Overview of occupational heat stress

16.3 Physiological and environmental factors affecting body heat

16.4 Regulation of body heat

16.5 Heat stress resulting from use of fire-retardant personal protective ensembles (FR-PPEs)

16.6 Strategies for mitigation of heat stress

16.7 Non-physiological cooling strategies

16.8 Conclusions

Chapter 17: Flame retardancy testing and regulation of soft furnishings


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Soft furnishing flammability regulations: mattresses

17.3 Soft furnishing flammability regulations: upholstered furniture

17.4 Factors contributing to the flammability of soft furnishings

17.5 Fire blocking technologies for soft furnishings

17.6 Future trends in fire blocking technologies

Applications of fire resistant textiles

Chapter 18: Flame resistant textiles for flash fires


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Flash fire hazards and regulation

18.3 Performance and requirements of flame retardant textiles for flash fire protection

18.4 Design of flame retardant fabrics and clothing for flash fire protection

18.5 Fabric and fiber materials used in flash fire applications

18.6 Recent advances in flash fire clothing

18.7 Future trends

Chapter 19: Flame resistant textiles for structural and proximity fire fighting


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Exposure hazards

19.3 Design and performance requirements of firefighter protective clothing

19.4 Materials used in protective clothing for structural and proximity firefighting

19.5 Key issues in the design and manufacture of clothing for structural and proximity firefighters

19.6 Advances in firefighter clothing materials and technology

19.7 Future trends

Chapter 20: Flame resistant textiles for electric arc flash hazards


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Key flammability issues affecting electric arc clothing

20.3 The development of arc flash standards and testing

20.4 Performance requirements

20.5 Calculation of arc ratings

20.6 Design requirements

20.7 Materials used in electric arc applications

20.8 Effect of common weaves and other factors in arc flash

20.9 Advances in electric arc clothing

20.10 Future trends

Chapter 21: Flame resistant textiles for molten metal hazards


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Key flammability issues for clothing protecting against molten metal

21.3 Hazards from molten metal

21.4 Performance requirements for protective clothing

21.5 Design requirements and materials for protective clothing

21.6 Advances in clothing protecting against molten metal hazards

21.7 Future trends

Chapter 22: Flame resistant textiles for transport applications


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Key flammability issues of fire retardant (FR) textiles in transport

22.3 General testing and performance requirements

22.4 Future trends

Chapter 23: Flame retardant fiber-reinforced composites


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Polymer fiber-reinforced composite flammability fundamentals

23.3 Flame retardancy for fiber-reinforced polymer composites

23.4 Future trends

23.5 Acknowledgements



F. Selcen Kilinc Consultant, USA. Dr Fatma Selcen Kilinc has a PhD in Textile Engineering and works as a senior researcher at the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA in the area of personal protective clothing and equipment. She has published extensively in such areas of fiber/polymer science as high performance materials, protective clothing, fabric comfort and modelling, characterization of fibers and fabrics, and antibacterial applications. She holds a patent in polymer implants for timed release of drugs. She is a member of ASTM International, AATCC, TAPPI, and AAMI technical committees and an area editor of the Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics.