Food Processing. Principles and Applications. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2720836
  • Book
  • 592 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Food Processing: Principles and Applications second edition is the fully revised new edition of this best–selling food technology title.Advances in food processing continue to take place as food scientists and food engineers adapt to the challenges imposed by emerging pathogens, environmental concerns, shelf life, quality and safety, as
well as the dietary needs and demands of humans. In addition to covering food processing principles that have long been essential to food quality and safety, this edition of Food Processing: Principles and Applications, unlike the former edition, covers microbial/enzyme inactivation kinetics, alternative food processing technologies
as well as environmental and sustainability issues currently facing the food processing industry.

The book is divided into two sections, the first focusing on principles of food processing and handling, and
the second on processing technologies and applications. As a hands–on guide to the essential processing principles and their applications, covering the theoretical and applied aspects of food processing in one accessible volume, this book is a valuable tool for food industry professionals across all manufacturing sectors, and serves as a relevant primary or supplemental text for students of food science.

About the Authors

Dr Stephanie Clark is Associate Director of the Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center and Associate Professor Food Science & Human Nutrition at Iowa State University.

Dr Stephanie Jung is Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Iowa State University.

Dr Buddhi Lamsal is Assistant Professor, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University.

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List of Contributors, xi

1 Principles of Food Processing, 1Sung Hee Park, Buddhi P. Lamsal, and V.M. Balasubramaniam

1.1 Processing of foods: an introduction, 1

1.2 Unit operations in food processing, 2

1.3 Thermophysical properties, microbial aspects, and other considerations in food processing, 4

1.4 Common food preservation/processing technologies, 7

1.5 Other food processing/preservation technologies, 12

1.6 Emerging issues and sustainability in food processing, 13

1.7 Conclusion, 13

2 Thermal Principles and Kinetics, 17Prabhat Kumar and K.P. Sandeep

2.1 Introduction, 17

2.2 Methods of thermal processing, 17

2.3 Microorganisms, 20

2.4 Thermal kinetics, 21

2.5 Thermal process establishment, 24

2.6 Thermal process calculation, 26

2.7 Thermal process validation, 28

2.8 Process monitoring and control, 29

2.9 Emerging processing technologies, 29

2.10 Future trends, 30

3 Separation and Concentration Technologies in Food Processing, 33Yves Pouliot, Valérie Conway, and Pierre–Louis Leclerc

3.1 Introduction, 33

3.2 Physical separation of food components, 34

3.3 Processes involving phase separation, 37

3.4 Membrane separations, 46

3.5 Sustainability of separation technologies in food processing, 57

4 Dehydration, 61Robert H. Driscoll

4.1 Introduction, 61

4.2 Drying and food quality, 61

4.3 Hot air drying, 62

4.4 Drying theory, 67

4.5 Drying equipment, 71

4.6 Analysis of dryers, 75

4.7 Sustainability, 77

4.8 Conclusion, 77

5 Chilling and Freezing of Foods, 79Stephen J. James and Christian James

5.1 Introduction to the food cold chain, 79

5.2 Effect of refrigeration on food safety and quality, 79

5.3 Blanching, 83

5.4 Principles of refrigeration systems, 84

5.5 Heat transfer during chilling and freezing, 86

5.6 Chilling and freezing systems, 87

5.7 Chilled and frozen storage systems, 92

5.8 Chilled and frozen transport systems, 93

5.9 Refrigerated retail display systems, 95

5.10 Recommended temperatures, 99

5.11 Refrigeration and the environment, 100

5.12 Specifying, designing, and commissioning refrigeration systems, 101

5.13 Conclusion, 102

6 Fermentation and Enzyme Technologies in Food Processing, 107Ali Demirci, Gulten Izmirlioglu, and Duygu Ercan

6.1 Introduction, 107

6.2 Fermentation culture requirements, 108

6.3 Fermentation technologies, 112

6.4 Downstream processing, 114

6.5 Fermented foods, 117

6.6 Enzyme applications, 123

6.7 Sustainability, 131

6.8 Concluding remarks and future trends, 131

7 Alternative Food Processing Technologies, 137Hudaa Neetoo and Haiqiang Chen

7.1 Introduction, 137

7.2 Alternative thermal processing technologies, 137

7.3 Alternative non–thermal processing technologies, 144

7.4 Sustainability and energy efficiency of processing methods, 159

7.5 Conclusion, 160

8 Nanotechnology for Food: Principles and Selected Applications, 171Sundaram Gunasekaran

8.1 Introduction, 171

8.2 Biosensing, 172

8.3 Packaging, 191

8.4 Nanotechnology and sustainability, 198

8.5 Summary, 199

9 Sustainability and Environmental Issues in Food Processing, 207Fionnuala Murphy, Kevin McDonnell, and Colette C. Fagan

9.1 Introduction, 207

9.2 Sustainable food processing drivers, 207

9.3 Environmental impact of food processing, 210

9.4 Green technologies: examples in the food processing industry, 213

9.5 Environmental sustainability assessment methods, 214

9.6 Conclusion, 227

10 Food Safety and Quality Assurance, 233Tonya C. Schoenfuss and Janet H. Lillemo

10.1 Introduction, 233

10.2 Elements of total quality management, 233

10.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, 235

10.4 Sanitary processing conditions, 236

10.5 Supporting prerequisite programs, 242

10.6 Product quality assurance, 245

10.7 Conclusion, 246

11 Food Packaging, 249Joongmin Shin and Susan E.M. Selke

11.1 Introduction, 249

11.2 Functions of food packaging, 249

11.3 Packaging systems, 250

11.4 Materials for food packaging, 251

11.5 Other packaging types, 263

11.6 Sustainable food packaging, 268

12 Food Laws and Regulations, 275Barbara Rasco

12.1 Introduction, 275

12.2 The regulatory status of food ingredients and additives, 276

12.3 Adulteration and misbranding, 276

12.4 The global food trade: risk from adulterated and misbranded foods, 279

12.5 US Department of Agriculture programs, 280

12.6 Environmental Protection Agency programs, 283

12.7 The Food Safety Modernization Act, 283

12.8 Summary, 291

13 Crops – Cereals, 293Kent D. Rausch and Vijay Singh

13.1 Introduction, 293

13.2 Industrial corn processing for food uses, 293

13.3 Industrial wheat processing for food uses, 300

13.4 Sustainability of corn and wheat processing, 302

14 Crops – Legumes, 305George Amponsah Annor, Zhen Ma, and Joyce Irene Boye

14.1 Introduction, 305

14.2 Technologies involved in legume processing, 306

14.3 Traditional processing technologies, 307

14.4 Modern processing technologies, 310

14.5 Ingredients from legumes, 312

14.6 Novel applications, 329

14.7 Conclusion, 331

15 Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Beverages, 339José I. Reyes–De–Corcuera, Renée M. Goodrich–Schneider, Sheryl Barringer, and Miguel A. Landeros–Urbina

15.1 Introduction, 339

15.2 Juices, 341

15.3 Nectars, 356

15.4 Clean–in–place, 358

15.5 Conclusion, 360

16 Fruits and Vegetables – Processing Technologies and Applications, 363Nutsuda Sumonsiri and Sheryl A. Barringer

16.1 Raw materials, 363

16.2 Basic processing, 369

17 Milk and Ice Cream Processing, 383Maneesha S. Mohan, Jonathan Hopkinson, and Federico Harte

17.1 Introduction, 383

17.2 Physical and chemical properties of milk constituents, 383

17.3 Milk handling, 386

17.4 Dairy product processing, 391

17.5 US regulations for milk and milk products, 400

17.6 Sustainability of the dairy industry, 402

17.7 Conclusion, 402

18 Dairy – Fermented Products, 405R.C. Chandan

18.1 Introduction, 405

18.2 Consumption trends, 406

18.3 Production of starters for fermented dairy foods, 406

18.4 Biochemical basis of lactic fermentation for flavor and texture generation, 410

18.5 Yogurt, 410

18.6 Cultured (or sour) cream, 422

18.7 Cheeses, 424

18.8 Sustainability efforts in whey processing, 431

19 Eggs and Egg Products Processing, 437Jianping Wu

19.1 Introduction, 437

19.2 Shell egg formation, 437

19.3 Structure of eggs, 438

19.4 Chemical composition of eggs, 440

19.5 Shell egg processing, 441

19.6 Further processing of eggs and egg products, 444

19.7 Liquid egg products, 445

19.8 Pasteurization, 446

19.9 Desugarization, 448

19.10 Dehydration, 449

19.11 Egg further processing (value–added processing), 449

19.12 Sustainability, 450

19.13 Conclusion, 450

20 Fats and Oils – Plant Based, 457Amy S. Rasor and Susan E. Duncan

20.1 Introduction, 457

20.2 Sources, composition, and uses of plant–based fats and oils, 457

20.3 Properties of plant–based fats and oils, 460

20.4 Nutritional areas of interest, 461

20.5 Degradation of plant–based fats and oils, 462

20.6 General handling considerations, 463

20.7 Recovery of oils from their source materials, 463

20.8 Refining, 466

20.9 Modification of plant–based fats and oils, 469

20.10 Packaging and postprocessing handling, 473

20.11 Margarine processing, 473

20.12 Mayonnaise processing, 476

20.13 Sustainability, 477

21 Fats and Oils – Animal Based, 481Stephen L. Woodgate and Johan T. van der Veen

21.1 Introduction, 481

21.2 Raw materials, 481

21.3 Land animals, 482

21.4 Processing methods, 484

21.5 EU legislation, 487

21.6 Safety, 488

21.7 Characteristics and quality, 490

21.8 Applications, 493

21.9 Health aspects, 496

21.10 Sustainability, 497

21.11 Conclusion, 497

22 Aquatic Food Products, 501Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Barbara Rasco, and Gleyn Bledsoe

22.1 Introduction, 501

22.2 Aquatic plants and animals as food, 501

22.3 Cultivation, harvesting, and live handling – reducing stress and maintaining quality, 502

22.4 Animal welfare issues in fisheries, 507

22.5 Harvesting methods and effect on quality, 507

22.6 Reducing stress in live handling, 508

22.7 Fishing methods, 510

22.8 Refrigerated products, 514

22.9 Freezing and frozen products, 515

22.10 Surimi and surimi analog products, 520

22.11 Curing, brining, smoking, and dehydration, 521

22.12 Additives and edible coatings, 524

22.13 Roes and caviar, 525

22.14 Other non–muscle tissues used as food, 528

22.15 Fish meal and protein hydrolyzates, and fish oil, 530

22.16 Sustainability, 531

22.17 Summary, 532

23 Meats – Beef and Pork Based, 535Robert Maddock

23.1 Introduction, 535

23.2 Beef and pork characteristics and quality, 535

23.3 General categories of beef and pork processing, 537

23.4 Equipment needed in beef and pork processing, 545

23.5 Beef and pork processing and HACCP, 547

23.6 Sustainability, 547

24 Poultry Processing and Products, 549Douglas P. Smith

24.1 Poultry processing, 549

24.2 Turkey processing, 562

24.3 Duck processing, 562

24.4 Microbiology and food safety, 563

24.5 Sustainable poultry production and processing, 564

24.6 Conclusion, 565

Index, 567

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“As a hands–on guide to the essential processing principles and their applications, covering the theoretical and applied aspects of food processing in one accessible volume, this book is a valuable tool for food industry professionals across all manufacturing sectors, and serves as a relevant primary or supplemental text for students of food science.”  (Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 1 October 2014)

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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