Biomaterials Surface Science

  • ID: 2741508
  • Book
  • 616 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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At the interface of biology, chemistry, and materials science, this book provides an overview of this vibrant research field, treating the seemingly distinct disciplines in a unified way by adopting the common viewpoint of surface science.

The editors, themselves prolific researchers, have assembled here a team of top–notch international scientists who read like a "who′s who" of biomaterials science and engineering.They cover topics ranging from micro– and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top–down manner to the bottom–up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self–assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli–responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell–chip interactions in biomedical devices. As a result, the book explains the complex interplay of cell behavior and the physics and materials science of artificial devices.

Of equal interest to young, ambitious scientists as well as to experienced researchers.

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Preface XVII

List of Contributors XXI

Part I Polymer Surfaces 1

1 Proteins for Surface Structuring 3Alexander Schulz, Stephanie Hiltl, Patrick van Rijn, and Alexander Böker

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Structuring and Modification of Interfaces by Self–Assembling Proteins 3

1.3 Structuring and Modification of Solid Surfaces via Printing of Biomolecules 11

1.4 Conclusion and Outlook 22

References 22

2 Surface–Grafted Polymer Brushes 27Szczepan Zapotoczny

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Synthesis of Polymer Brushes 28

2.3 Stimuli–Responsive Polymer Brushes 30

2.4 Polyelectrolyte Brushes 33

2.5 Bio–Functionalized Polymer Brushes 35

Acknowledgment 37

References 37

3 Inhibiting Nonspecific Protein Adsorption: Mechanisms, Methods, and Materials 45Mojtaba Binazadeh, Hongbo Zeng, and Larry D. Unsworth

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Underlying Forces Responsible for Nonspecific Protein Adsorption 46

3.3 Poly(Ethylene Glycol) 48

3.4 Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) 50

3.5 Applications of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) 53

Summary 55

References 55

4 Stimuli–Responsive Surfaces for Biomedical Applications 63Rui R. Costa, Natália M. Alves, J. Carlos Rodrýguez–Cabello, and Jõao F. Mano

4.1 Introduction 63

4.2 Surface Modification Methodologies: How to Render Substrates with Stimuli Responsiveness 64

4.3 Exploitable Stimuli and Model Smart Biomaterials 69

4.4 Biomedical Applications of Smart Surfaces 75

4.5 Conclusions 79

Acknowledgments 79

References 80

5 Surface Modification of Polymeric Biomaterials 89Aysun Guney, Filiz Kara, Ozge Ozgen, Eda Ayse Aksoy, Vasif Hasirci, and Nesrin Hasirci

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Effect of Material Surfaces on Interactions with Biological Entities 90

5.3 Surface Morphology of Polymeric Biomaterials 96

5.4 Surface Modifications to Improve Biocompatibility of Biomaterials 118

5.5 Surface Modifications to Improve Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials 126

5.6 Surface Modifications to Improve Antibacterial Properties of Biomaterials 134

5.7 Nanoparticles 142

References 143

6 Polymer Vesicles on Surfaces 159Agnieszka Jagoda, Justyna Kowal, Mihaela Delcea, Cornelia G. Palivan, and Wolfgang Meier

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Polymer Vesicles 160

6.3 Applications of Polymer Membranes and Vesicles as Smart and Active Surfaces 180

6.4 Current Limitations of Polymer Vesicles and Emerging Trends 187

6.5 Conclusions 190

Abbreviations and Symbols 191

References 193

Part II Hydrogel Surfaces 205

7 Protein–Engineered Hydrogels 207Jordan Raphel, Andreina Parisi–Amon, and Sarah C. Heilshorn

7.1 Introduction to Protein Engineering for Materials Design 207

7.2 History and Development of Protein–Engineered Materials 207

7.3 Modular Design and Recombinant Synthesis Strategy 210

7.4 Processing Protein–Engineered Materials 216

7.5 Conclusion 228

References 229

8 Bioactive and Smart Hydrogel Surfaces 239J. Carlos Rodr´ýguez–Cabello, A. Fernández–Colino, M.J. Piña, M. Alonso, M. Santos, and A.M. Testera

8.1 Introduction 239

8.2 Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix 240

8.3 Hydrogels: Why Are They So Special? 245

8.4 Elastin–Like Recombinamers as Bioinspired Proteins 255

8.5 Perspectives 261

Acknowledgments 261

References 261

9 Bioresponsive Surfaces and Stem Cell Niches 269Miguel Angel Mateos–Timoneda, Melba Navarro, and Josep Anton Planell

9.1 General Introduction 269

9.2 Stem Cell Niches 271

9.3 Surfaces as Stem Cell Niches 274

9.4 Conclusions 279

References 279

Part III Hybrid & Inorganic Surfaces 285

10 Micro– and Nanopatterning of Biomaterial Surfaces 287Daniel Brodoceanu and Tobias Kraus

10.1 Introduction 287

10.2 Photolithography 287

10.3 Electron Beam Lithography 290

10.4 Focused Ion Beam 292

10.5 Soft Lithography 292

10.6 Dip–Pen Nanolithography 294

10.7 Nanoimprint Lithography 295

10.8 Sandblasting and Acid Etching 298

10.9 Laser–Induced Surface Patterning 298

10.10 Colloidal Lithography 301

10.11 Conclusions and Perspectives 303

Acknowledgments 305

References 306

11 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Surfaces 311Tobias Mai, Katrin Bleek, and Andreas Taubert

11.1 Introduction 311

11.2 Calcium Carbonate Surfaces and Interfaces 314

11.3 Calcium Phosphate Surfaces and Interfaces 319

11.4 Silica Surfaces and Interfaces 326

11.5 Conclusion and Outlook 327

Acknowledgments 328

References 328

12 Bioactive Ceramic and Metallic Surfaces for Bone Engineering 337Carlos Mas–Moruno, Montserrat Espanol, Edgar B. Montufar, Gemma Mestres, Conrado Aparicio, Francisco Javier Gil, and Maria–Pau Ginebra

12.1 Introduction 337

12.2 Ceramics for Bone Replacement and Regeneration 338

12.3 Metallic Surfaces for Bone Replacement and Regeneration 346

12.4 Conclusions 364

References 365

13 Plasma–Assisted Surface Treatments and Modifications for Biomedical Applications 375Sanjay Mathur, Trilok Singh, Mahboubeh Maleki, and Thomas Fischer

13.1 Introduction 375

13.2 Surface Requisites for Biomedical Applications 377

13.3 Surface Functionalization of Inorganic Surfaces by Plasma Techniques 383

13.4 Applications of Plasma–Modified Surfaces in Biology and Biomedicine 386

13.5 Conclusions and Outlook 401

Acknowledgments 402

References 402

14 Biological and Bioinspired Micro– and Nanostructured Adhesives 409Longjian Xue, Martin Steinhart, and Stanislav N. Gorb

14.1 Introduction: Adhesion in Biological Systems 409

14.2 Fibrillar Contact Elements 410

14.3 Basic Physical Forces Contributing to Adhesion 414

14.4 Contact Mechanics 415

14.5 Larger Animals Rely on Finer Fibers 416

14.6 Peeling Theory 416

14.7 Artificial Adhesive Systems 419

14.8 Toward Smart Adhesives 436

Acknowledgment 436

References 437

Part IV Cell Surface Interactions 441

15 Generic Methods of Surface Modification to Control Adhesion of Cells and Beyond 443Marcus Niepel, Alexander Köwitsch, Yuan Yang, Ning Ma, Neha Aggarwal, Deepak Guduru, and Thomas Groth

15.1 General Introduction 443

15.2 Survey on Generic Methods to Modify Material Surfaces 444

15.3 Results and Discussion 449

15.4 Summary and Conclusions 461

Acknowledgments 462

References 462

16 Severe Deformations of Malignant Bone and Skin Cells, as well as Aged Cells, on Micropatterned Surfaces 469Patricia M. Davidson, Tokuko Haraguchi, Takako Koujin, Thorsten Steinberg, Pascal Tomakidi, Yasushi Hiraoka, Karine Anselme, and Günter Reiter

16.1 Introduction 469

16.2 Experimental Methods 470

16.3 The Interaction of Bone Cells with Micropillars 473

16.4 The Deformation of Skin Cells as a Function of Their Malignancy 480

16.5 The Deformation of Fibroblasts of Different Cellular Ages 481

16.6 Discussion 484

16.7 Conclusions 486

Acknowledgments 487

References 487

17 Thermoresponsive Cell Culture Surfaces Designed for Cell–Sheet–Based Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 491Jun Kobayashi and Teruo Okano

17.1 Introduction 491

17.2 Characteristics of PIPAAm–Grafted Cell Culture Surfaces 493

17.3 Mechanisms of Cell Detachment from the Thermoresponsive Cell Culture Dish 495

17.4 Cell–Sheet–Based Tissue Engineering and Its Clinical Applications 495

17.5 Next–Generation Thermoresponsive Cell Culture Dishes 498

17.6 Conclusions 503

References 504

18 Cell Mechanics on Surfaces 511Jessica H. Wen, Hermes Taylor–Weiner, Alexander Fuhrmann, and Adam J. Engler

18.1 Introduction 511

18.2 What Is Elasticity and Stiffness? 511

18.3 Measuring and Quantifying Stiffness 514

18.4 Controlling Substrate Stiffness 519

18.5 Naturally Derived Scaffolds 520

18.6 Synthetic Scaffolds 525

18.7 Substrate Stiffness Impact on Cell Behavior 528

18.8 When Stiffness In vivo Goes Awry: The Impact of Fibrosis on Function 530

18.9 Novel Surface Fabrication Techniques to Improve Biomimicry 531

18.10 Conclusion 532

Acknowledgment 533

Abbreviations 533

References 533

19 Electrode Neural Tissue Interactions: Immune Responses, Current Technologies, and Future Directions 539Gloria Bora Kim, Pouria Fattahi, and Mohammad Reza Abidian

19.1 Introduction 539

19.2 Immune Response to Neural Implants 540

19.3 Past and Current Neural Interfaces 543

19.4 Methods for Improvement of the Electrode Tissue Interface 548

19.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 557

References 558

Index 567

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Andreas Taubert is Professor of Supramolecular Chemistry at the University of Potsdam, Germany. After his PhD at the Max–Planck–Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz he was a postdoc at the University of Pennsylvania, USA, and then a group leader at the University of Basel, Switzerland. His research interests are bioinspired hybrid materials and materials chemistry with ionic liquids.

Joao F. Mano is Professor at the University of Minho, Portugal, and staff member of the 3B′s research group Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics. His research interests include the development of new materials and concepts for biomedical applications. He was awarded the Stimulus to Excellence by the Portuguese Minister for Science and Technology in 2005 and the Materials Science and Technology Prize by the Federation of European Materials Societies in 2007.

José Carlos Rodríguez–Cabello is Professor at the University of Valladolid, Spain, and head of the research group "Biomaterials, Biomimicry, Nanobiotechnology". His research is focused on design, biosynthesis and characterization of advanced, multifunctional genetically engineered protein–polymers. In 2009, he received the "Campus Emprende" Award in the category of business venture for a project on new materials for biomedical applications.

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