Wave and Tidal Energy

  • ID: 3615657
  • Book
  • 720 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive text covering all aspects of wave and tidal energy

Wave and Tidal Energy provides a comprehensive and self–contained review of the developing marine renewable energy sector, drawing from the latest research and from the experience of device testing. The book has a twofold objective: to provide an overview of wave and tidal energy suitable for newcomers to the field and to serve as a reference text for advanced study and practice.

The text includes detail on key issues such as resource characterisation, wave and tidal technology, power systems, numerical and physical modelling and environmental impact and policy. The book also features an up–to–date review of developments worldwide and case studies of selected projects.

Key features:

  • A comprehensive and self–contained text covering all aspects of the multidisciplinary fields of wave and tidal energy.
  • Draws upon the latest research in wave and tidal energy and the experience of leading practitioners in numerical and laboratory modelling.
  • Regional developments worldwide are reviewed and representative projects are presented as case studies.

Wave and Tidal Energy is an invaluable resource to a wide range of readers, from engineering students to technical managers and policymakers to postgraduate students and researchers.

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List of Contributors xviii

Foreword xx

Acknowledgements xxi

1 Introduction 1
Deborah Greaves and Gregorio Iglesias

1.1 Background

1 1.2 History of Wave and Tidal Energy 3

1.3 Unknowns and Challenges Remaining for Wave and Tidal Energy 5

1.4 Synopsis 11

References 12

2 The Marine Resource 15
Gregorio Iglesias

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The Wave Resource 15

2.3 The Tidal Stream Resource 31

Acknowledgements 47

References 47

3 Wave Energy Technology 52
Deborah Greaves

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 Fundamentals 56

3.3 Hydrodynamics of Wave Energy Conversion 64

3.4 Classification of Wave Energy Converters 73

3.5 Oscillating Water Columns 76

3.6 Overtopping Systems 83

3.7 Oscillating Bodies 85

3.8 Other Technologies 95

3.9 The Wave Energy Array 95

References 97

4 Tidal Energy Technology 105
Tim O Doherty, Daphne M. O Doherty and Allan Mason ]Jones

4.1 General Introduction 105

4.2 Location of Operation 105

4.3 Environmental Impacts 106

4.4 Tides 107

4.5 Tidal Range Generation 108

4.6 Tidal Stream 111

4.7 Types of Devices 126

4.8 Oscillating Hydrofoils 129

4.9 Venturi Effect Devices 130

4.10 Other Devices 130

4.11 Computational Fluid Dynamics 132

4.12 Security, Installation and Maintenance 138

4.13 Worked Examples 141

References 146

5 Device Design 151
Lars Johanning, Sam D. Weller, Phillip R. Thies, Brian Holmes and John Griffiths

5.1 Standards and Certification in Marine Energy 151

5.2 Reliability 161

5.3 Moorings and Anchors 169

5.4 Foundations 178

References 185

6 Power Systems 191
Andrew R. Plummer, Andrew J. Hillis and Carlos Perez ]Collazo

6.1 Introduction to Power Take ]Off Systems 191

6.2 Electrical Generators 194

6.3 Turbines for WEC Power Take ]Off 200

6.4 Hydraulic Power Transmission Systems 206

6.5 Hydraulic PTO Designs for WECs 212

6.6 Direct Mechanical Power Take ]Off 214

6.7 Control for Maximum Energy Capture 215

6.8 Electrical Infrastructure and Grid Integration 221

6.9 Summary of Challenges for PTO Design and Development 229

References 230

7 Physical Modelling 233
Martyn Hann and Carlos Perez ]Collazo

7.1 Introduction 233

7.2 Device Development and Test Planning 234

7.3 Scaling and Similitude 234

7.3.1 Scaling MRE Devices 239

7.3.2 Common Problems Scaling MRE Devices 240

7.4 Model Design and Construction 241

7.5 Fixing and Mooring 247

7.6 Instrumentation 248

7.7 Model Calibration 258

7.8 Modelling the Environment 264

7.9 Test Facilities 271

7.10 Recommended Tests 274

References 283

8 Numerical Modelling 289
Thomas Vyzikas and Deborah Greaves

8.1 Introduction 289

8.2 Review of Hydrodynamics 292

8.3 Numerical Modelling Techniques 310

8.4 Numerical Modelling of Water Waves 325

8.5 Commonly Used Open ]Source Software 331

8.6 Applicability of Numerical Models in MRE 346

References 351

9 Environmental Effects 364
Gregorio Iglesias, Javier Abanades Tercero, Teresa Simas, Inês Machado and Erica Cruz

9.1 Introduction364

9.2 Wave Farm Effects on the Wave Field 364

9.3 Wave Farm Effects on Coastal Processes 391

9.4 Tidal Stream Farm Effects on Hydrodynamics and Sedimentary Processes 414

9.5 Marine Biota 415

9.6 The Environmental Impact Assessment 425

References 443

10 Consenting and Legal Aspects 455
Anne Marie O Hagan

10.1 Introduction 455

10.2 International Law 456

10.3 Regional Law 462

10.4 EU Law and Policy 464

10.5 National Consenting Systems 478

10.6 Gaps and Opportunities 499

Acknowledgement 504

References 504

11 The Economics of Wave and Tidal Energy 513
Gregorio Iglesias, Sharay Astariz and Angela Vazquez

11.1 Individual Costs 513

11.2 Levelised Cost 518

11.3 Externalities 522

References 526

12 Project Development 533
Paul Vigars, Kwangsoo Lee, Sungwon Shin, Boel Ekergard, Mats Leijon, Yago Torre ]Enciso, Dorleta Marina and Deborah Greaves

12.1 Introduction 533

12.2 Alstom Ocean Energy OCEADE Tidal Stream Turbine: The Route to Commercial Readiness 533

12.3 Seabased Wave Energy Converter 544

12.4 Lake Sihwa Tidal Power Plant, Korea 549

12.5 Mutriku Wave Power Plant 563

References 584

13 Regional Activities 587
Deborah Greaves, Carlos Perez ]Collazo, Curran Crawford, Bradley Buckham, Vanesa Magar, Francisco Acuña, Sungwon Shin, Hongda Shi and Chenyu

13.1 Europe 587

13.2 North America 601

13.3 Latin America 616

13.4 Asia ]Pacific 626

13.5 China 630

References 647

Epilogue: The Future of Wave and Tidal Energy 659Deborah Greaves

Index 662

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Deborah Greaves is Professor of Ocean Engineering and Director of the COAST (Coastal, Ocean and Sediment Transport) Laboratory at University of Plymouth and is Board Member and Inaugural Chair for PRIMaRE (the Partnership for Research In Marine Renewable Energy, www.primare.org). Her research interests include marine renewable energy, physical and numerical modelling of violent free surface flow and fluid–structure interaction. She leads and has led a number of research projects concerning marine renewable energy in collaboration with industrial and academic partners. She has published over 125 peer–reviewed papers, has secured £3.9 million research income as PI, is a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a Member of RINA (Royal Institution of Naval Architects), and a member of the technical committee for EWTEC (European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference), a reviewer for UK Research Councils, for several journals, and was shortlisted for the 2014 WISE Research Award.

Gregorio Iglesias (GI) is Professor of Coastal Engineering at University of Plymouth and Leader of the COAST (Coastal, Ocean and Sediment Transport) Research Group. He has over 20 years′ experience in numerical and physical modelling applied to Marine Renewable Energy and Coastal Engineering, including the characterisation of wave and tidal resources, and the modelling of coastal morphodynamics accounting for the effects of wave and tidal farms. He participates in the design and laboratory tests of WECs and coastal and port structures, and acts as PI on research grants and contracts funded by the European Commission, various national research councils, coastal management agencies and port authorities. He is a member of the IEC Technical Committee for sub–prototype size wave energy device development (laboratory testing) and one of the inventors of the WaveCat, a floating overtopping WEC. Professor Iglesias has published over 100 peer–reviewed papers and secured over £5M research income.

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